Joanne Millar

Joanne Millar
Charles Sturt University, Albury · Institute for Land, Water and Society

BAgrSci, PhD

About

64
Publications
51,250
Reads
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Introduction
Dr Joanne Millar has over 35 years experience in the government and university sector, with expertise in action research for natural resource management, agriculture, rural development and conservation management. Dr Millar currently works on international research projects to improve smallholder farming systems and environmental management in Laos and Timor Leste.
Additional affiliations
February 2016 - present
Charles Sturt University, Albury, Australia
Position
  • Fellow
Description
  • I lead international research projects in Bhutan and Timor Leste to improve livelhoods and environmental management. I conduct social research on livelihood impacts and provide training for extension officers and researchers on social evaluation methods.
March 2003 - January 2016
Charles Sturt University, Albury, Australia
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • I taught Environmental Planning, Environmental Policy and Natural Resource Management.
January 2003 - February 2016
Charles Sturt University
Position
  • Senior Researcher
Description
  • I conduct social research on rural livelihoods, smallholder agriculture and aquaculture in developing countries, and impact assessment of rural research and development projects.
Education
September 1994 - December 1998
Charles Sturt University
Field of study
  • Rural Sociology
February 1978 - January 1982
University of Melbourne
Field of study
  • Agricultural Science

Publications

Publications (64)
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the emerging livelihood benefits and challenges of community reforestation in Timor-Leste and discusses implications for smallholder carbon forestry schemes. Social research was conducted in an upland area of central Timor Leste with farmers who have been planting trees since 2012 for soil stabilisation, timber, biodiversity en...
Article
Full-text available
Cattle and yaks in Bhutan are mainly managed in a transhumance system, grazing common pooled resources. This is, however, changing due mainly to policy changes and development pressure. The unequal land policies now restrict mobility for cattle-based transhumance by agro-pastoralists although it is expected to remain the same for the yak-based past...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores how property rights arrangements affect the equity, efficiency and sustainability of high-altitude rangeland management in Bhutan from the perspectives of rangeland users. Property rights affect how natural resources are allocated to individuals, communities and institutions and how they are managed. In Bhutan, only grazing righ...
Article
In the Asia Pacific region, pigs play an important cultural and economic role in society. However, the cultural significance and use of livestock is often overlooked in agricultural research and development. This paper describes the contribution of pigs to the social and cultural life of rural households in Timor Leste from the perspectives of wome...
Chapter
Red panda Ailurus fulgens is a threatened mammalian species endemic to the eastern Himalayas. In Bhutan, the red panda is distributed across the country’s temperate forests, covering 19 of the 20 districts within an elevation range of 1500–4300 m, with potential habitat of 10,971.2 km², which is 28.57% of the total country area. The country’s Fores...
Article
High-elevation rangelands in Bhutan provide livelihoods for many herding communities. However, severe rangeland degradation in the far eastern region is threatening livestock productivity, biodiversity conservation, and household wellbeing. This paper describes a 3-year community-based rangeland project in eastern Bhutan aimed at restoring and prot...
Technical Report
Full-text available
RED PANDA CONSERVATION ACTION PLAN FOR BHUTAN (2018-2023) “Ensuring the future of Red Panda landscapes through national and regional collaboration” NATURE CONSERVATION DIVISION Department of Forests and Park Services Ministry of Agriculture and Forests Bhutan
Article
Full-text available
Local perceptions of floodplain fisheries use and management can play an important role in designing adaptive strategies to improve fisheries co-management. This paper explores perceptions of local people on changes in the use and management of floodplain fisheries, using a case study of Pak Peung wetland commons in Lao PDR. The wetland is seasonal...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper explores the institutions and actions that are enabling and challenging collective action to rehabilitate rangeland commons in Bhutan. Semi-nomadic yak herder communities are experiencing severe landslides and fodder shortage due to overgrazing and climate change (Tenzing et al. 2017). Herding families are caught in a vicious poverty cyc...
Article
Full-text available
High altitude rangeland and livelihood systems in Bhutan are undergoing changes in resource availability, population and user rights. This paper explores the existing governance structures of high altitude rangelands in Bhutan using Ostrom’s design principles as a framework for analysis. Qualitative interviews and focus group discussions were used...
Article
Full-text available
Property rights and management regimes for high-elevation rangelands in Bhutan have evolved over centuries in response to environmental, cultural, and political imperatives. The 2007 Land Act of Bhutan aims to redress historical inequities in property rights by redistributing grazing leases to local livestock owners in a process known as rangeland...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Freshwater wetland commons in Lao PDR are highly biodiverse, and provide food and income security for people living on the Mekong River floodplains. Wetland use, management and governance have changed dramatically over the last 50 years in response to population increase, irrigation and hydropower development, and institutional influences. This pap...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Semi-nomadic yak herders of Bhutan depend on high altitude rangelands and yaks for their livelihoods. Conflicts over high altitude rangelands among herders can lead to sub-optimal management with negative impacts on the environment, livelihoods and socioeconomic well-being of semi-nomadic yak herders. This paper explores the conflicts and mediation...
Article
Full-text available
Seasonal cattle movements have been an important part of the living cultural heritage in Bhutan for centuries. Herders migrate south every winter to graze their cattle on subtropical pastures and to work in orange orchards. They return north to their villages in spring to grow summer crops. However, the practice of transhumant agropastoralism is un...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The project sought to primarily develop the first criteria for fish passage developed for Lower Mekong species but also understand the extent of current irrigation development and quantify potential social and economic benefits.
Article
Full-text available
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) has been prevalent in Indonesia since 2003 causing major losses to poultry production and human deaths. Live bird markets are considered high risk areas due to the density of large numbers of mixed poultry species of unknown disease status. Understanding trader knowledge and perceptions of HPAI and biosecuri...
Article
Informal movement of domesticated poultry and wild birds is considered a major threat in terms of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 transmission between birds and from birds to humans. However, the risk of transmission from informal illegal poultry movement has received little attention in Indonesia where human fatalities are the highes...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – This paper aims to explore the influence of wildfire events on community perceptions of climate change and the risk of future wildfire disasters in southern Australia. Design/methodology/approach – The study was located around Beechworth in northeast Victoria, where wildfires occurred in 2003 and 2009. Semi-structured qualitative intervie...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents research on changes in the practice of transhumant agro-pastoralism (TAP) in Bhutan within the context of global changes to pastoralism. Households practicing TAP migrate their cattle to lower elevations duringwinter to access pastures and gain employment. Information was gathered from in-depth interviews (n=24 households), focu...
Article
Migration out of hazard-prone areas presents significant opportunities for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. Alongside and intermingled with opportunistic migration there has always been relocation to escape, particularly from calamity, disaster and warfare. As climate change is considered a likely driver of migration, the lite...
Article
Inland rural amenity landscapes in Australia are undergoing a transition, with traditional food and fibre production impacted by increasing rural populations and land use changes. These changes are creating a new culture of demand, driving different supply scenarios from shrinking farmland. Using a qualitative case study of a small, agriculturally...
Article
Few natural resource management (NRM) studies discriminate between trust and trustworthiness. However, this approach, which combines the attitude of one actor with the characteristics of another actor, is common in the organisational management literature. Our case study, set in a wildfire management context in Australia, sought to explore: (1) how...
Article
Full-text available
Trust has been identified as a critical relationship component in contexts of high uncertainty and complexity such as wildfire management, and as a primary factor in public support for wildland fire management strategies. However, little attention has been paid to identifying and comparing factors across fire management stages (i.e. before, during,...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents research findings on the contemporary practices and socio-cultural traditions of transhumant agro-pastoralism (TAP) in Bhutan. Despite the widespread practice of TAP in Bhutan, there has been limited research on the nature of the practice and associated socio-cultural traditions. Qualitative research methods were used to intervi...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report presents research findings from a qualitative investigation into how agricultural scientists involved in international agricultural and rural development projects communicate with each other. Communication is an essential part of agricultural research in developed and developing countries, from initiating and managing projects to evalua...
Article
Full-text available
One aspect of recent rural change is in-migration, which is challenging the traditional dominance of production values in some areas. We explored the natural resource management implications of property turnover in two Australian regions. Our mixed-methods approach combined analysis of property sales records and spatially referenced landholder surv...
Chapter
The interconnectedness of food systems and societies around the world is increasing with globalization. This includes the trade of goods and the spread of ideas. There are many advantages in globalization, such as agricultural commodity trade through comparative advantage, increasing efficiency, the provision of aid during regional famines, conflic...
Chapter
Australia exports more than half its agricultural production by volume, and participates in addressing global food insecurity through food aid and technical assistance on agricultural production for developing nations. However, some Australians are food insecure and poor nutrition is responsible for about 16 % of the total disease burden and implic...
Article
Full-text available
Food security debates have only recently emerged in Australia with the prediction that Australia's population could reach 35 million by 2050. In a country with limited productive arable land and a heavy reliance on inputs, the question is raised: ‘Can and should Australia continue to export food and feed itself in the face of changes in the use and...
Article
Full-text available
Land-use change has resulted in tree and shrub encroachment in many agricultural regions world-wide, resulting in ‘derived’ ecosystems which differ from ‘natural’ elements in terms of structure and composition. Management of derived vegetation can be contentious, because policy makers, stakeholders and community members often hold conflicting value...
Article
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This paper advocates the use of Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological theory as a framework to analyse resilience at diverse scales. Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological theory can be employed to (a) benchmark social resilience, (b) target the priority interventions required and (c) measure progress arising from these interventions to enhance resilience to natu...
Article
Full-text available
Farmers in Lao PDR rely on government, non-government and private organisations for agricultural advice and support for livestock development. Improving the knowledge and skills of extension staff working with rural communities is a key goal of the Lao Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. This paper presents a study of the factors influencing capa...
Chapter
Demographic change in rural landscapes presents challenges for land-use planners. Planning policies and mechanisms have to adapt to changing land-use demands and community expectations. At the same time, planning schemes need to set standards which adhere to desired goals for designated areas. This chapter examines the role of land-use planning in...
Article
Full-text available
In the remote upland regions of Laos many farming families live in relative poverty, relying on subsistence agriculture. Farmers need effective extension services to provide advice on commercial and technical options to supplement traditional practices and improve their livelihoods. One of these options is small-scale livestock production. However,...
Article
Full-text available
Scaling out and up are terms increasingly being used to describe a desired expansion of beneficial impacts from agricultural research and rural development. This paper explores strategies for scaling out production and livelihood impacts from proven technologies. We draw on a case study of forages and livestock production in Laos, a Southeast Asian...
Article
Full-text available
Smallholder farmers resident in marginalized communities in the uplands of Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) have been subject to agricultural reforms and policies requiring adaptation of their rural livelihood systems and adoption of new agricultural technologies. Structured interviews with farmers explored their perspectives and experien...
Article
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This report presents findings from qualitative research conducted to better understand how trust shapes relationships in the development and implementation of bushfire management strategies. The specific objectives of the research were to identify factors which affect community-agency trust and how those factors differ across the fire management st...
Article
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Learning alliances are partnerships established between organisations such as research institutes, government agencies, private enterprise and Non Government Organisations (NGOs) to identify, share and develop proven agricultural practices with farmers. Learning alliances are based on innovation systems theory and have been developed by organisatio...
Article
Full-text available
Livestock play a key role in the lives of poor, rural people in developing countries, providing a major proportion of their cash income, capital assets, draught power, fuel and fertilizer. Rapid growth in demand for meat and dairy products in Asia presents both opportunities and challenges for livestock development and poverty alleviation. This pap...
Article
Summary Landholder adoption of conservation practices has been extensively researched in dryland areas, but there has been less research into the adoption of biodiversity conservation practices in irrigation areas. The Murray Catchment Management Authority (MCMA) and Murray Irrigation Limited (MIL) in south-west New South Wales offer landholders mo...
Article
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Tel. +61 (2) 6051 9774; Fax +61 (2) 6051 9897; email: kalexander@csu.edu.au b Veterinary Officer, Livestock Section Luang Prabang, Lao PDR. Tel. + 856 71252821; mobile 0205670795; email:Bountom@hotmail.com 1 Introduction Development in the uplands of the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) is both complex and problematic due to remoteness, i...
Article
Full-text available
This paper will take you on a journey to Laos to explore recent research into pathways for scaling out livelihood impacts from forage and livestock technologies. Laos is a country in transition where upland farmers are facing challenges to maintain food security in the face of declining rice yields and government policies to reduce shifting cultiva...
Article
Full-text available
To address the first of these issues, the Lao Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) and the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) have developed participatory extension approaches to introduce forages to upland farmers. These methods encourage farmers to take the 'raw technologies' (well adapted and productive forage varieties),...
Article
Full-text available
The Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service (QPWS) established the Community Nature Conservation (CNC) Extension Network in 1998 to assist landholders, community groups and local governments with nature conservation planning and management on private and leasehold land in Queensland. The network now includes 17 regional extension officers, six Bushca...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence of an emerging focus on the role of farmer knowledge in developed countries is highlighted by the debate on the nature of local and scientific knowledge. Less attention has been paid to the interaction of different ways of knowing for sustainable capital-intensive agriculture. This paper explores the relationship between local and scientif...
Article
Full-text available
Participatory programs are increasingly recognised as effective in assisting rural communities identify issues of concern, determine their needs, and draw in resources to enact social and environmental change. A fundamental assumption of these programs is that farmer knowledge is used and valued in the process of group interaction and social learni...
Article
Full-text available
The role of farmer knowledge in natural resource management Farmer knowledge and experience with natural resource management is emerging as a powerful tool when combined with research and extension efforts to find solutions to land degra-dation problems in Australia (Curtis and De Lacy 1995; Rickson et al. 1995). The knowledge and experience farmer...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the formation, activities, results and impacts of an active Pig Systems Learning Alliance consisting of national and international researchers, development practitioners from NGOs and government extension services in northern Laos. The original objective of the researchers was to find a way to link with development practitioner...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
Biodiversity and livelihoods enhanced through expansion of community led reforestation that integrates agroforestry, farmer managed natural regeneration, biodiversity conservation and carbon payments through an internationally recognised carbon accreditation scheme. Indigenous knowledge and Timorese customary law (Tara Bandu) will guide project activities to ensure alignment with community values and goals. Go to communityreforestationtimorleste.wordpress.com
Project
The research project aims to protect red panda habitat and livelihoods of yak herders in the high altitude rangelands of far eastern Bhutan. Partners include the Bhutan Departments of Livestock; Forests and Parks; World Wildlife Fund Bhutan; the Red Panda Network and Australian Landcare International. The project will run for 3 years and focus on addressing severe land degradation, red panda habitat loss and herder wellbeing in the winter rangelands of Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary (SWS) in remote eastern Bhutan (2,500 to 3,500m). Over-exploitation of resources and climate change are the main drivers of pasture decline, land erosion and forest fragmentation. SWS is rich in biodiversity and home to the globally threatened red panda. However, little is known about red panda status or habitat threats in this remote part of Bhutan. Project activities include fencing off several large gullies, planting native vegetation, monitoring habitat change, recording red panda populations, pasture trials, livestock management, biogas trials, vegetable production and womens enterprises. Group management and capacity building will build the foundation for herders to drive the process using lessons learnt from the landcare approach in Australia.