Joanne Ryan

Joanne Ryan
Monash University (Australia) · Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine

BSc(Hons) MBiostat PhD

About

267
Publications
26,704
Reads
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5,392
Citations
Introduction
Head, Biological Neuropsychiatry and Dementia Unit, School of Public Health & Preventative Medicine, Monash University.
Additional affiliations
March 2013 - present
University of Melbourne
Position
  • Researcher
November 2012 - present
Murdoch Children's Research Institute
Position
  • Research Associate
November 2012 - March 2016
Murdoch Children's Research Institute
Position
  • Early Career Research Fellow

Publications

Publications (267)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Biological aging may be a robust biomarker of dementia or cognitive performance. This systematic review synthesized the evidence for an association between epigenetic aging and dementia, mild cognitive impairment and cognitive function. Methods: A systematic search was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Revi...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: To determine whether slowed gait and weakened grip strength independently, or together, better identify risk of cognitive decline or dementia. Methods: Time to walk 3 meters and grip strength were measured in a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial involving community-dwelling, initially cognitively healthy older adults (N =...
Article
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Purpose The Australian Temperament Project Generation 3 Study (ATPG3) was established to examine the extent to which offspring social and emotional development is shaped in the decades prior to conception, in parent and grandparent histories of psychosocial adjustment (eg, emotional regulation, relationship quality and prosociality) and maladjustme...
Chapter
DNA methylation biomarkers of aging, termed “epigenetic clocks” enable an estimate of biological age across various tissues, and reflect an individuals’ aging trajectory. They also permit the identification of individuals with accelerated epigenetic aging compared to their chronological age. The first generation of epigenetic clocks, based on DNA m...
Article
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Objective There is variability across individuals in cognitive aging. To investigate the associations of several modifiable factors with high and low cognitive performance. Methods Data came from 17,724 community-dwelling individuals aged 65–98 years. Global cognition, verbal fluency, episodic memory, and psychomotor speed were assessed over up to...
Article
Background Optimism is a psychosocial asset associated with healthy ageing. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) tremendously impacts people’s lives and health. This study explored what optimism means to older Australians and how the pandemic may have affected their perceptions. Methods Eleven adults (55% female), aged 68-74 years, living in metrop...
Article
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Later life changes in body weight may be associated with an increased risk of mortality in older adults. The objective of this study was to examine whether weight change over four years was associated with a 17-year mortality risk in older adults. Participants were 1664 community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years in the longitudinal Enquete de Sante’...
Article
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Objectives Polypharmacy and frailty are two common geriatric conditions. In community-dwelling healthy older adults, we examined whether polypharmacy is associated with frailty and affects disability-free survival (DFS), assessed as a composite of death, dementia, or persistent physical disability. Methods We included 19,114 participants (median a...
Article
Introduction Poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is associated with higher morbidity and mortality in patient populations. However, whether HRQoL is associated with health outcomes among community-dwelling older people requires further investigation. This study aimed to examine whether HRQoL predicts cognitive decline, dementia, cardiovascu...
Article
Introduction Poorer physical health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been shown to predict a higher risk of adverse health outcomes including cognitive decline, cardiovascular disease, and mortality among community-dwelling older individuals. However, little is known about how physical HRQoL changes over time in older people and the predictors o...
Article
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Objective The inter-individual variability in cognitive changes may be early indicators of major health events. We aimed to determine whether late-life cognitive trajectories were associated with incident dementia, persistent physical disability and all-cause mortality.Methods Data came from a cohort of older community-dwelling individuals aged 70...
Article
Importance: Dual decline in gait speed and cognition has been found to be associated with increased dementia risk in previous studies. However, it is unclear if risks are conferred by a decline in domain-specific cognition and gait. Objective: To examine associations between dual decline in gait speed and cognition (ie, global, memory, processin...
Article
Background and objective: The clinical significance of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in older age is uncertain. This study determined the prevalence and associations of SDB with mood, daytime sleepiness, quality of life (QOL) and cognition in a relatively healthy older Australian cohort. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted from...
Preprint
Purpose: The Australian Temperament Project Generation 3 Cohort (ATPG3) was established to examine the extent to which offspring social and emotional development is shaped in the decades prior to conception, in parent and grandparent histories of psychosocial adjustment (e.g., emotional regulation, relationship quality and prosociality) and maladju...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Physical health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is associated with adverse health outcomes, including hospitalizations and all-cause mortality. However, little is known about how physical HRQoL changes over time in older people and the predictors of this trajectory. This study (a) identified trajectories of physical HRQoL among older people...
Article
Background: Cognitive test-retest reliability measures can be used to evaluate meaningful changes in scores. Objective: This analysis aimed to develop a comprehensive set of test-retest reliability values and minimal detectable change (MDC) values for a cognitive battery for community-dwelling older individuals in Australia and the U.S., for use...
Article
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Prolonging survival in good health is a fundamental societal goal. However, the leading determinants of disability-free survival in healthy older people have not been well established. Data from ASPREE, a bi-national placebo-controlled trial of aspirin with 4.7 years median follow-up, was analysed. At enrolment, participants were healthy and withou...
Article
Objective: Positive psychosocial factors may protect against cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to determine the association of optimism and pessimism with CVD events in community-dwelling older adults. Methods: 11,651 adults aged 70 years and over, participants of the ASPREE Longitudinal Study of Older Persons (ALSOP), were followed-up for 4.7...
Article
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Objectives: We provide new evidence on the profiles of social isolation, social support, and loneliness before and after spousal death for older widows. We also examine the moderating effects of gender and financial resources on changes in social health before and after widowhood. Methods: We use 19 waves of data from the Household, Income and L...
Article
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With the progressive aging of the world’s population, prolongation of a healthy lifespan in old age has become a medical research priority. The presence of depressive symptoms in later life is associated with poor health prognosis and increased mortality1,2. Here we explore distinct trajectories of depressive symptoms in later life and their associ...
Article
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Background: There is considerable variability in the rate at which we age biologically, and the brain is particularly susceptible to the effects of aging. Objective: We examined the test-retest reliability of brain age at one- and three-year intervals and identified characteristics that predict the longitudinal change in brain-predicted age diff...
Article
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PurposeRecent epidemiological evidence has suggested that use of lipid-lowering medications, particularly statins, was associated with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and persistent physical disability in healthy older adults. However, the comparative efficacy of different statins in this group remains unclear. This study aimed to compa...
Article
Study objective The aim of this study was to identify whether physical component score (PCS) of health-related quality of life trajectories over 4.7-years predicted subsequent risk of incident fatal and non-fatal CVD events, and all-cause mortality. Methods This study included 16,871 community-dwelling people aged ≥65 years enrolled in the ASPREE...
Article
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Objectives: The objectives of this study were to examine whether weight loss, weight status (based on body mass index [BMI] categories), and abdominal obesity (based on waist circumference [WC]) were associated with a 17-year mortality risk in community-dwelling older adults. Methods: Participants were 2,017 community-dwelling adults aged 65 yea...
Article
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Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with differential DNA methylation in offspring and disrupted cortisol secretion. This study aimed to determine methylation signatures of cortisol levels in children, and whether associations differ based on maternal post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Blood epigenome‐wide methylation and fasting cor...
Article
Background Considerable work exists in the literature to describe the negative impacts of early-life stress exposures on health in adulthood. This study investigated whether the accumulation of adverse childhood events is associated with later-life cognitive function and incident dementia. Methods Participants were 1562 community-dwelling older ad...
Article
Full-text available
There is variability in cognitive aging between individuals. This study aimed to investigate cognitive aging trajectories, the associated modifiable factors, and the association of these trajectories with dementia. Community-dwelling older adults (n=19,114) without dementia or major cognitive impairment at inclusion were followed for up to 7 years,...
Article
Full-text available
Lower gait speed and grip strength are common in older adults. However, the results of lower motor function on cognitive outcomes have been mixed. We examined the longitudinal association between baseline slow gait speed and weak grip strength, alone and in combination, with risk of incident dementia or cognitive decline in a cohort of older adults...
Article
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This study examined factors associated with frailty and studied the association between frailty status and mortality in healthy community-dwelling older persons. Participants included 19,114 individuals from the “ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly” (ASPREE) trial. Frailty was defined using modified Fried phenotype comprising exhaustion, body...
Article
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Previous studies have revealed that poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is associated with a higher risk of hospital readmission and mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The association between HRQoL and incident CVD is still limited for general older people. This study explored the associations between baseline HRQoL an...
Article
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There are no widely accepted pharmacologic treatments for frailty prevention. Since frailty is associated with inflammation, aspirin has the potential to reduce frailty. We investigated whether low-dose aspirin reduces incident frailty in participants of the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) trial. In the U.S and Australia, 19,114...
Article
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This study examined the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and frailty status in relatively healthy community-dwelling older adults. Participants included 19,114 individuals from the “ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly” (ASPREE) trial. The diagnostic criteria for MetS were according to the International Diabetes Federation Task Fo...
Article
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Many community-dwelling older adults develop activity of daily living (ADL) disability and subsequently regain function. Using data from the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) clinical trial, we examined the relationship of gender, incident disability, and persistent disability 6 months after the incident disability. Walking, bathin...
Article
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Background Poor social health is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent research suggests that different social health domains should be considered separately as the implications for health and possible interventions may differ. Aim To assess social isolation, low social support and loneliness as predictors of CVD....
Article
Background: CKD is a risk factor for cognitive impairment (CI), but reports of individual associations of eGFR and albuminuria with CI and incident dementia in healthier, older, longitudinal populations are lacking. Our goal was to estimate these associations in a large cohort of older healthy persons. Methods: In a longitudinal cohort study of...
Article
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Objectives A feature of late-life depression is alterations of the stress hormone system. The CYP21A2 gene encodes for the steroid 21-hydroxylase enzyme which is required for the biosynthesis of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, two main components of the stress response in humans. Variants in the CYP21A2 gene could influence risk of late-lif...
Article
Aim To determine the association between heart failure (HF) and cognitive change and dementia. Methods and results Systematic search of three electronic databases was performed and 29 eligible studies involving approximately 3 million participants were identified. Twelve studies examined dementia and 20 cognitive change, but only a subset of studi...
Article
Background: Binge level prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) causes developmental abnormalities, which may be mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms. Despite this, few studies have characterised the association of binge PAE with DNA methylation in offspring. Methods: We investigated the association between binge PAE and genome-wide DNA methylation pr...
Article
BACKGROUND Frailty is associated with chronic inflammation, which may be modified by aspirin. The purpose of this study was to determine whether low dose aspirin reduces incident frailty in healthy older adult participants of the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) trial. METHODS In the U.S and Australia, 19,114 community-dwelling i...
Article
Background Poor social health is prevalent in older adults and may be associated with worse cognition, and increased dementia risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether social isolation, social support, and loneliness are independently associated with cognitive function and incident dementia over 5 years in older adults, and to investigat...
Article
Full-text available
Study objective: What is the association between anticholinergic burden and specific domains of cognitive function in older adults who are initially without major cognitive impairment? Design: Post-hoc analysis of longitudinal observational data from the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) study. Patients: 19,114 participants fr...
Article
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Brain age is a neuroimaging-based biomarker of aging. This study examined whether the difference between brain age and chronological age (brain-PAD) is associated with cognitive function at baseline and longitudinally. Participants were relatively healthy, predominantly white community-dwelling older adults (n=531, aged ≥70 years), with high educat...
Article
Background and Aims Alcohol consumption is common in adolescence and young adulthood and may continue into pregnancy, posing serious risk to early fetal development. We examine the frequency of periconception alcohol use (prior to pregnancy awareness) and the extent to which adolescent and young adult alcohol use prospectively predict periconceptio...
Article
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Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a measure of an individual’s self-perceived health status. Few studies have examined HRQoL as a risk factor for mortality. This study examined whether HRQoL predicts all-cause mortality in older community-dwelling individuals from Australia and the United States enrolled in the Aspirin in Reducin...
Article
Full-text available
Background Brain age is a novel neuroimaging-based marker of ageing that uses machine learning to predict a person’s biological brain age. A higher brain age relative to chronological age (i.e., brain-predicted age difference [brain-PAD]) is considered a sign of accelerated ageing. We examined whether brain-PAD is associated with cognition and the...
Article
Background Social isolation, lack of social support and loneliness have historically been assessed as overlapping or even interchangeable terms. We aimed to assess whether these three social constructs are independently associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods This analysis included 10,517 women aged 70-75 years from the Aus...
Article
Background Frailty is increasingly recognised for its association with adverse health outcomes, including mortality. However, various measures are used to assess frailty, and the strength of association could vary depending on the specific definition used. This umbrella review aims to map which frailty scale can best predict the relationship betwee...
Article
Background Frailty is gaining importance as a predictor of disability and mortality in aged adults, and becoming frail poses a challenge for healthy aging. We investigated the prevalence and factors associated with pre-frail and frail status in a large study cohort of community-dwelling healthy older adults from Australia and the United States. Me...
Article
Background: This study examined the risk of mortality in older adults with newly detected cognitive impairment or dementia. Methods: Data from the Australian cohort of the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) trial were examined. The ASPREE clinical trial compared daily low-dose aspirin to a placebo and involved 16,703 individuals...
Article
Background There is strong evidence that epigenetic age acceleration is associated with increased risk of later-life diseases and all-cause mortality. However, there is currently limited evidence that suggests accelerated epigenetic age is associated with dementia risk. Objective This study aims to clarify whether epigenetic biomarkers of accelera...
Article
Full-text available
Background Brain age is a biomarker that predicts chronological age using neuroimaging features. Deviations of this predicted age from chronological age is considered a sign of age-related brain changes, or commonly referred to as brain ageing. The aim of this systematic review is to identify and synthesize the evidence for an association between l...
Article
Frailty is a state of heightened vulnerability and susceptibility to physiologic stressors that increases with age. It has shown increasing utility in predicting a range of adverse health outcomes. Here, we characterise a 67-item deficit-accumulation frailty index (FI) in 19,110 community-dwelling individuals in the ASPREE clinical trial. Participa...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Diversity in cognition among apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 homozygotes can range from early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) to a lifetime with no symptoms. Methods: We evaluated a phenotypic extreme polygenic risk score (PRS) for AD between cognitively healthy APOE ε4 homozygotes aged ≥75 years (n = 213) and early-onset APOE ε4 homozyg...
Article
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Objective: Optimism is modifiable and may be associated with healthy ageing. We aim to investigate whether dispositional optimism is associated with all-cause mortality in adults aged 70 years and older. Methods: Between 2010 and 2014, older adults free of serious cardiovascular disease and dementia were recruited through primary care physicians...
Article
Objectives: To assess whether social isolation, social support, and loneliness are independently associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Method: Retrospective analysis including 10,517 women aged 70–75 years from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH). Social isolation, social support (Duke Social Support Index)...
Article
Research suggests that optimism and pessimism should be studied as two distinct constructs rather than as unidimensional, at opposing ends of a continuum. Optimism and pessimism have different associations with health-related behaviours, coping style, and a number of health outcomes. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence on the ass...
Article
Background Poor social health is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), however an in-depth exploration of the link through CVD risk factors is lacking. Aim To examine the relationship between social health (social isolation, social support, loneliness) and CVD risk factors among healthy older women and men. Methods Data were from 11,498...
Article
Background Lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been shown to predict a higher risk of hospital readmission and mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Few studies have explored the associations between HRQoL and incident CVD. We explored the associations between baseline HRQoL and incident and fatal CVD in community-dw...
Article
Full-text available
Background Blood pressure variability (BPV) in midlife increases risk of late‐life dementia, but the impact of BPV on the cognition of adults who have already reached older ages free of major cognitive deficits is unknown. We examined the risk of incident dementia and cognitive decline associated with long‐term, visit‐to‐visit BPV in a post hoc ana...
Article
Diurnal salivary cortisol was measured in 334 older adults without dementia, at four times on two separate days, under quiet and stressful conditions. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard models, higher global diurnal cortisol secretion was associated with incident dementia (HR = 1.09 [1.02–1.15] per one-unit increase in cortisol measure, p = 0....
Article
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. Appendix II was published twice in the supporting information. The original publication has been updated. Appendix I and Appendix II are now both available in the online publication.
Article
Background The neurocognitive effect of statins in older adults remain uncertain. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of statin use with cognitive decline and incident dementia among older adults. Methods This analysis included 18,846 participants ≥65 years of age in a randomized trial of aspirin, who had no prior...
Article
Full-text available
Few studies have measured the effect of genetic factors on dementia and cognitive decline in healthy older individuals followed prospectively. We studied cumulative incidence of dementia and cognitive decline, stratified by APOE genotypes and polygenic risk score (PRS) tertiles, in 12,978 participants of the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderl...