Joan Girona

Joan Girona
IRTA Institute of Agrifood Research and Technology | IRTA · Efficient Use of Water Programme

Agricultural Engineer, PhD.

About

148
Publications
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Publications

Publications (148)
Article
This paper explains the role of water in the general behaviour of plants and more specifically its importance in agriculture, with the aim to let the reader who is not specialized in physiological aspects understand the function of water in the production of food and goods. To do this, the most significant concepts regulating the behaviour of water...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
RESUMEN El trabajo informa sobre la eficiencia de los regadíos en España, el país con más superficie regable en la Unión Europea, mayor volumen de agua servida a la agricultura y mayor superficie de riego localizado del mundo. Se justifica la necesidad de establecer indicadores para la medida de la eficiencia en el uso del agua y la planificación h...
Article
Full-text available
Among the diverse techniques for monitoring soil moisture, capacitance-type soil moisture sensors are popular because of their low cost, low maintenance requirements, and acceptable performance. However, although in laboratory conditions the accuracy of these sensors is good, when installed in the field they tend to show large sensor-to-sensor diff...
Article
Full-text available
Although surface drip irrigation allows an efficient use of water in agriculture, the heterogeneous distribution of soil water complicates its optimal usage. Mathematical models can be used to simulate the dynamics of water in the soil below a dripper and promote: a better understanding, and optimization, of the design of drip irrigation systems, t...
Article
Time and environmental conditions, such as temperature and photoperiod, are the main drivers governing grapevine development over the growing season. The most obvious growth periods in grapevines are budbreak, bloom, veraison and berry maturity. The aims of this study were to evaluate the environmental and physiological factors influencing the phen...
Article
Young non-bearing olive trees were grown in drainage lysimeters and their water consumption was measured over two consecutive yearly-experimental periods to analyze the effect ofseasonal variations on the basal crop coefficient (Kcb). Micro-lysimeter measurements were used to quantify soil evaporation (Es) and Es was subtracted from evapotranspirat...
Article
Full-text available
Automated software tools are required to undertake the routine tasks and decision-making involved in scheduling irrigation. A key issue in this topic is how to integrate sensors in the scheduling approach. The objectives of this research were to test, in the context of drip-irrigated orchards: (a) the suitability of FAO's water balance method, loca...
Article
Under water shortage growers may need to adjust horticultural practices to optimize yield and fruit quality. This study explores the reduction of crop load as a technique to mitigate water stress considering marketable yield and consumer acceptance as the most relevant traits. Commercial irrigation (CI)and deficit irrigation (DI)for a long period b...
Article
Full-text available
Future increases in temperatures are expected to advance grapevine phenology and shift ripening to warmer months, leaving a longer post-harvest period with warmer temperatures. Accumulation of carbohydrates occurs during post-harvest, and has an influence on vegetative growth and yield in the following growing season. This study addressed the possi...
Article
Water stress responses during the post-harvest period were evaluated in a Chardonnay container-grown grapevines grafted onto 1103 Paulsen rootstock. The irrigation treatments were: a control treatment (C) (irri-gated to match ET C demands) and a water stress treatment (WS) (irrigated when midday stem water potential reached a-1.1 MPa threshold). Ph...
Poster
Full-text available
En los últimos años, estudios realizados en distintas zonas vitivinícolas han demostrado que el cambio climático está teniendo un efecto sobre la fenología de la viña. El progresivo calentamiento global, y la previsión de una menor frecuencia de lluvias, especialmente en la zona mediterránea, ponen en relieve la necesidad de adoptar estrategias de...
Conference Paper
Simposio Internacional de Relaciones Hídricas en Plantas 238 POSTER 9 Evaluación de la producción, calidad y ahorro de agua al adoptar estrategias de riego deficitario en viña (cv Chardonnay) durante el periodo de post-vendimia. ABSTRACT En los últimos años, estudios realizados en distintas zonas vitivinícolas han demostrado que el cambio climático...
Article
Predicting phenological stages through modelling has significant applications for planning viticultural practices as well as for predicting climate change impacts on phenology. The Chill Overlap Model is based on an exponential declining curve to integrate the demonstrated compensatory relationship between chill and heat accumulation, and it incorp...
Conference Paper
Debido a la creciente preocupación por los posibles efectos del cambio climático sobre los cultivos, existe una gran actividad científica orientada en desarrollar sistemas que permitan disponer de predicciones de los posibles impactos del cambio climático sobre la fenología y la puesta a punto de estrategias que ayuden a paliar sus posibles efectos...
Poster
Full-text available
Debido a la creciente preocupación por los posibles efectos del cambio climático sobre los cultivos, existe una gran actividad científica orientada en desarrollar sistemas que permitan disponer de predicciones de los posibles impactos del cambio climático sobre la fenología y la puesta a punto de estrategias que ayuden a paliar sus posibles efectos...
Article
This study addressed the possibility of increasing consumer acceptance of nectarine fruit by reducing irrigation for a short period during the late phase of fruit growth. Deficit irrigation (DI) was applied for 15 days before harvest in 2011 and for nine days in 2012 to the early-maturing ‘Gardeta’ nectarine. Fruit diameter, pulp dry matter concent...
Article
Full-text available
The level of irrigation restriction to apply in a deficit irrigation (DI) programme for sustainable peach (‘Baby gold 6’) production was investigated. The experiment involved four irrigation treatments over five consecutive seasons (2007–2011). They were full irrigation (control), reducing irrigation by 20 % during the first half of stage III (DI-8...
Article
Full-text available
In the current scenario of worldwide limited water supplies, conserving water is a major concern in agricultural areas. Characterizing within-orchard spatial heterogeneity in water requirements would assist in improving irrigation water use efficiency and conserve water. The crop water stress index (CWSI) has been successfully used as a crop water...
Article
A field experiment was carried out over three consecutive seasons on Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay destined for sparkling base wine Cava. Four different irrigation treatments were applied: (i) control (C), fully irrigated, in which irrigation was scheduled according to a water balance approach; (ii) RDIm, irrigated during stage II (from berry set t...
Article
Background and AimsMapping the spatial variability of vine water status within a vineyard is necessary for the efficient management of irrigation water. The objective of this study was to determine whether estimates of remotely sensed leaf water potential (Ψrem) could be employed as a precise tool for scheduling irrigation at the irrigation sector...
Article
The application of simple empirical equations for estimating reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is the only alternative in many cases to robust approaches with high input requirements, especially at the local scale. In particular, temperature-based approaches present a high potential applicability, among others, because temperature might explain a...
Article
Sound application of efficient use of water involves accurate prediction of crop coefficients (Kc). In this research, we used CropSyst, a computer simulation model that can simulate the effect of the energy absorbed by the canopy and plant hydraulic conductance, to estimate irrigation requirements. Predictions with CropSyst were compared to best ir...
Article
Daily leaf photosynthesis was reported to be linearly related with daily leaf PAR (photosynthetic active radiation) interception, in peach trees. This relationship was considered as a fundamental step for modeling whole peach canopy photosynthesis. However, data reporting linear relationships was obtained under non-water-stressed trees. Although co...
Article
Full-text available
The seasonal characterization of spatial variability in water requirements across and within vineyards could assist the viticulturist to fine-tune irrigation management for quality optimization. Remotely sensed crop water stress index (CWSI) is related to crop water status, but it is not known how applicable it is to different grape varieties at di...
Article
Water restrictions are increasing in important fruit producing areas with Mediterranean climate. This study reviews yield responses of deciduous fruit trees to drought. Drought can impair yield in the current season or during the following years. Yield reductions in the current season are related to a reduction in fruit size. Drought can reduce yie...
Article
Full-text available
Characterizing the spatial variability in water status across vineyards is a prerequisite for precision irrigation. The crop water stress index (CWSI) indicator was used to map the spatial variability in water deficits across an 11-ha ‘Pinot noir’ vineyard. CWSI was determined based on canopy temperatures measured with infrared temperature sensors...
Conference Paper
Remotely sensed crop water stress index (CWSI) can be used to depict fruit tree water status. The aim of this study was: i) to develop an empirical approach for assessing the CWSI of peach trees throughout a growing season and validate it with ground-based leaf water potential (Ψleaf) measurements, and ii) to detect the spatial variability of fruit...
Article
Accurate prediction of a crop coefficient (Kc) is necessary for proper irrigation management. We explored the use of a computer-based model, CropSyst, for determining irrigation requirements of 'Conference' pear trees and we assessed the accuracy of Kc predictions. Values of Kc were compared to those obtained, over 2002-2010, from lysimeter-grown t...
Article
Automated scheduling of irrigation is required to give farmers the opportunity of applying efficient irrigation with little dependence on labour, skills and perseverance. Integration of sensor data in irrigation scheduling is desired to facilitate supervision and to provide some indication of irrigation fitness. We recently proposed an algorithm fo...
Conference Paper
Knowledge on crop water status at the orchard scale is necessary for the efficient management of irrigation water. Canopy temperature has long been recognized as a plant water status indicator, and crop water stress index (CWSI), which is obtained from canopy temperature could be used as a tool for remotely detecting plant water status from airborn...
Article
The effect of deficit irrigation (DI) on fruit quality has almost entirely focussed on instrumental evaluation. We were interested in assessing sensory quality and consumer acceptance of the DI fruit. DI was applied to two peach ('Ryans's Sun' and 'Tardibelle') and two nectarine ('R-28' and 'Nectalady') cultivars. Consumer acceptance data were comp...
Article
It is commonly assumed that the fraction of canopy intercepted radiation (fIR) should be well correlated with irrigation crop coefficients (Kc) throughout the season. However, in fruit trees there is some evidence that such a correlation is different between pre-harvest and postharvest periods. Over two different years, basal Kc (Kcb) data from thr...
Article
Postprint available at: http://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:345378 The estimation of whole canopy carbon assimilation rate using the relationship between daily net CO2 assimilation rate (An) and daily incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for individual leaves within the canopy has been considered an alternative to whole canopy ga...
Conference Paper
Crop water stress index (CWSI) has been used as a tool for mapping spatial variability in water requirements of vineyards. During 2009-2011, CWSI seasonal equations were obtainedfor varieties ‘Pinot-noir’, ‘Chardonnay’, ‘Tempranillo’ and ‘Syrah’by using infrared temperature sensors and high resolution airborne thermal imagery. Leaf water potential...
Article
Accurate prediction of crop coefficient (K c) is necessary for proper irrigation management. We explored CropSyst for determining irrigation requirements of apple trees and for accuracy of K c prediction. Values of K c were compared to those obtained, over 2002–2010, from lysimeter-grown trees. Over these years, trees had different ratios of height...
Article
Responses to deficit irrigation (DI) throughout the fruit-growing season were studied in ‘Conference’ pear grafted onto quince M-A rootstock and grown in large containers. The treatments were (1) full irrigation (FI), (2) DI during Stage I of fruit growth (DI-Stage I), and (3) DI during Stage II of fruit growth (DI-Stage II). Four whole trees were...
Chapter
Full-text available
Multispectral and thermal imagery were studied to evaluate the relationship between grapevine water status and "Plant Cell Density" index (PCD) and "Crop Water Stress" index (CWSI). Grapevine water status was determined with a pressure chamber by measuring the leaf water potential (Ψleaf) of 184 grapevines distributed homogeneously within a 11 ha v...
Article
Vine water status, yield and berry composition are variables within a vineyard. There is current interest in defining zones of similar yield and berry composition. The aim of this study was to compare two methods for identifying zones of similar yield within a 7.5-ha ‘Pinot noir’ vineyard. The two methods were based on: spatial distribution of aver...
Article
Hail nets protect orchards from storm damage, but also offer potential water savings for fruit trees grown in arid areas. We investigated the effects of black nets on water use, growth, yield, and fruit quality in peach trees growing in Catalonia, Spain, over 2 years (2006 and 2007). Water savings were quantified by irrigating the netted trees to a...
Article
Irrigation withholding during the final stage of peach fruit growth was studied to understand the effects of irrigation water shortages on fruit quality. Two irrigation treatments were applied in two consecutive seasons (2003-2004) in a commercial 'O'Henry' peach orchard: full irrigation (FI) and no irrigation (NI) during stage III of fruit develop...
Chapter
In many production areas of the world deciduous fruit trees require irrigation to maximize yield and optimize fruit quality. Drought could therefore have a negative impact on fruit production. This chapter addresses yield and fruit quality responses of deciduous fruits (DF) to drought. The chapter has emphasis on the most important deciduous fruit...
Article
This paper presents a real-time, on-farm irrigation scheduling software (RIDECO). The software was been designed for stone fruit orchards in the semiarid conditions of Spain. The characterization of stone fruit crop water requirements for the local conditions and under different irrigation strategies is presented. Meteorological data in the study a...
Article
Adoption of water-saving irrigation strategies is necessary especially for grapevine that has the highest acreage of any fruit crop in the world. We applied deficit irrigation to Chardonnay wine grape at the following phenological stages: anthesis to fruit set, fruit set to veraison, and veraison to harvest. Four irrigation levels (0, 25, 50, and 1...
Article
The effect on productive and vegetative behavior and on the quality of oil from Olea europaea L. when applying two distinct irrigation techniques, full irrigation (FI) and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI), was studied. A total of five wet soil volumes (WSVs, 12, 24, 35, 47 and 59%) expressed in terms of the potential root exploration volume were...
Article
Full-text available
Deficit irrigation (DI) applied during Stage II of fruit development has the potential of improving fruit quality in peach ( Prunus persica ). Existing information only covers instrumental assessment of quality. No report is available on how sensory attributes and consumer acceptance are affected. We applied DI at Stage II to ‘Tardibelle’ peach and...
Article
Judicious irrigation necessitates development of technologies that apply the precise amount of water demanded by crops. The goal is to schedule irrigation according to the particular requirements of each orchard and to the variability encountered during the season caused by weather conditions, canopy development and other factors. For supporting a...
Article
The best time for applying deficit irrigation (DI) to pear is not yet known although it was the first fruit crop to be studied for regulated DI. We explored postharvest application. Over the growing seasons of 2007–2010, three irrigation treatments were applied to ‘Conference’ pear in an experimental orchard. They were full irrigation (control, C),...
Article
Full-text available
The dwindling water supply, on a global scale, is making deficit irrigation (DI) more a necessity than a choice. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the effects of DI on fruit quality. Only instrumental evaluation of quality has been reported in the literature and, to the best of our knowledge, no sensory evaluation has been reported for any DI f...
Article
Full-text available
Sustainable Food Consumption and Production in a Resource-constrained World This article summarises the findings of the Third Foresight Exercise organised by the EU Standing Committee on Agriculture Research (SCAR). The challenges ahead for the European agri-food system differ in their complexity, scale and speed to those we have faced in the past,...
Article
When water shortages are imposed late in the season, peach fruit growers could experience problems with attaining commercial fruit sizes. A water shortage in summer could also have negative effects during the subsequent year. In this study, irrigation was cut-off until leaf wilting during stage III of fruit development. Severe summer pruning and he...
Article
A five years experiment was conducted to determine apple ('Golden Smoothee') and pear ('Conference') water consumption. Daily reference evapotranspiration (ET o) and crop evapotranspiration (ET c) from three apple and three pear trees grown in large weighing lysimeters were monitored. Midday canopy light interception was determined on a weekly basi...
Article
Full-text available
There is little information on the sensitivity of berry composition to early-season water stress and how it compares to the effects of late-season stress. This study aimed to quantify the effects of water stress on berry growth and composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine at three phenological stages: anthesis to fruit set, fruit set to veraison...
Book
Full-text available
In the framework of a wide foresight process, launched by the Standing Committee on Agricultural Research (SCAR) and aiming to identify possible scenarios for European agriculture in a long-term perspective, the European Commission (DG RTD-E4) established a "3rd Foresight Expert Group" that conducted a scanning and monitoring exercise of recent rel...
Article
Fruit thinning in pear is feasible for mitigation of water stress effects. However, it is not well known how fruit quality at harvest and after cold storage is affected by pre-harvest water stress. Even less is known about the effects of fruit thinning on quality under these circumstances. To elucidate these, we applied deficit irrigation (DI) and...
Article
Improved approaches for irrigation scheduling require specific protocols for adaptation to different growing conditions. We assessed crop intercepted radiation as the main factor for decision on irrigation scheduling. Over two growing seasons (2007-2008), apple trees growing in a large weighing lysimeter were used to measure daily canopy transpirat...
Article
In most horticultural crops, irrigation requirements can vary depending on the interaction between meteorological conditions and size and structure of the canopy. Lysimeter studies have shown a strong relationship between transpiration and the amount of radiation intercepted by the canopy (RI), suggesting the opportunity to design irrigation strate...
Chapter
Introduction Definitions Stone Fruits Pome Fruits Conclusions and Future Prospects Acknowledgments Literature Cited
Article
A five-year experiment (2002–2006) was conducted to determine apple (cv ‘Golden Smoothee’) and pear (cv ‘Conference’) crop coefficients (Kc) using two large weighing lysimeters. Daily reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and crop evapotranspiration (ETc) were evaluated. Midday canopy light interception of both crops planted in hedgerows, 4×1.6m, was...
Article
Water for irrigation is in short supply worldwide, therefore reduced irrigation options will have to be explored. We did this for 'Golden Smoothee' apple over the growing seasons of 2003-2005 at the IRTA-Estaciò Experimental de Lleida (41°37' N; 0° 52' E; 260 m a.s.l.), Catalonia, Spain. This region has a temperate climate with winter-dominant r...
Article
Fruit thinning can be used to relieve water stress in peach but it is not known how fruit quality will respond under water limited conditions. To elucidate this, we applied, over the growing seasons of 2003 and 2004, irrigation and fruit thinning treatments to ‘O’Henry’ peach at the onset of Stage III of fruit development. The treatments were full...
Article
A fruit thinning strategy is introduced for 'Conference' pear to mitigate water stress and to maximise yield. Three irrigation and four thinning treatments were applied. The three irrigation treatments were: full irrigation (FI); deficit irrigation, receiving 50% of the water in FI (DI-50); and deficit irrigation receiving 20% of the water in FI (D...
Article
We examined, over the postharvest seasons of 2005–2007, regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) for its potential of saving water and maintaining fruit yield and quality in ‘Summit’ sweet cherry. The postharvest irrigation treatments were: full irrigation (Control), receiving 80% of water in Control (RDI-80%), and receiving 50% of water in Control (RDI-...
Article
Full-text available
ResumenEl manejo del agua en plantaciones frutícolas, o arbóreas, requiere un profundo1 conocimiento de la respuesta del árbol a diferentes situaciones de estrés hídrico, y de comor í '"', ;las posibles técnicas de aplicación de agua de riego y las condiciones del medio(principalmente suelo y agua) donde se encuentra ubicada la plantación, pueden c...
Article
Background and Aims: The effect of water stress on berry quality is not fully understood. This study was designed to analyse the differential phenological sensitivity of Tempranillo berry quality to water stress during three phenological stages. Methods and Results: Two-year-old potted Tempranillo vines were exposed to four levels of irrigation (10...