Jo Salmon

Jo Salmon
Deakin University · Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition

Doctor of Philosophy

About

687
Publications
141,034
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38,291
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Introduction
Promoting child and youth physical activity an reducing sedentary behaviour, particularly in school settings. Focus on translation and implementation of interventions at scale. Currently implementing Transform-Us! https://transformus.com.au/

Publications

Publications (687)
Article
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Background Physical activity (PA) declines during childhood. Important sources of PA are active travel, organised sport and physical education (PE), but it is unclear how these domain-specific PA sources contribute to (changes in) daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in young people. This study aimed to examine (1) the cross-sectional association b...
Article
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Background TransformUs was a four-arm school-based intervention to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour among primary school children. Pedagogical and environmental strategies targeted the classroom, school grounds and family setting. The aims of this study were to evaluate program fidelity, dose, appropriateness, satisfaction...
Article
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Background Managing children’s screen time is challenging for most families. Interventions have had limited success in reducing screen time, potentially due to a lack of understanding of the experiences, needs and recommendations of families. This study aimed to 1) understand the screen time experiences of families, particularly during COVID-19 loc...
Article
Background Adolescence is a critical age where steep declines in physical activity and increases in sedentary time occur. Promoting physical activity should therefore be a priority for short- and long-term health benefits. Wearable activity trackers in combination with supportive resources have the potential to influence adolescents’ physical activ...
Article
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Background A high proportion of adolescents worldwide are not doing enough physical activity for health benefits. Replacing short motorised trips with walking or cycling has the potential to increase physical activity at the population level. This study aimed to estimate the proportion of short distance motorised trips that could be replaced with w...
Article
Background Regular physical activity can help prevent noncommunicable diseases, and improve mental health, quality of life, and well-being. ‘Green exercise’ is physical activity performed in natural settings such as parks and open green spaces. It is important to understand whether green exercise can provide additional physiological benefits over a...
Article
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Background It is unknown if and how children’s movement behaviour accumulation patterns change as a result of physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour interventions. It is important to establish the effectiveness of interventions targeting changes in such accumulation patterns. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the Transform-Us! sch...
Article
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Introduction Prevention of childhood overweight is an important health priority. Evidence synthesis from studies evaluating school-based overweight preventive interventions is hampered by the wealth of different outcomes across studies. Therefore, consensus on a core set of outcomes for school-based overweight prevention studies is needed. This pap...
Preprint
Children’s engagement in screen time is a complex issue. While some forms of screen time have consistently been associated with harm, others have been associated with gains, making it difficult to weigh the risks and benefits of use. In this umbrella review, we systematically collate and synthesise meta-analyses examining the effects of screen use...
Article
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Background Active recreation contributes to child and adolescent physical activity, however, factors affecting uptake are poorly understood at the systems level. The aims of this study were: (1) to use systems analysis methods to understand youth active recreation in Victoria, Australia, (ii) identify potential system leverage points to enhance act...
Article
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Background Existing sedentary behaviour guidelines for children and youth target overall sedentary behaviour and recreational screen time, without any specific recommendations regarding school-related sedentary behaviours (i.e., sedentary behaviours performed during the school day, or within the influence of school). The purpose of this paper is to...
Article
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Background The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the associations between school-related sedentary behaviours and indicators of health and well-being in children and youth (~ 5–18 years) attending school. Methods This review was conducted to inform the development of School-Related Sedentary Behaviour Recommendations. Peer-reviewed,...
Article
Introduction The objective of the present work is to investigate the prospective associations between physical fitness components (cardiorespiratory fitness, motor fitness, and muscular strength) and two domains of executive function, working memory, and inhibitory control, in adolescents. Methods A total of 422 Spanish adolescents (13.35 ± 1.54 y...
Article
Green exercise elicits greater psychological benefits than urban exercise. We assessed the role of expectations, attitudes to green exercise, and trait anxiety on the anxiolytic effect of green exercise. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups to reduce order effects. One group completed a bout of green exercise followed by a bout...
Article
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Background Globally, significant efforts have focused on increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behaviour in youth and adults across a range of settings (e.g., schools, workplaces, community, and home). Despite this, interventions have had varied efficacy and typically have failed to sustain changes in behaviours over time. One explana...
Article
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In Northern Ireland (NI), many children do not meet the recommended levels of physical activity (PA). To reduce the prevalence of physical inactivity and associated health conditions, it is important to understand the influences on children's PA, which in turn has the potential to inform future intervention design. The purpose of this formative stu...
Article
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Introduction Despite being an important period for the development of movement behaviours (physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep), few interventions commencing prior to preschool have been trialled. The primary aim of this trial is to assess the 12-month efficacy of the Let’s Grow mHealth intervention, designed to improve the composition...
Article
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Background Scaling up population health interventions is a context-orientated, dynamic and multi-stakeholder process; understanding its influences is essential to enhance future scaling efforts. Using physical activity and nutrition interventions in Australia as case examples, the aim of this paper is to identify core influences involved in scaling...
Article
Background The Physical Literacy in Children Questionnaire (PL-C Quest) was developed to assess children’s perceived physical literacy. Pictorial items assess 30 elements within four domains (Physical - 12 items, Psychological - 7 items, Social - 4 items and Cognitive - 7 items). The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and construct val...
Article
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ABSTRACT Background Physical literacy (PL) has generated substantial international interest across sport, health and education sectors. Teachers play a crucial role in supporting children’s PL growth. Despite PL featuring in several physical education curricular texts, research into teacher understanding and perception of the concept is scarce. Thi...
Article
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Background Outdoor public recreation spaces are important settings for leisure and physical activity. Adolescents’ use of these spaces may contribute to social connectedness via social interaction with peers and the community in these settings. However, research on this topic is limited. This exploratory study examined associations of frequency of...
Article
This study examined adolescent muscle-strengthening exercise (MSE) participation at home and associated socioecological correlates during Australia's initial COVID-19 lockdown restrictions. Adolescents (N = 731, Mage = 16.3, SD = 1.2 years, 73% female) self-reported their MSE participation in February 2020 (pre-lockdown; at a gym or at home) and Ap...
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Background In 2018, the Australian Government updated the Australian Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for Children and Young People. A requirement of this update was the incorporation of a 24-hour approach to movement, recognising the importance of adequate sleep. The purpose of this paper was to describe how the updated Austral...
Article
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To examine the longitudinal relationships between objectively measured total volume and specific intensities of physical activity (PA) with academic performance in a large sample of youth aged 6‐18 years. A longitudinal study of 1046 youth (10.04 ± 3.10 years) from Spain were followed over 2 years. PA (volume and intensity) was measured by accelero...
Article
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Estimations of time spent sedentary and in various physical activity intensities may vary according to data reduction methods applied. This study compared associations between children’s accelerometer data and adiposity and fitness markers using open source (mean amplitude deviation; MAD) and proprietary (counts) data reduction methods. Complete‐ca...
Article
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Objectives To investigate associations of bedtimes and sleep durations with adiposity levels in children and adolescents. Methods Individual data were pooled for 12 247 children (5819 with follow-up adiposity at 2.3 ± 1.4 years post-baseline) and 3563 adolescents from 11 international studies. Associations between questionnaire-based sleep duratio...
Article
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Very few early childhood interventions have observed sustained effects regarding television viewing and none have examined the mechanisms behind sustained intervention effects at long-term follow-ups. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate potential mechanisms relating to the maintained intervention effect on television viewing at two long-...
Article
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Background: The construct of physical literacy is gaining traction internationally and yet measurement of physical literacy is in its infancy. This paper describes the development of a pictorial child report scale of perceived physical literacy based on the comprehensive Australian Physical Literacy Framework, which includes 30 elements within four...
Article
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This study aimed to understand differences in leisure, educational/work and social screen time behaviours experienced by parents and children due to COVID-19 lockdown restrictions, which may inform behaviour change strategies and policy in the transition to a COVID-normal life. Participants in the “Our Life at Home” study (n = 218 parents from Aust...
Article
Background The overall impact of interventions targeting multiple behaviours remains largely unexplored. Objectives This study adopted an integrative lifestyle pattern analysis approach to assess the overall effectiveness of an early childhood intervention on change across multiple behaviours. Methods The Melbourne INFANT program was a 15-month c...
Article
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Background Interventions targeting reduce screen time in adolescents are urgently needed, mainly in low and middle-income countries because of the lack of evidence. Thus, the aims of the study were to examine the effect of a cluster-randomized controlled trial on screen time (ST) devices among Brazilian adolescents and to identify possible moderato...
Article
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Background Physical literacy (PL) in childhood is essential for a healthy active lifestyle, with teachers playing a critical role in guiding its development. Teachers can assist children to acquire the skills, confidence, and creativity required to perform diverse movements and physical activities. However, to detect and directly intervene on the a...
Article
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Objective To examine the effects of COVID-19 related ‘lockdown restrictions’ on Australian's (5–75 years) physical activity recommendation achievement and active recreation participation. Design Cross-sectional online survey with self and proxy-report items (where the participant was a parent). Methods Adults (n = 1360) and adolescents (n = 1292)...
Article
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Our aim was to assess the association between changes in active travel to school and changes in different intensities of physical activity (i.e. moderate - MPA and vigorous - VPA) and time spent sedentary (SED) among adolescents and assess the moderating effect of children’s sex, age and weight status. Data from six cohort studies in the Internatio...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Outdoor public recreation spaces are important settings for leisure and physical activity. Adolescents’ use of these spaces may be related to their social connectedness; however, research on this topic is limited. This study examined associations of frequency of visitation and physical activity in outdoor public recreation spaces with s...
Article
Full-text available
Background Physical activity guidelines recommend young people engage in regular muscle-strengthening activities (e.g., resistance training [RT]). However, few school-based physical activity interventions have been delivered at-scale or promoted RT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and mainten...
Article
Background Little is known about how activity patterns change throughout childhood. This study examined changes and tracking of total volume and bouts of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (SED) from early to late childhood. Methods Volume and bouts of SED and light-, moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA (LPA, MPA and VPA) were assessed by a...
Article
Introduction This natural experiment examined the impact of the installation of outdoor fitness equipment and one multi-sports court in a park located in Melbourne, Australia on park visitation and park-based physical activity compared to a control park. Barriers and facilitators to use of this equipment among adult park visitors were also explored...
Article
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Introduction Classroom-based active breaks are a feasible and effective way to reduce and break up sitting time, and to potentially benefit physical health in school children. However, the effect of active breaks on children’s cognitive functions and brain activity remains unclear. Objective We investigated the impact of an active break interventi...
Article
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Objectives The use of online imagery by non-local observers to conduct remote, centralized collection of streetscape audit data in international studies has the potential to enhance efficiency of collection and comparability of such data for research on built environments and health. The objectives of the study were to measure (1) the consistency i...
Article
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Background: Understanding the mechanisms (mediators) of behavior change is crucial to designing more effective interventions. However, this is rarely reported. This paper investigates the mechanisms that explain the lack of intervention effect on physical activity and the significant effect on television viewing time from an early childhood trial....
Article
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Importance Cardiorespiratory fitness is an important marker of childhood health and low fitness levels are a risk factor for disease later in life. Levels of children's fitness have declined in recent decades. Whether school-based physical activity interventions can increase fitness at the population level remains unclear. Objective To evaluate th...
Article
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Trajectories of physical activity and sedentary time (SED) may differ between subgroups of youth. The aim of this study was to identify group‐based dual trajectories of physical activity and SED and explore individual, social and environmental correlates of these trajectories. Longitudinal data (three time‐points, baseline 2011‐12) of Spanish youth...
Article
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Background There has been increasing interest in using wearable activity trackers to promote physical activity in youth. This study examined the short- and longer-term effects of a wearable activity tracker combined with digital behaviour change resources on the physical activity of adolescents attending schools in socio-economically disadvantaged...
Article
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Background Sustainable shifts in population behaviours require system-level implementation and embeddedness of large-scale health interventions. This paper aims to understand how different contexts of scaling up interventions affect mechanisms to produce intended and unintended scale up outcomes. Methods A mixed method study combining a realist pe...
Article
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Background Physical activity (PA) decreases and sedentary time (SED) increases across childhood, with both behaviours tracking. However, no studies have examined how accumulation patterns of PA and SED (i.e., prolonged bouts, frequency of breaks in sedentary time) change and track over time. The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinal cha...
Article
Background Classroom‐based active breaks can help typically developing children reduce sitting, increase physical activity and improve cognitive functions and on‐task behaviour. Yet, this strategy has not been tested in children with intellectual disability (ID) – a population who are insufficiently active. This study aimed to investigate the effec...
Article
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This study aimed to investigate the theoretical impact of reallocating a specific amount of sedentary time with an equal amount of (a) total, and (b) ≥1min‐bout‐accumulated time spent in different activity intensities, on inflammatory biomarkers in 8‐9 year old children. Accelerometry and inflammatory biomarker baseline data from the Transform‐Us!...
Article
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Purpose: The study aimed to describe youth time-use compositions, focusing on time spent in shorter and longer bouts of sedentary behavior and physical activity (PA), and to examine associations of these time-use compositions with cardiometabolic biomarkers. Methods: Accelerometer and cardiometabolic biomarker data from 2 Australian studies invo...
Article
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Purpose The Structured Days Hypothesis (SDH) posits that children’s behaviors associated with obesity – such as physical activity – are more favorable on days that contain more ‘structure’ (i.e., a pre-planned, segmented, and adult-supervised environment) such as school weekdays, compared to days with less structure, such as weekend days. The purpo...
Article
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Background: Government responses to managing the COVID-19 pandemic may have impacted the way individuals were able to engage in physical activity. Digital platforms are a promising way to support physical activity levels and may have provided an alternative for people to maintain their activity while at home. Objective: This study aimed to examine...
Article
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A positive perception of motor skills is important for physical activity participation. The aim was to investigate which modifiable factors predict children’s perceived motor skills. Mothers completed questionnaires when their child was 3.5 and 5 years old. At 5 years old, the children’s perceived motor competence (PMC) was assessed. Separate linea...
Article
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Introduction Only international studies can provide the full variability of built environments and accurately estimate effect sizes of relations between contrasting environments and health-related outcomes. The aims of the International Physical Activity and Environment Study of Adolescents (IPEN Adolescent) are to estimate the strength, shape and...
Article
Background: The construct of physical literacy is gaining traction internationally and yet measurement of physical literacy is in its infancy. This paper describes the development of a pictorial child report scale of perceived physical literacy based on the comprehensive Australian Physical Literacy Framework, which includes 30 elements within four...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To assess differences in weight status and movement behaviour guideline compliance among children aged 5-12 years with and without a family history of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Design: Prospective. Setting and participants: Women born between 1973 and 1978 were recruited to the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health...
Article
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The physical activity levels of children in Australia are critically low and correlate with reduced academic achievement and poor health outcomes. Schools provide an ideal setting for physical activity interventions to help children move more. Instead of targeting in-service teachers, this study embedded an evidence-based active pedagogy program ca...
Article
Purpose Little is known about the experiences of school leaders adopting and implementing real-world, scaled-up physical activity interventions in the Australian educational system. Transform-Us! is a novel physical activity and sedentary behaviour intervention available to all primary schools in Victoria, Australia, since September 2018. This stud...