Joanna E Bettmann Schaefer

Joanna E Bettmann Schaefer
University of Utah | UOU · College of Social Work

MSW, Ph.D

About

41
Publications
37,531
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819
Citations

Publications

Publications (41)
Article
Objectives: Duration, frequency, and intensity of nature exposure link to different physical and psychological benefits. The present study aimed to determine how time outdoors affected military veterans' posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology during PTSD treatment. Method: Hypotheses regarding time outdoors and the effect of program d...
Article
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Wilderness therapy is becoming a more widely used intervention for adolescents, but there have not been any meta-analyses focused solely on its clinical effectiveness for private pay clients. This study’s objective was to conduct outcome-based meta-analyses of private-pay wilderness therapy programs, benchmark primary features of this approach, and...
Article
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Purpose Due to the ethical concern around involuntary treatment, this study sought to investigate if youth participants in wilderness therapy who were transported to the program experienced different rates of change than those not transported. Methods Multilevel modeling techniques were used to investigate rates of change for youth between transpo...
Article
More than three quarters of all children orphaned by AIDS live in sub-Saharan Africa. Significant portions of these children live in institutions. This study explores institutional caregivers' views of children's psycho-social needs. The authors gathered qualitative data from 92 staff at eight orphanages in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Results sugg...
Article
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Background Considering the sensitive ethical issues related to involuntary treatment of adolescents, research investigating youth transport practices and treatment outcomes is clearly needed. Youth transport is common practice in many private pay programs, including wilderness therapy programs. Objective This study of 350 adolescents in wilderness...
Article
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Adopted children are disproportionately represented in residential treatment programs in the United States. Adopted children in the United States constitute only 2% to 3% of the U.S population. Nevertheless, they comprise approximately 16.5% of the population in residential care. This descriptive study evaluated a sample of 473 psychological evalua...
Article
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This study explored a social partnership between Ghanaian and US universities. Through qualitative narratives, participants reported the partnership developed professional and social relationships, but cited problems in preparedness. Findings point to the importance of faculty perceptions in developing academic partnerships and the need for strong...
Article
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This article explored differences by gender in client mental health history, presenting issues, and current functioning among adolescents in wilderness therapy. The study used a random sample of 401 youth in wilderness therapy programs, utilizing data from archival psychological evaluations conducted during wilderness treatment. Results showed that...
Article
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This study investigated the concurrent validity of a children’s narrative assessment tool, the Plenk Story-Telling Test (PST). The PST attempts to measure aspects of young children’s internal working models by eliciting narratives from nine pictures. The PST, child behavior checklist, and the parenting stress index were administered to a clinical s...
Article
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This state of knowledge article provides an overview of Adventure Therapy (AT) as it is practiced with adolescents in North America, presenting (a) current findings in AT research with adolescents, (b) critical issues in AT, (c) the need for training and professional development in AT, and (d) professionalization in AT. Implications of current find...
Chapter
The implications of John Bowlby’s attachment theory resound through the mental health community. While we know now that much of what Bowlby posited was true, we are still discovering the value of such findings for our clinical work with children and adolescents. Our book Attachment-Based Clinical Work with Children and Adolescents explores how atta...
Chapter
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Out-of-home treatments for adolescents present a distinct challenge for attachment-based clinical work. How can treatment enhance the attachment bonds between family members when the treatment is residential, by definition keeping the adolescent and his parent apart? Further, in wilderness therapy programs, adolescents are far from their familiar f...
Article
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Previous research has demonstrated that wilderness therapy is effective, yet very few studies have attempted to discern quantitative factors responsible for change that occur during wilderness therapy. This study aimed to tease apart specific factors that impact client progress and outcome. A sample of 189 adolescent clients in a wilderness therapy...
Article
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Despite being the largest African group to resettle in the United States, there is a dearth of literature examining the influence of religion on health behaviors and beliefs among Somali refugees. Using purposive sampling methods, we examined how religious beliefs informed health behaviors among twenty Somali refugees. Using inductive analysis and...
Article
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Adding to the growing body of literature on outcomes for children living in orphanages and children's homes, this qualitative study explored the perceptions of institutional personnel – caregivers, staff members, supervisors, and administrators – about organizational factors affecting their ability to care for orphaned and vulnerable children livin...
Article
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Characterized by acute changes in attachment relationships, adolescence is a time of balancing autonomy and attachment needs. For adolescents in wilderness therapy programs, the setting often challenges their understanding of their own attachment relationships. The current study evaluates the narratives of 13 adolescents in a wilderness therapy pro...
Article
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Although residential and wilderness treatment programs are growing in popularity, little is known about the adolescents placed within them. This study analyzed a random sample of 473 psychological evaluations of adolescents in residential and wilderness treatment centers for participants' cognitive functioning, aggression, family history of mental...
Article
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This study examined shifts in adolescents’ attachment relationships with parents and peers during a 7-week wilderness therapy program. Ninety-six adolescents, aged 14–17, completed three quantitative measurements evaluating attachment relationships with mother, father and peers pre and post treatment. Adolescents reported improved attachment relati...
Conference Paper
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Nearly 13% of the U.S. population is comprised of foreign-born individuals, with Somalis constituting one of the largest resettled groups. Research suggests that, among Somali refugees, rates of mental illness are high. Yet research shows Somalis underutilize mental health services. Understanding their perceptions of mental illness and its cures ma...
Article
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In recent years psychoanalytically oriented researchers have invested in outcome studies to provide empirical evidence for the effectiveness of their treatments. This has led to a considerable (and still growing) body of research about the effectiveness of long-term ambulatory psychoanalytic treatment (Leichsenring and Rabung 2008; Shedler 2010). T...
Chapter
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Attachment theory and research have created exciting new ways for clinical social workers to bridge understanding of human development and clinical work, particularly in the area of early relational experiences that influence personality development and disrupt healthy psychological development (Bowlby, 1947). Early social work interest in attachme...
Article
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The implications of John Bowlby’s attachment theory resound through the mental health community. While we know now that much of what Bowlby posited was true, we are still discovering the value of such findings for our clinical work with children and adolescents. Our special issue in Clinical Social Work Journal explores how attachment theory is bei...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the relationship between attachment classification, resiliency, and compassion fatigue in New York social workers following 9/11. We used single occasion, quasi-random sampling, surveying 481 social workers living in Manhattan. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that secure attachment is predictive of the ability to cope...
Article
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Operationalizing treatment efficacy has become essential in the field of psychotherapy. Managed health care now requires psychotherapy to produce measurable outcomes and define success concretely. This requirement has resulted in research attempting to identify empirically supported and evidence-based treatments. This article presents a review of a...
Article
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This study evaluated the impact of a distance education program to meet the practice learning needs of first‐year doctoral students. The program, a six‐session case‐based telephonic seminar, was taught to 19 first‐year doctoral students. Evaluation of the program included self‐report quantitative and qualitative data gathered pre‐ and postseminar,...
Article
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Treatment data from a university counseling center (UCC) that utilized the Outcome Questionnaire-45.2 (OQ-45; M. J. Lambert et al., 2004), a self-report general clinical symptom measure, was compared against treatment efficacy benchmarks from clinical trials of adult major depression that utilized similar measures. Statistical analyses suggested th...
Article
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Attachment theory illuminates aspects of adolescent development and points to critical treatment directions for adolescents. Recent neurobiological research illustrates the importance of integrating physiological understanding into clinical work. The application of attachment theory and neurobiology to treatment is illustrated best through the case...
Article
Attachment and dynamic practice is a clear and well-con- ceived argument for the inclusion of attachment theory into psychodynamic practice. The text is organized into seven chapters, the first three of which lay out critical elements of both psychodynamic and attachment theories. The fourth chapter presents a summary of attachment research rele- v...
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Using therapeutic and educational activities, wilderness therapy programs provide therapeutic care within remote outdoor settings. This treatment modality has become increasingly common for adolescents facing behavioral issues, yet different programs use different theories to conceptualize treatment and intervention. The authors present John Bowlby...
Article
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The use of narrative assessments in mental health research with young children has increased significantly over the last 15years. This article reviews 13 empirically validated narrative assessments for preschool populations. The reviewed instruments assess children’s attachment relationships, moral values, separation anxiety, pro-social behavior, o...
Article
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Research shows how an understanding of adult attachment applies to clinical treatment, such as outpatient therapy, but no literature explores the application of adult attachment to wilderness therapy, a distinct type of residential treatment. This paper explores how an understanding of adult attachment applies to wilderness therapy clients, as the...
Article
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This personal narrative recounts the experiences of one psychodynamic practitioner as she grew over the course of her social work career. It follows the development of her therapeutic awareness as she first worked with adolescents in a wilderness therapy program, and later with low-income clients in several large urban areas. While discussing the r...
Article
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John Bowlby developed attachment theory to explain connections between infant and caregiver behavior and how these impacted children’s behavior. Extended and researched heavily in a variety of contexts, attachment theory has advanced clinical thinking over time. Its core ideas regarding infant and caregiver connections are very useful to mental hea...
Article
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This article demonstrates the effectiveness of using traditional family therapy techniques to enhance wilderness therapy, also known as outdoor behavioral healthcare. This article presents the practice of utilizing the narrative family therapy technique of reflecting teams in combination with the experiential family therapy technique of family scul...

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