Jo-Anne Wemmers

Jo-Anne Wemmers
Université de Montréal | UdeM · International Centre for Comparative Criminology

Professor

About

77
Publications
16,240
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1,075
Citations
Introduction
Victimology; victims' rights; criminal justice; procedural justice; therapeutic jurisprudence; transitional justice
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (77)
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the meaning of forgiveness for victims. The results indicate that forgiveness is triggered by the dialogue between the victim and the offender, particularly when the person who has committed a sexual offence takes responsibility for the actions and apologizes to the victim. Victims tend to see forgiveness not as something that i...
Chapter
Restitution consists of an amount paid by the offender to the victim in order to make redress for the harm suffered, which helps lighten the financial burden of crime that is imposed on victims. According to the United Nations’ Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power, governments are encouraged to review t...
Article
Crimes against humanity in Guinea have caused many thousands of deaths, the exile of countless individuals, and the rape of hundreds of women. Since its independence in 1958, Guinea has been ruled by various authoritarian regimes and experienced periods of grave violence, most notably from 1958 to 1984, under the rule of Sékou Touré and, more recen...
Chapter
Reparation is important for victims and it is a key element of transitional justice as it can foster reconciliation. However, reparation has proven to be a major challenge for the International Criminal Court and, since its first conviction in 2012, the Court has been struggling with reparations for victims. This paper addresses the question how to...
Article
Limited research has been conducted on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5; 2013) exposure criterion: “work-related exposure to aversive details of traumatic events”. This study investigated the presence and severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology among a national cross-sectional sample of pra...
Article
Although it is well established that victimization and delinquency are related, it is not clear how this relationship works, and victims and offenders are still often studied and treated as two distinct groups. General strain theory views victimization as a form of injustice, which can give rise to anger and eventually lead to delinquency. The auth...
Article
Full-text available
L’engagement 810 du Code criminel est une mesure couramment utilisée comme aboutissement du processus judiciaire dans les cas de violence conjugale. Au cours des dernières années, nous avons observé une augmentation du nombre d’engagements émis dans ces cas. À la fois mesure judiciaire et extrajudiciaire, le « 810 » est une mesure préventive et non...
Article
Full-text available
Research in Brief: In a given year, one in seven victims of violent crime experiences trauma-related symptoms congruent with post-traumatic stress disorders following the victimization. Early detection and assessment of traumatic stress exposure in victims of crime are essential in order to provide the appropriate referral, and consequently reducin...
Article
This study documents lifetime experiences of victimizations, polyvictimization, and trauma symptoms among 1,400 adolescents from the province of Québec. The vast majority (81%) of adolescents were victimized during their lifetime, with most victims (82%) being the target of more than one form of victimization. Polyvictimization accounted for most v...
Chapter
Therapeutic jurisprudence is an interdisciplinary approach to law that offers a rich way of looking at law and to study the extent to which legal rules, procedures or practice promote the psychological well-being of the people it affects. Law is a tool and people who engage the criminal justice system do so for a reason. As such it is important to...
Article
Independent studies reveal that when done properly, restorative justice (RJ) practices outperform criminal justice proceedings in meeting victims’ concerns for insight, voice, and fairness and, as a result, can have therapeutic value. However, only a small number of cases are referred to RJ, and victim-initiated RJ remains exceptional. Not every vi...
Article
Following a crime, the need for information is important for victims. Police play an important role in the transmission of information to victims given that they are the first actors encountered by victims in the legal system and usually the ones with whom they have more interactions (Laxminarayan 2013). Also, how victims perceive the contacts they...
Article
This study documents lifetime experiences of victimizations, polyvictimization, and trauma symptoms among 1,400 adolescents from the province of Québec. The vast majority (81%) of adolescents were victimized during their lifetime, with most victims (82%) being the target of more than one form of victimization. Polyvictimization accounted for most v...
Article
Full-text available
Les questionnaires de victimisation ont montré que le risque de victimisation diminue avec l’âge. Au Canada, l’Enquête sociale générale (ESG) qui mesure la victimisation de la population n’inclut pas les moins de 15 ans. Les informations disponibles concernant la victimisation des jeunes viennent donc de sources officielles comme la Direction de la...
Article
INTRODUCTION In modern times there was in Western countries almost no place for the victims of crime in criminal justice. The victim had become the forgotten third party of the criminal trial. Likewise criminologists exclusively focused their studies on offenders and largely ignored the role and problems of victims. The first publications on victim...
Chapter
Born in the ashes of the Second World War, the field of victimology has grown tremendously in recent years, where we have seen much excellent empirical research done on victims. Much of the research deals with specific types of victimization (e.g., domestic violence, rape), empirical aspects of victimization in general (e.g., victimization surveys)...
Book
Each year, countless people fall victim to crimes against humanity. These include widespread occurrences of systematic murder, torture, rape, disappearances, forced deportation and political persecution. Crimes against humanity constitute an attack on human dignity and as such they violate the human rights of the victim, as well as the laws of huma...
Article
Full-text available
Crimes against humanity involve not only a willing offender but often collaboration by government authorities as well. Besides threatening victims' faith in others, their faith in government and social institutions is also threatened. In this article we examine victims' perceptions of justice in order to obtain a better understanding of how to rest...
Article
This article examines secondary victimization and how the criminal justice system affects victims’ psychological recovery from the crime. Victim recovery was measured using the Modified Post-traumatic Stress Symptom Scale (MPSSS). This study is prospective, following victims as their cases passed through the criminal justice system. How authorities...
Article
Evaluative studies have demonstrated that victims of crime are satisfied with their participation in a restorative intervention. Meanwhile, the explanation of victim satisfaction with restorative practices remains to be established. In this article, we study factors contributing to victim satisfaction with the restorative approach and ask to what e...
Article
Full-text available
Cet article met en exergue les nombreuses difficultes eprouvees par les femmes victimes de mariage force. Celles-ci sont doublement vulnerables du fait, d’une part, des formes d’abus et d’exploitation dont elles peuvent etre l’objet et, d’autre part, de leur statut parfois precaire d’immigrantes, en particulier lorsqu’elles sont parrainees par leur...
Article
La criminalité féminine est caractérisée par des crimes de nature économique ou commerciale. Des programmes communautaires peuvent offrir aux contrevenantes une solution de rechange au processus pénal. Dans cet article, nous présentons les résultats d’une évaluation du programme « Entraide Vol à l’Étalage » (E.V.E.). Il s’agit d’un programme présen...
Article
Full-text available
The vast number of victims as well as their tremendous needs have to be taken into consideration by the International Criminal Court (ICC) that is dealing with some of the war criminals from the DRC. However, while many international instruments provide war victims with rights to reparation, the ICC is limited in terms of who it considers a victim...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To document extrafamily victimization, exposure to community violence and polyvictimization in a child welfare sample of children and youths. Method: Telephone interviews were conducted among 138 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years and 82 caregivers of children aged 2 to 11 years followed by child welfare agencies in Quebec to document the v...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper the author argues that victims’ rights are human rights. Criminal law typically views victims as witnesses to a crime against the state, thus shutting them out of the criminal justice process and only allowing them in when they are needed to testify. This is a major source of dissatisfaction for victims who seek validation in the crim...
Chapter
Full-text available
Globalization has brought with it not only new types of victimization, it has also introduced new, international criminal law and international criminal justice institutions such as the permanent International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague, the Netherlands. A unique characteristic of the ICC is its recognition of victims’ rights through victim...
Article
Dans cet article, nous tracerons l'historique de la victimologie et des droits des victimes au Québec et nous nous pencherons sur certains développements récents destinés à assurer le respect de ces droits.
Article
Full-text available
Depuis les années 1980, les gouvernements occidentaux, incluant celui du Québec, ont travaillé à améliorer la condition des victimes d’actes criminels. Les droits fondamentaux des victimes tels que les droits à l’information, à la réparation et à la protection ont été entérinés par des lois. De plus, en droit international, la nouvelle Cour pénale...
Article
Full-text available
Les besoins des victimes d’actes criminels violents sont multiples. Les victimes ont, entre autres, besoin de se sentir soutenues et reconnues en tant que victimes et de participer aux procedures judiciaires. Plusieurs etudes scientifiques revelent que les interventions reparatrices ont la capacite de repondre a ces besoins. Bien que les victimes n...
Article
Full-text available
A travers l’analyse du discours de 15 victimes de crimes interrogees au sujet de leur processus de reprise de controle a la suite du delit dont elles ont ete l’objet, on remarque que les victimes semblent se distancier des procedures judiciaires en cours. Elles prennent conscience qu’elles doivent prendre en charge leur propre retablissement, puisq...
Article
Since the 1980s the motto of the victims' services has been: It's not your fault. Victims already blamed themselves and should not be held responsible for their victimization. Blame would only add to the victim's suffering and as such would constitute a second injury. However, the research on multiple victimization shows that victims are at risk of...
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
The present study is a qualitative study with victims of violent crime who participated in restorative justice programs, which followed either of these approaches. Based on victims’ experiences and views, the authors present a model procedure on how to offer restorative justice to victims.
Article
Based on interviews with 23 key figures at the International Criminal Court, this study represents an effort to go beyond the text of the Rome Statute. It tries to understand the different views or interpretations of the law regarding victim participation that exist within the organization and will ultimately shape how victims’ rights are applied i...
Chapter
Victims' perceptions of justice
Article
Historically, victims once had an active participatory role in the criminal justice process and were responsible for not only initiating but also for prosecuting offenders. In common law countries, victims were gradually sidelined and by the 20th century, their role was reduced to that of a witness to a crime against the state. The exclusion of vic...
Article
A distinguishing feature of the International Criminal Court is its recognition of victims' rights. Victims have been described as the raison d'être of this new, permanent court. But when can the Court be considered successful with regard to victims? Should the Court help victims' recovery, should it facilitate reconciliation or should it simply pu...
Article
Research with crime victims suggests that victims seek participation and recognition in the justice system (Erez, 1999; Kilchling, 1995; Shapland, Willmore, & Duff, 1985; Wemmers, 1996). However, victim participation in the criminal justice system is a point of debate among scholars (Ashworth, 1993; Erez, 1999). Participation can take various forms...
Article
Victims' experiences in the justice system may help or hinder their healing process. Restorative justice aims to heal the suffering caused by victimization (Zehr 2002). However, some victim advocates have expressed concern that restorative justice may augment victims' suffering. This article presents the results of an evaluation of the experiences...
Article
Do victims of domestic violence want to retain decision-making power, which critics say may be taken away by no-drop, mandatory-arrest procedures? Using procedural justice theory as a theoretical framework for the discussion, the authors review the research on the needs and expectations of victims of domestic violence.
Article
Full-text available
This paper looks at the recent introduction of victim impact statements in several European countries. It asks whether victim impact statements are a positive addition to victim policy and practice in Europe and examines the challenges of adapting to the civil legal tradition a tool that was developed in a common law country.
Article
There is considerable debate among both academics and professionals about whether restorative justice offers victims a better deal than the traditional criminal justice system. Advocates of restorative justice argue that restorative justice, which focuses on reparation of the harm suffered by the victim, is undoubtedly better equipped to respond to...
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
Cette monographie donne un aperçu des résultats d’une étude qualitative exploratoire ayant pour thème les besoins des victimes de violence conjugale en matière de justice.
Book
Ce livre est disponible accès libre à: https://books.openedition.org/pum/10762?lang=fr
Article
The topic of restorative justice has become increasingly popular. However, there is some debate as to whether restorative justice programs adequately address victims' needs. To this end a review of the literature on victims' experiences with, and their expectations and perceptions of, restorative justice, was conducted. The available research shows...
Article
Dutch criminal justice policy assumes that people's faith in the criminal justice system depends largely on its ability to sanction offenders. In this article arguments are offered which question this assumption. Victimological research shows that the treatment of victims in the criminal justice process is important to victims and more important th...
Article
This paper opens with a brief discussion of the traditional role of the victim in the criminal justice system and the changes which have been made in the Netherlands in order to improve the position of victims of crime. In addition, the author discusses the arguments put forward by policymakers and examines the implementation of victim policy. Next...
Article
Zusammenfassung Nach Lind und Tyler sind Urteile über Verfahrensgerechtigkeit normativ. Beide entwickelten das Gruppenwerte- oder Beziehungsmodell zur Erklärung, wie Urteile über Verfahrensgerechtigkeit zustandekommen. Dieses Modell ersetzt das traditionelle Eigenwohlmodell, das seinen Ursprung im Werk von Thibaut und Walker hat. Der Beitrag präsen...
Book
A study into the treatment of victims in the Dutch criminal justice system and its effects on their attitudes and behaviour. In particular, it examines victims' procedural justice judgements as their cases proceed in the criminal justice system and how victims' experiences impact their trust and confidence in authorities and their law-abiding behav...
Article
The study examines the meaning of procedural justice to Dutch victims of crime. Using victimological research and the group-value or relational model or procedural justice developed by Lind and Tyler, a model for procedural justice judgments is developed and tested using the structural equation model. Data used for the analysis consist of 221 inter...
Article
The present study attempts to address the question of how victim notification influences the relationship between victims and the criminal justice system. It examines empirically the effects of victim notification on their satisfaction with the performance of the public prosecution, their feelings of obligation to obey the law and law-abiding behav...
Article
Full-text available
Université de Montréal While victims are often considered the forgotten party in the criminal justice system, restorative justice has emerged as a new approach that includes victims by making them part of the legal response to crime. Based on interviews with victims who were invited to participate in a victim-offender mediation program, the present...

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