Joaquim Ballabrera

Joaquim Ballabrera
Institut de Ciències del Mar · Departament d'Oceanografia Física i Tecnològica

PhD

About

139
Publications
17,594
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2,549
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Publications

Publications (139)
Presentation
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The knowledge about the variability of the surface ocean currents is essential to support medium and long-term decision-making in a different problem related to the ocean currents: the spills of hydrocarbons or chemical products that can be dumped by ships, oil rigs, or other industries. Traditionally, the prediction of the evolution of the pollut...
Data
The monthly climatological atlas includes surface and subsurface currents and variance matrix at each grid point to provide quantitative information on the variability of currents. The climatological fields are computed using two different current velocity products for the Mediterranean (from altimetry measurements and MEDSEA reanalysis) and one pr...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews different approaches to modelling the energy transition towards a zero carbon economy. It identifies a number of limitations in current approaches such as a lack of consideration of out-of-equilibrium situations (like an energy transition) and non-linear feedbacks. To tackle those issues, the new open source integrated assessment...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews different approaches to modelling the energy transition towards a zero carbon economy. It identifies a number of limitations in current approaches such as a lack of consideration of out-of-equilibrium situations (like an energy transition) and non-linear feedbacks. To tackle those issues, the new open source integrated assessment...
Article
Full-text available
Europe must move towards a 100% renewable transportation system for climate, energy and sustainability reasons. We estimate the capital and energy required for building and operating a renewable transportation system providing similar services as the EU-28 transport system of 2016. It could be based on: biogas or fuel cell vessels; liquid biogas po...
Article
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The similarity of mesoscale and submesoscale features observed in different ocean scalars indicates that they undergo some common non-linear processes. As a result of quasi-2D turbulence, complicated patterns of filaments, meanders, and eddies are recognized in remote sensing images. A data fusion method used to improve the quality of one ocean var...
Conference Paper
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The warming of the Arctic air during summer is an increasingly frequent phenomenon. With surface air temperature exceeding more than 10ºC the mean of the last 40 years, and weekly average temperature values close to this peak value, the melt runoff in Greenland has dramatically increased. This phenomenon has reached its maximum expression in 2012 a...
Data
SPRINT presentation was a 4 minutes presentation previous to poster exhibition. IGARSS 2019
Poster
Full-text available
Despite representing only the 1% of the total ocean’s water, the discharge by Arctic rivers accounts for about the 11% of the freshwater flow into the ocean. This huge volume of low density freshwater restricts the mixing between surface and deep ocean layers, because of the induced strong stratification. The accumulation of low salinity water on t...
Article
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Plain Language Summary El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has far reaching climatic impacts over the globe so extending useful ENSO forecasts would be of great benefit for society. In response, NASA has developed satellite technology to observe the global hydrological cycle by measuring ocean sea surface salinity (SSS) from space. SSS, combined wi...
Technical Report
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This report documents the conventions developed on the frame of COSMO project (CTM2016-79474-R) to standardize GeoJSON specifications to encode ocean drifting objects. It encompasses several classes to encode usual oceanographic drifters (CODE,SVP,...) but also trajectories made by dummies in search and rescue exercises or document rescue of human...
Article
After more than eight years of the European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) acquisitions, an exhaustive, empirical characterization of the biases and uncertainties affecting SMOS brightness temperatures over the ocean is possible. We show that both parameters strongly depend not only on the position in the field of view,...
Article
Full-text available
Soil moisture observations are expected to play an important role in monitoring global climate trends. However, measuring soil moisture is challenging because of its high spatial and temporal variability. Point-scale in-situ measurements are scarce and, excluding model-based estimates, remote sensing remains the only practical way to observe soil m...
Poster
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Dimensional reduction methods are key to Earth system sciences. They allow dealing with extensive spatio-temporal climatic data sets in terms of individual variables as time series and spatial distributions. Principal Component Analysis (PCA), also called Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) in geophysics, is a simple yet very powerful method to un...
Article
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This paper aims to present and assess the quality of seven years (2011–2017) of 25 km nine-day Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) objectively analyzed maps in the Arctic and sub-Arctic oceans ( 50 ∘ N– 90 ∘ N). The SMOS SSS maps presented in this work are an improved version of the preliminary three-year dataset gene...
Article
Full-text available
The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Aquarius satellite missions have produced the first sea-surface salinity (SSS) maps from space. The quality of the retrieved SSS must be assessed, in terms of its validation against sparse ground truth, but also in terms of its ability to detect and characterize geophysical processes, such as mesoscal...
Article
Full-text available
The triple collocation (TC) technique allows the simultaneous calibration of three independent, collocated data sources, while providing an estimate of their accuracy. In this paper, the TC is adapted to validate different salinity data products along the tropical band. The representativeness error (the true variance resolved by the relatively high...
Article
Full-text available
Ocean currents play a key role in Earth's climate – they impact almost any process taking place in the ocean and are of major importance for navigation and human activities at sea. Nevertheless, their observation and forecasting are still difficult. First, no observing system is able to provide direct measurements of global ocean currents on synopt...
Article
Full-text available
We use the concept of Energy Return On energy Invested (EROI) to calculate the amount of the available net energy that can be reasonably expected from World oil liquids during the next decades (till 2040). Our results indicate a decline in the available oil liquids net energy from 2015 to 2040. Such net energy evaluation is used as a starting point...
Article
The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission has provided a unique remote sensing capability for observing key variables of the hydrological cycle, such as the Sea Surface Salinity (SSS). However, due to some limitations related to the instrument interferometric concept and its challenging data processing, SMOS SSS maps still display signifi...
Article
Full-text available
Ocean currents play a key role in Earth’s climate, they are of major importance for navigation and human activities at sea, and impact almost all processes that take place in the ocean. Nevertheless, their observation and forecasting are still difficult. First, direct measurements of ocean currents are difficult to obtain synoptically at global sca...
Article
In this work we focus on the Alboran Sea (western Mediterranean) to relate wind field and ocean velocity variability with chlorophyll a (Chl a) behaviour, using a 2-km resolution, coupled 3D ocean circulation-NPZD model (ROMS). The analysis is done in three steps. First, we split the seasonal and residual contribution for the fields under study. Se...
Article
Full-text available
This article summarizes some of the activities in which Jordi Font, research professor and head of the Department of Physical and Technological Oceanography, Institut de Ciències del Mar (CSIC, Spanish National Research Council) in Barcelona, has been involved as co-Principal Investigator for Ocean Salinity of the European Space Agency Soil Moistur...
Article
Full-text available
Since the mid-1980s, physical oceanographers at the Institute of Marine Sciences have been involved in the use of Lagrangian drifters as a complementary technology for their oceanographic research. As Lagrangian observations became more feasible, these researchers continued developing their own drifters in what was to be the seed of current technol...
Article
Full-text available
Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) is the first satellite mission capable of measuring sea surface salinity and soil moisture from space. Its novel instrument (the L-band radiometer MIRAS) has required the development of new algorithms to process SMOS data, a challenging task due to many processing issues and the difficulties inherent in a new...
Conference Paper
New ocean products from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission are being developed at the Barcelona Expert Centre. Besides the already operational 9-day and monthly sea surface salinity (SSS) products, two additional daily SSS products have been recently become operational: a simple user-friendly product containing all swath-based Leve...
Conference Paper
This work is devoted to describe the new processing techniques that are being conceived, developed and implemented at the Barcelona Expert Centre (BEC) for the generation of sea surface salinity (SSS) maps from the Soil Mooisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. Several algorithms to mitigate the ripples and sidelobes present in the SMOS brightne...
Article
Full-text available
Abrupt changes in the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) brightness temperatures, such as those produced by land/sea/ice transitions and Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI) sources, produce artificial rippling patterns (i.e. the so-called Gibbs-like contamination) that propagate through the SMOS-reconstructed image. A nodal sampling technique,...
Article
The multifractal fusion is a non-parametric technique that merges remotely-sensed maps of different ocean variables to produce higher quality remote sensing products. This method was first introduced to reduce the noise level in a map of a given ocean variable provided that a higher-quality map of a second ocean variable is available. In this work,...
Article
Full-text available
The circulation in the Algerian Basin is characterized by the presence of fresh-core eddies that propagate along the coast or at distances between 100 and 200 km from the coast. Enhancements in the processing of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) data have allowed to produce, for the first time, satellite sea surface salinity (SSS) maps in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Salinity and temperature gradients drive the thermohaline circulation of the oceans, and play a key role in the ocean-atmosphere coupling. The strong and direct interactions between the ocean and the cryosphere (primarily through sea ice and ice shelves) is also a key ingredient of the thermohaline circulation. The ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Sal...
Technical Report
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This technical note presents a general comparison of the recently distributed L3 SMAP Salinity BETA product with ARGO profiles and objectively analyzed climatological sea surface salinity.
Technical Report
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In this tecnical note we analyze two different approaches for salinity retrieval in SMOS: the standard Bayesian approach and a new not-Bayesian approach. In both cases systematic, a bias correction based on SMOS-based climatologies is applied. The performance of both approaches are analysed and discussed.
Article
Full-text available
For the first time a statistical analysis of oil spill beaching is applied to the whole Mediterranean Sea. A series of probability maps of beaching in case of an oil spill incident are proposed as a complementary tool to vulnerability analysis and risk assessment in the whole basin. As a first approach a set of spill source points are selected alon...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies have shown significant sea surface salinity (SSS) changes at scales ranging from regional to global. In this study, we estimate global salinity means and trends using historical (1950–2014) SSS data from the UK Met. Office Hadley Centre objectively analyzed monthly fields and recent data from the SMOS satellite (2010–2014). We separa...
Article
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The main objective of the E-AIMS (Euro-Argo improvements for the GMES/Copernicus Marine Service) FP7 project is to conduct R&D activities on Argo float technology, Argo data centers and the design of the new phase of Argo (improved coverage, deep ocean, biogeochemical sensors, polar regions) to better answer existing and future needs of the Coperni...
Article
New sea surface salinity (SSS) observations derived from satellite remote sensing platforms provide a comprehensive view of salt exchanges across boundary currents such as the Gulf Stream. The high resolution (45km spatial resolution and three-day repeat subcycle) of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) observations allows detection (and tra...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This tecnical note describes two alternative algorithms for the SSS computation starting from SMOS brightness temperatures. We provide comparisons between DPGS L3 SSS maps and L3 SSS maps computed with these methods
Technical Report
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The last decade has seen significant growth in the field of sensor networks, which are currently collecting large amounts of environmental data. This data needs to be collected, processed, stored and made available for analysis and interpretation in a manner which is meaningful and accessible to end users and stakeholders with a r...
Technical Report
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND STRUCTURE OF THE DELIVERABLE Deliverable 1.4 is aimed at identification of existing and operable observing systems and sensors which are relevant to COMMON SENSE objectives. Report aggregates information on existing observing initiatives, programmes, systems, platforms and sensors. The Report includes: • inventory of previous...
Article
This study demonstrates the impact of gridded in situ and Aquarius sea surface salinity (SSS) on coupled forecasts for August 2011 until February 2014. Assimilation of all available subsurface temperature (ASSIM_Tz) is chosen as the baseline and an optimal interpolation of all in situ salinity (ASSIM_Tz_SSSIS) and Aquarius SSS (ASSIM_Tz_SSSAQ) are...
Article
Full-text available
The tropical Pacific Ocean remained in a La Niña phase from mid 2010 to mid-2012. In this study, the 2010-2011 near-surface salinity signature of ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) is described and analyzed using a combination of numerical model output, in situ data and SMOS satellite salinity products. Comparisons of all salinity products show a...
Article
The coming fossil fuel peak may cause shortages in energy supplies and major disturbances in the global economy. The forecasts for the future of our way of life are very divergent depending on the prediction used for future human access to energy, and they range between collapse and indefinite growth. The LINEX production function, which depends on...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Prediction of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and its relation with global climate anomalies, continues to be an important research effort in short-term climate forecasting. This task has become even more challenging as researchers are becoming more and more convinced that there is not a single archetypical El Niño (or La Niña) pattern, but se...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
More than three years have passed since the launch, on November 2, 2009, of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite carrying a microwave synthetic aperture radiometer working at 1.4 GHz. The aim of the mission is to provide Sea Surface Salinity and Soil Moisture observations, with a spatial resolution of...
Article
The goal of data assimilation (DA) is to combine, in the "best" possible way, all available sources of information of a given system to reconstruct its state. The appropriate weight given to observations and models is a function of their respective errors. In the specific case of oceanographic applications, one significant source of errors is discr...
Article
Full-text available
The oceans not only cover about three quarters of the Earth’s surface but they also constitute the most relevant climate driver. However, our present knowledge about the oceans is by no means comparable to that of terrestrial or atmospheric systems. Salinity and temperature are key parameters to understand the dynamics of the oceans; but a global n...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This technical note focuses on the comparison of the various Level 3 binned products currently distributed by the CP34. The SMOS data used come from the 2012 reprocessing campaign, although the analysis here is restricted to the year 2011.
Article
Full-text available
Capability for sea surface salinity observation was an important gap in ocean remote sensing in the last few decades of the 20th century. New technological developments during the 1990s at the European Space Agency led to the proposal of SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity), an Earth explorer opportunity mission based on the use of a microwave i...
Conference Paper
A preliminary attempt of deriving a purely satellite-based Temperature-Salinity (T-S) diagram is presented, with the overall aim of assessing to what extent is possible, and in which geographical areas, to identify and trace water masses by satellite. This has been performed by using recent SMOS and Aquarius satellite SSS products in conjunction wi...
Conference Paper
In this study, the rain impact on the ASCAT operational Level 2 retrieved wind quality and the effectiveness of the quality control (QC) are investigated. It is shown that ASCAT is much less affected by direct rain effects, such as ocean splashing, but effects of increased wind variability appear to dominate. The operational QC proves to be effecti...
Article
Full-text available
The quality of the Ku-band scatterometer-derived winds is known to be degraded by the presence of rain. Little work has been done in characterizing the impact of rain on C-band scatterometer winds, such as those from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) onboard Metop-A. In this paper, the rain impact on the ASCAT operational level 2 quality control (...
Article
Full-text available
This work summarizes the activities carried out by the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) Barcelona Expert Center (SMOS-BEC) team in conjunction with the CIALE/Universidad de Salamanca team, within the framework of the European Space Agency (ESA) CALIMAS project in preparation for the SMOS mission and during its first year of operation. Under...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Microwave Imaging Radiometer using Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) instrument onboard the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission was launched on November 2nd, 2009 with the aim of providing, over the oceans, synoptic sea surface salinity (SSS) measurements with spatial and temporal coverage adequate for large-scale oceanographic studies. F...