Joanna L Bowtell

Joanna L Bowtell
University of Exeter | UoE · Department of Sport and Health Sciences

PhD

About

71
Publications
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Publications

Publications (71)
Article
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Blastocystis is a unicellular eukaryote found in the gastrointestinal tract of both human and other animal hosts. The clinical significance of colonic Blastocystis colonization remains obscure. In this study, we used metabarcoding and bioinformatics analyses to identify differences in stool microbiota diversity between Blastocystis-positive and Bla...
Article
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Shatavari has long been used as an Ayurvedic herb for women’s health, but empirical evidence for its effectiveness has been lacking. Shatavari contains phytoestrogenic compounds that bind to the estradiol receptor. Postmenopausal estradiol deficiency contributes to sarcopenia and osteoporosis. In a randomised double-blind trial, 20 postmenopausal w...
Article
Introduction: Montmorency cherry concentrate (MCC) supplementation enhances functional recovery from exercise, potentially due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, to date, supporting empirical evidence for these mechanistic hypotheses is reliant on indirect blood biomarkers. This study is the first to investigate functional reco...
Preprint
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Background Shatavari has long been used as an Ayurvedic herb for women’s health, but empirical evidence for its effectiveness has been lacking. Shatavari contains phytoestrogenic compounds that bind to the estradiol receptor, and may therefore benefit postmenopausal women since postmenopausal estradiol deficiency contributes to sarcopenia and osteo...
Article
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Tart cherry (TC) supplementation can improve exercise recovery and performance; and may also improve sleep duration and quality. This study investigated the use and knowledge of TC supplementation by athletes of all competitive levels. Eighty participants (52.5% elite (international, national, professional), 47.5% sub-elite (semi-professional, stat...
Article
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Tart cherries (TC) are a rich source of polyphenols that elicit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. As a consequence, the effects of TC derived supplements on markers of human health, exercise performance and sleep have been investigated. Supplementation protocols have been highly variable across studies and the dose of bioactive compounds u...
Article
Professional rugby league (RL) football is a contact sport involving repeated collisions and high-intensity efforts; both training and competition involve high energy expenditure. The present review summarizes and critiques the available literature relating the physiological demands of RL to nutritional requirements and considers potential ergogeni...
Article
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PurposeThis study tested the hypothesis that a novel, audio-visual-directed, home-based exercise training intervention would be effective at improving cardiometabolic health and mental well-being in inactive premenopausal women.Methods Twenty-four inactive premenopausal women (39 ± 10 years) were randomly assigned to an audio-visual-directed exerci...
Article
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Background Muscle strength loss following immobilisation has been predominantly attributed to rapid muscle atrophy. However, this cannot fully explain the magnitude of muscle strength loss, so changes in neuromuscular function (NMF) may be involved. Objectives We systematically reviewed literature that quantified changes in muscle strength, size a...
Article
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Limited evidence suggests that the consumption of polyphenols may improve glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity. The gut microbiome produces phenolic metabolites and increases their bioavailability. A handful of studies have suggested that polyphenol consumption alters gut microbiome composition. There are no data available investigating such e...
Article
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Aim Montmorency cherries are rich in polyphenols that possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and vasoactive properties. We investigated whether 7-day Montmorency cherry powder supplementation improved cycling time-trial (TT) performance. Methods 8 trained male cyclists (\(\dot {V}{{\text{O}}_{2{\text{peak}}}}\): 62.3 ± 10.1 ml kg⁻¹ min⁻¹) complete...
Article
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Polyphenols are characterised structurally by two or more hydroxyl groups attached to one or more benzene rings, and provide the taste and colour characteristics of fruits and vegetables. They are radical scavengers and metal chelators, but due to their low concentration in biological fluids in vivo their antioxidant properties seem to be related t...
Article
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Aim The aim of this study was to characterize acceleration transmission and neuromuscular responses to rotational vibration (RV) and vertical vibration (VV) at different frequencies and amplitudes. Methods Twelve healthy males completed 2 experimental trials (RV vs VV) during which vibration was delivered during either squatting (30°; RV vs VV) or...
Article
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Flavonoid supplementation improves brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), but it is not known whether flavonoids protect against vascular dysfunction induced by ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury and associated respiratory burst. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, we investigated whether 4 wk supplementation wi...
Article
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1) Background: Mucilage within cacao pods contains high levels of polyphenols. We investigated whether consumption of cacao juice enhances recovery of muscle function following intensive knee extension exercise 2) Methods: Ten recreationally active males completed two trials of 10 sets of 10 single leg knee extensions at ~80% one repetition maximum...
Article
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Purpose: Acute acetaminophen (ACT) ingestion has been shown to enhance cycling time-trial performance. The purpose of this study was to assess whether ACT ingestion enhances muscle activation and critical power (CP) during maximal cycling exercise. Methods: Sixteen active male participants completed two 3-min all-out tests against a fixed resist...
Article
Purpose: Recent research suggests that acute consumption of pharmacological analgesics can improve exercise performance, but the ergogenic potential of ibuprofen (IBP) administration is poorly understood. This study tested the hypothesis that IBP administration would enhance maximal exercise performance. Methods: In one study, 13 physically acti...
Article
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Purpose: Repeated cycles of endothelial ischemia-reperfusion injury and the resulting respiratory burst contribute to the irreversible pathophysiology of vascular diseases, and yet, the effects of ischemia reperfusion on vascular function, oxidative stress, and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability have not been assessed simultaneously. Therefore, thi...
Article
Background: Oxidative stress and inflammation may contribute to anabolic resistance in response to protein and exercise in older adults. We investigated whether consumption of montmorency cherry concentrate (MCC) increased anabolic sensitivity to protein ingestion and resistance exercise in healthy older men. Methods: Sixteen healthy older men w...
Article
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Aim: Acetaminophen is a commonly used medicine for pain relief and emerging evidence suggests that it may improve endurance exercise performance. This study investigated some of the physiological mechanisms by which acute acetaminophen ingestion might blunt muscle fatigue development. Methods: Thirteen active males completed 60 × 3 s maximum vol...
Article
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Background Caffeine has been shown to enhance exercise performance and capacity. The mechanisms remain unclear but are suggested to relate to adenosine receptor antagonism, resulting in increased central motor drive, reduced perception of effort, and altered peripheral processes such as enhanced calcium handling and extracellular potassium regulati...
Research
Aim Acetaminophen is a commonly used medicine for pain relief and emerging evidence suggests that it may improve endurance exercise performance. This study investigated some of the physiological mechanisms by which acute acetaminophen ingestion might blunt muscle fatigue development. Methods Thirteen active males completed 60 × 3 s maximum voluntar...
Article
The anabolic potential of a dietary protein is determined by its ability to elicit postprandial rises in circulating essential amino acids and insulin. Minimal data exist regarding the bioavailability and insulinotropic effects of non-animal-derived protein sources. Mycoprotein is a sustainable and rich source of non-animal-derived dietary protein....
Article
Blueberries are rich in flavonoids, which possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. High flavonoid intakes attenuate age-related cognitive decline, but data from human intervention studies are sparse. We investigated whether 12 weeks of blueberry concentrate supplementation improved brain perfusion, task-related activation and cognitive...
Article
Lactate or gas exchange threshold (GET) and critical power (CP) are closely associated with human exercise performance. We tested the hypothesis that the limit of tolerance (Tlim) during cycle exercise performed within the exercise intensity domains demarcated by GET and CP is linked to discrete muscle metabolic and neuromuscular responses. Eleven...
Article
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We aimed to study whether short-duration vibration exercise or football sessions of two different durations acutely changed plasma markers of bone turnover and muscle strain. Inactive premenopausal women ( n=56 ) were randomized to complete a single bout of short (FG15) or long duration (FG60) small sided football or low magnitude whole body vibrat...
Article
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Purpose The present study investigated the effects of 16 weeks of small-volume, small-sided soccer training (soccer group (SG) n = 13) and oscillating whole-body vibration training (vibration group (VG) n = 17) on body composition, aerobic fitness and muscle PCr kinetics in healthy inactive premenopausal women in comparison with an inactive control...
Article
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Increased muscle activation during whole-body vibration (WBV) is mainly ascribed to a complex spinal and supraspinal neurophysiological mechanism termed the tonic vibration reflex (TVR). However, TVR has not been experimentally demonstrated during low-frequency WBV, therefore this investigation aimed to determine the expression of TVR during WBV. W...
Article
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We investigated whether altered peripheral and/or corticospinal excitatory output and voluntary activation are implicated in hypohydration-induced reductions in muscle isometric and isokinetic (90°.s(-1)) strength. Nine male athletes completed two trials (hypohydrated, euhydrated) comprising 90 min cycling at 40°C, with body weight losses replaced...
Article
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Repeated sprint ability (RSA) is a critical success factor for intermittent sport performance. Repeated sprint training has been shown to improve RSA, we hypothesised that hypoxia would augment these training adaptations. Thirty male well-trained academy rugby union and rugby league players (18.4±1.5 years, 1.83±0.07 m, 88.1±8.9 kg) participated in...
Article
Our aim was to determine the effects of different inspired oxygen fractions on repeated sprint performance and cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular responses, to construct a hypoxic dose response. Nine male well-trained multi-sport athletes completed 10×6s all-out running sprints with 30s recovery in 5 conditions with different inspired oxygen fract...
Article
Background Foods with low glycaemic index (LGI) are reported to suppress appetite mainly in overweight population but have not been investigated in athletic adults. Objective The aim of this study was to compare the short-term effects of LGI and high GI (HGI) meals over a day on subsequent subjective appetite sensation, energy intake, energy expend...
Article
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In upper limb muscles, altered corticospinal excitability and reduction in neural drive are observed in parallel with peripheral fatigue during prolonged and/or repeated contractions. However, the fatigue-induced adaptations of central and peripheral elements and their relative contribution to lower limb muscle performance are yet to be fully explo...
Article
Montmorency cherries contain high levels of polyphenolic compounds including flavonoids and anthocyanins possessing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated whether the effects of intensive unilateral leg exercise on oxidative damage and muscle function were attenuated by consumption of a Montmorency cherry juice concentrate using...
Article
COPD patients have reduced muscle glutamate which may contribute to an impaired response of oxidative metabolism to exercise. We hypothesised that prior glutamine supplementation would enhance V(O2) peak, V(O2) at lactate threshold and speed pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics in COPD. 13 patients (9 males, age 66±5 years, mean±SD) with severe COPD (m...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to quantify vibration transmissibility through the lower extremity during exercise on a whole-body vibration (WBV) platform. Six healthy adults completed 20 trials of 30-second static squat exercise at 30 or 40 degrees of knee flexion angle on a WBV platform working at combinations of 5 frequencies (VF: 20, 25,...
Article
This study was conducted to investigate whether the low-frequency (5-Hz) oscillatory vibration-like stimulus, purported to be delivered by exercising with Flexi-bar, acutely affects muscle activation and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force. Nine healthy men participated in 2 trials, separated by at least 1 week, during which 4 x 30-second set...
Article
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The existence of an acetyl group deficit at or above 90% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) has proved controversial, with contradictory results likely relating to limitations in previous research. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the "acetyl group deficit" occurs at the start of exercise at 90%VO(2max) in a well-controlle...
Article
The aim of this study was to differentiate between endurance and power athletes based on electromyographic (EMG) data analysed using new spectral indices. Nine endurance and six strength athletes were recruited to complete sets of knee extension repetitions (15 per set) until exhaustion, with each set followed by a maximal voluntary isometric knee...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine whether low-frequency whole-body vibration (WBV) modulates the excitability of the corticospinal and intracortical pathways related to tibialis anterior (TA) muscle activity, thus contributing to the observed changes in neuromuscular function during and after WBV exercise. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicit...
Article
Glutamine enhances the exercise-induced expansion of the tricarboxylic acid intermediate pool. The aim of the present study was to determine whether oral glutamine, alone or in combination with hyperoxia, influenced oxidative metabolism and cycle time-trial performance. Eight participants consumed either placebo or 0.125 g kg body mass(-1) of gluta...
Article
A sharp intake of breath followed by a strong vocalisation is widely observed in response to acute pain although its function and mechanism is poorly understood. This study investigated the effect of percutaneous (overlying the tibial bone) electrical stimulation delivered early (20-30% of inspiratory time) during inspiration (INSP) or expiration (...
Article
To investigate whether 10 breaths against a vibration stimulus elicits increments of spontaneous and maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (maxMP) and tidal mean inspiratory flow (iV(T)/T(I)) upon stimulus removal. Twelve healthy subjects (8 female, 4 male; 22-50 years old), recruited from the University student body, completed 3 maximal inspirations...
Article
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The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the major final common pathway for oxidation of carbohydrates, lipids and some amino acids, which produces reducing equivalents in the form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide that result in production of large amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via oxidative phosphorylatio...
Article
Full-text available
The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the major final common pathway for oxidation of carbohydrates, lipids and some amino acids, which produces reducing equivalents in the form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide that result in production of large amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via oxidative phosphorylatio...
Article
The aim of the present study was to determine whether glutamine ingestion, which has been shown to enhance the exercise-induced increase in the tricarboxylic acid intermediate (TCAi) pool size, resulted in augmentation of the rate of increase in oxidative metabolism at the onset of exercise. In addition, the potential interaction with oxygen availa...
Article
The aim of the present study was to test the applicability and sensitivity of new electromyography (EMG) spectral indices in assessing peripheral muscle fatigue during dynamic knee-extension exercise. Seven subjects completed 10 sets of 15 repetitions of right knee-extension exercise lifting 50% of their one-repetition maximum. Torque (T), knee-joi...
Article
This study was conducted to test whether a low-frequency vibration-like stimulus (rapid variable resistance) applied during a single session of knee extension exercise would alter muscle performance. Torque, knee joint angle, EMG activity of rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles, and VL muscle oxygenation status (near-infrared spect...
Article
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There is an up to four-fold increase in the concentration of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates at the start of exercise. The rate of TCA cycle flux and, hence, oxidative metabolism may be limited by the concentration of the intermediates in the cycle. The dramatic decline in intramuscular glutamate at the start of exercise, in tandem...
Article
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After exhaustive exercise, intravenous or oral glutamine promoted skeletal muscle glycogen storage. However, when glutamine was ingested with glucose polymer, whole-body carbohydrate storage was elevated, the most likely site being liver and not muscle, possibly due to increased glucosamine formation. The rate of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux...
Article
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The aims of the present study were twofold: first to investigate whether TCA cycle intermediate (TCAI) pool expansion at the onset of moderate-intensity exercise in human skeletal muscle could be enhanced independently of pyruvate availability by ingestion of glutamine or ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate, and second, if it was, whether this modificati...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of glucose supplementation on leucine turnover during and after exercise and whether variation in the previous dietary protein content modulated this effect. Postabsorptive subjects received a primed constant [1-13C, 15N]leucine infusion for 6 h, after previous consumption of a high (1.8 g kg-1 day-...
Article
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Seven untrained male subjects participated in a double-blind, crossover study conducted to determine the efficacy of different carbohydrate drinks in promoting carbohydrate storage in the whole body and skeletal muscle during recovery from exhaustive exercise. The postabsorptive subjects first completed an exercise protocol designed to deplete musc...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of glutamine in promoting whole body carbohydrate storage and muscle glycogen resynthesis during recovery from exhaustive exercise. Postabsorptive subjects completed a glycogen-depleting exercise protocol, then consumed 330 ml of one of three drinks, 18.5% (wt/vol) glucose polymer solution, 8...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate dietary protein-induced changes in whole body leucine turnover and oxidation and in skeletal muscle branched chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase (BCOADH) activity, at rest and during exercise. Postabsorptive subjects received a primed constant infusion of L-[1-13C,15N]leucine for 6 h, after previous consumption o...
Article
In an attempt to measure gastric emptying of carbohydrate solutions after exercise, we used the 13C acetate breath test to differentiate the gastric emptying of three approximately isoenergetic carbohydrate solutions (i.e. glucose, glucose polymer and sucrose) from each other and from water. On four separate occasions, six post-absorptive subjects...