Joann Mcdermid

Joann Mcdermid

Doctor of Philosophy

About

44
Publications
4,406
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741
Citations
Citations since 2016
15 Research Items
501 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100

Publications

Publications (44)
Article
Understanding mature breastmilk immunology may benefit infants chronically exposed to infectious pathogens in resource-limited regions. This prospective rural/semi-rural Tanzanian cohort of women (n = 102 at delivery; 38% HIV-positive) and their infants (n = 102) investigated breastmilk, maternal and infant serum immunoglobulins (IgA/IgG1-4/IgM) an...
Article
Early identification of individuals at risk for progressing to active tuberculosis (TB) disease may limit new transmission and improve clinical outcomes. Evidence indicates altered iron homeostasis may identify those at greater risk of disease progression in HIV co-infection. We aimed to investigate iron homeostasis biomarkers as risk factors for p...
Article
Background: Anemia is common in tuberculosis, and multiple etiologies necessitate targeted interventions. The proportion of iron-responsive anemia due to iron deficiency compared with iron-unresponsive anemia due to impaired iron absorption/redistribution from tuberculosis-associated immune activation or inflammation is unknown. This impedes selec...
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Background Cryptosporidium epidemiology is poorly understood, but infection is suspected of contributing to childhood malnutrition and diarrhea-related mortality worldwide. Methods/Findings A prospective cohort of 108 women and their infants in rural/semi-rural Tanzania were followed from delivery through six months. Cryptosporidium infection wa...
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Background Healthcare access and resources differ considerably between urban and rural settings making cross-setting generalizations difficult. In resource-restricted rural/semi-rural environments, identification of feasible screening tools is a priority. The objective of this study was to evaluate gestational anthropometry in relation to birth and...
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Background: In population-based growth surveys in sub-Saharan Africa, boys have higher rates of growth failure than girls. Objective: Our goal was to assess for the presence, timing and potential etiology of sex-based differences in length-for-age z-score (LAZ), weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) and head-circumference-for-age z-score (HCZ) in a birth...
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Background Stunting among children in low-resource settings is associated with enteric pathogen carriage and micronutrient deficiencies. Our goal was to test whether administration of scheduled antimicrobials and daily nicotinamide improved linear growth in a region with a high prevalence of stunting and enteric pathogen carriage. Methods and find...
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Recurrent enteric infections and micronutrient deficiencies, including deficiencies in the tryptophan-kynurenine-niacin pathway, have been associated with environmental enteric dysfunction, potentially contributing to poor child growth and development. We are conducting a randomized, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial interventional trial in a rur...
Article
Malnutrition during the critical period of pregnancy has significant health outcomes for both the mother and her offspring. Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) by a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) may help mitigate negative health effects, although studies that support the role of the RDN have not been comprehensively evaluated. The objective w...
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Background Immune activation and inflammation are common symptoms throughout HIV infection and lead to elevated circulating concentrations of cachectic cytokines. Aims To evaluate cachexia-like symptoms among HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women, and investigate whether cachexic mechanisms may contribute to impaired HIV-exposed fetal and i...
Article
Background: Given the high rates of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women and possible effects on offspring health, a systematic review on this topic was conducted to help inform future practice guidelines. Objective: To evaluate associations between maternal vitamin D supplementation, maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations, a...
Article
Background: While obesity presents specific acute and long-term risks to the pregnant woman and her offspring, the effects of bariatric surgery on pregnancy outcomes are undetermined. Objective: A systematic review was performed according to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Library process to determine the effects of bari...
Article
Cultural competency is a required standard for American medical students, but it can be challenging to effectively engage students with this topic. Because nutrition and culture are inherently intertwined in patient care, classroom role-play with nutrition-focused case scenarios enables students to practice strategies for navigating cultural barrie...
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Introduction In many developing areas in the world, a high burden of enteric pathogens in early childhood are associated with growth deficits. The tryptophan-kynurenine-niacin pathway has been linked to enteric inflammatory responses to intestinal infections. However, it is not known in these settings whether scheduled antimicrobial intervention to...
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Initiating breastfeeding within the first hour of life confers an important benefit in terms of child mortality and severe morbidity. Intestinal permeability to ingested macromolecules and immunoglobulins is limited to the first days of human life. These exchanges cease in the very early post-partum period but may increase beyond the neonatal perio...
Chapter
While major success has been achieved in tuberculosis prevention and control in recent years, the disease continues to affect many millions worldwide. Overall, this chapter summarizes the fundamental principles and concepts related to tuberculosis, and outlines key barriers that must be overcome to further reduce the global burden. The chapter open...
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Objectives: HIV infection is associated with chronic systemic inflammation, with or without antiretroviral therapy. Consequences for fetal growth are not understood, particularly in settings where multiple maternal infections and malnutrition are common. The study was designed to examine maternal systemic circulating and umbilical cord blood cytok...
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Early and chronic inflammation is a hallmark of HIV infection, and inflammation is known to increase hepcidin expression. Consequently, hepcidin may be a key determinant of the iron homeostasis and anemia associated with poorer HIV prognoses. The objective of this study was to understand how hepcidin is related to anemia, iron homeostasis, and infl...
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Full-text available
Hepcidin inhibits ferroportin-mediated iron efflux, leading to intracellular macrophage iron retention, possibly favoring Mycobacterium tuberculosis iron acquisition and tuberculosis (TB) pathogenesis. Plasma hepcidin was measured at human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis in a retrospective HIV-prevalent, antiretroviral-naïve African cohort t...
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Background Identifying people at higher risk of developing tuberculosis with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may improve clinical management of co-infections. Iron influences tuberculosis (TB) pathogenesis, but understanding the exact mechanisms of how and timing of when iron is involved remains challenging since biological samples are...
Article
To the Editor: Esbjörnsson and colleagues (July 19 issue)(1) conclude that infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) attenuates the course of HIV-1 infection. Their report raises three issues. First, in Guinea-Bissau, up to 30% of persons infected with both HIV-1 and HIV-2 have coinfection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type...
Article
SETTING: Data on pediatric tuberculosis (TB) from TB-endemic, resource-constrained regions are limited, impacting awareness of disease burden and influencing diagnostic actions. OBJECTIVE: To obtain recorded incidence of childhood (age <5 years) TB in Mwanza Municipality, Tanzania, to estimate true incidence and to explore setting-specific reasons...
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Iron-related genes and iron status may independently contribute to variable HIV outcomes. The nature of the biologically plausible gene-nutrient interaction remains unknown. The objectives were to investigate whether iron-related genotypes and clinically abnormal iron status independently predict mortality in HIV and whether a gene-nutrient interac...
Article
To comprehensively assess iron status and determine whether elevated iron status, like anemia, predicts mortality. We followed 1362 Gambian adults (53% female) in an HIV-seroprevalent clinic-based cohort over 11.5 years to ascertain all-cause mortality. Baseline iron status (iron, soluble transferrin receptor [sTfR], transferrin, ferritin, transfer...
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There are many lines of evidence illustrating that iron plays a pivotal role in modulating the battle for survival between mammalian hosts and their pathogens. Each displays considerable genetic investment in a wide range of mechanisms for acquiring and maintaining iron. These competitive mechanisms are highly complex, existing within an interactin...
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It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) and Dietitians of Canada (DC) that efforts to optimize nutritional status, including medical nutrition therapy, assurance of food and nutrition security, and nutrition education are essential components throughout the continuum of care available to people with human immunodeficiency viru...
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Young children in rural Gambia face constant exposure to gastrointestinal and respiratory infections and, during the rainy season (July–November), suffer recurrent bouts of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Within living memory, these conditions led to more than half of the children dying before their fifth birthday, providing a graphic demonstration...
Article
Caucasians carry TNFA-308*2 in the 8.1 ancestral haplotype (AH) (HLA-A1,B8,DR3). In Gambians, TNFA-308*2 occurs without HLA-B8 or -DR3, suggesting an independent effect of TNFA-308 on disease. Hence we sought a segment of the 8.1 AH in Gambians. BAT1 (intron 10)*2 was selected as a specific marker of the haplotype and was found with TNFA-308*2 in G...
Article
To describe the relationship between dietary antioxidant intake and oxidative stress in clinically stable HIV-positive and HIV-negative adults. A cross-sectional study. Average total daily dietary intakes of vitamin C, beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, selenium, and zinc from foods and nutritional supplements were estimated in noninstitutionalized i...

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