J.J. Armesto

J.J. Armesto
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile | UC · Departamento de Ecología

PhD

About

376
Publications
146,016
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28,560
Citations
Citations since 2017
36 Research Items
9435 Citations
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Introduction
Research piorities: Ecosystem Science forest biodiversity, structure and dynamics. Carbon, nutrient, and water cycles and ecosystem sustainability. Lab and field sampling techniques, biogeochemical analysis of soils and water.

Publications

Publications (376)
Data
Entre el 14 y 16 de junio de 2000, en el Centro de Convenciones Diego Portales en Santiago, se realizó la convención “Chile-Ciencia 2000. Ciencia, Tecnología y Sociedad: Un encuentro necesario”. Este Encuentro fue una invitación de la comunidad científica chilena, representada por la Academia Chilena de Ciencias, el Comité Nacional ICSU, el Consejo...
Article
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Mediterranean central Chile is globally recognized as a hotspot for terrestrial biodiversity due to its high endemism and massive habitat loss. However, within the rural landscape of central Chile, significant extents of natural areas remain, especially on less productive, steep slopes, and vegetation strips extending from the surrounding hills to...
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Different conceptions of disturbance differ in the degree to which they appeal to mechanisms that are general and equivalent, or species-, functional group-, or interaction-specific. Some concepts of disturbance, for example, predict that soil disturbances and herbivory have identical impacts on species richness via identical mechanisms (reduction...
Preprint
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Background: Secondary foundation species (FS) are organisms that inhabit ecosystems structurally defined by a primary foundation species, providing additional structure to habitats and communities. Trash-basket epiphytes (TBE) are secondary FS that enhance arboreal soil accumulation, providing shelter to animals, and rooting sites for plants. While...
Article
Global afforestation/deforestation processes (e.g., Amazon deforestation and Europe afforestation) create new anthropogenic controls on carbon cycling and nutrient supply that have not been fully assessed. Here, we use a watershed-lake dynamics approach to investigate how human-induced land cover changes have altered nutrient transference during th...
Article
The variability of rainfall‐dependent streamflow at catchment scale modulates many ecosystem processes in wet temperate forests. Runoff in small mountain catchments is characterized by a quick response to rainfall pulses which affects biogeochemical fluxes to all downstream systems. In wet‐temperate climates, water erosion is the most important nat...
Preprint
The Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis is widely considered to be wrong but is rarely tested against alternative hypotheses. It predicts that soil disturbances and herbivory have identical impacts on species richness via identical mechanisms (reduction in biomass and in competition). An alternative hypothesis is that the specific traits of disturb...
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Las reservas de la biosfera tienen entre sus funciones apoyar la investigación científica, educación, capacitación y monitoreo. En la Reserva de la Biosfera Cabo de Hornos (RBCH), creada el año 2005, estas funciones se han cumplido desde la conformación del Parque Etnobotánico Omora el año 2000 y con su implementación, el año 2008, como sitio co-fu...
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Globally, soils store two to three times as much carbon as currently resides in the atmosphere, and it is critical to understand how soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and uptake will respond to ongoing climate change. In particular, the soil-toatmosphere CO2 flux, commonly though imprecisely termed soil respiration (RS), is one of the largest car...
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Gaps in the forest canopy, created by treefalls, are fundamental to the process of forest dynamics (Yamamoto 2000). Tree‐fall gaps are critical for the regeneration of shade‐intolerant tree species while at the same time, providing opportunities for the growth and establishment of shade‐tolerant tree species (Yamamoto 2000). Gap dynamics is central...
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The global expansion of tree plantations is often claimed to have positive effects for mitigating global warming, preventing soil erosion, and reducing biodiversity loss. However, questions remain unanswered about the impacts of plantations on belowground diversity and soil properties. Here, we examine how forestry plantations of exotic trees affec...
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The historical course of evolutionary diversification shapes the current distribution of biodiversity, but the main forces constraining diversification are still a subject of debate. We unveil the evolutionary structure of tree species assemblages across the Americas to assess whether an inability to move or an inability to evolve is the predominan...
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Ecosystem functions in forests can vary significantly after disturbance, depending on changes in vegetation structure during succession and soil biophysical characteristics. We examined streamflow regulation, water storage and soil protection functions in small catchments covered by evergreen temperate rain forests, developed over volcanic ash soil...
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Several species of the family Orchidaceae have limited distribution and small populations, in which the probability of extinction is much higher than in broadly distributed species. As orchid seeds are very small and lack energy reserves, they require association with compatible mycorrhizal fungi that provide nutrients and carbon needed for germina...
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Scientific interest in traditional and local knowledge (TLK) has grown in recent decades, because of the potential of TLK for improving management and conservation practices. Here, we synthesize and evaluate TLK studies in Chile, discuss how this progress compares to the international scientific literature in the field, and contextualize our result...
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During the last decades, climate and land use changes led to an increased prevalence of megafires in Mediterranean-type climate regions (MCRs). Here, we argue that current wildfire management policies in MCRs are destined to fail. Focused on fire suppression, these policies largely ignore ongoing climate warming and landscape-scale buildup of fuels...
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We argue that the need for a quality seed supply chain is a major bottleneck for the restoration of Chile’s native ecosystems, thus supplementing the list of bottlenecks proposed by Bannister et al. (2018). Specifically, there is a need for defining seed transfer zones, developing standards and capacities for properly collecting and storing seeds,...
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Peatlands are characterized by their large carbon (C) storage capacity and represent important C sinks globally. In southern Chile, young peatlands (few centuries old) have originated due to clearcutting or fire at forest sites with high precipitation on poorly drained soils. These novel ecosystems are called anthropogenic peatlands here. Their rol...
Preprint
Full-text available
The historical course of evolutionary diversification shapes the current distribution of biodiversity, but the main forces constraining diversification are unclear. We unveil the evolutionary structure of tree species diversity across the Americas to assess whether an inability to move (dispersal limitation) or to evolve (niche conservatism) is the...
Article
Full-text available
Economic development of rural people is not always feasible along with concomitant forest restoration, especially when meager reforestation incentives are oriented to poor rural people who probably are not willing to plant native species in their small plots of land. Forest restoration incentives have been created by the Chilean government to engag...
Data
Information on the biology and food habits of Scelorchilus rubecula is wanting. The diets of 41 individuals of this terrestrial bird species captured in three zones of the temperate rain forest region of southem Chile (38°-42°S) were investigated analyzing their stomach contents. We recorded the diversity and abundance of invertebrates and identifi...
Article
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Ecosystems where carbon fluxes are being monitored on a global scale are strongly biased toward temperate Northern Hemisphere latitudes. However, forest and moorland ecosystems in the Southern Hemisphere may contribute significantly to the global and regional C balance and are affected by different climate systems. Here, we present the first data f...
Article
The Mediterranean region of central Chile is experiencing extensive "mega-droughts" with detrimental effects for the environment and economy of the region. In the northern hemisphere, nitrogen (N) limitation of Mediterranean ecosystems has been explained by the decoupling between N inputs and plant uptake during the dormant season. In central Chile...
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Countries that are signatories of the Convention of Biological Diversity are committed to the goal of protecting 17% of their natural ecosystems by 2020. The lack of an up-to-date, operational classification and cartography of regional ecosystems seriously limits the assessment of progress towards this goal. Here, we present a broad ecosystem frame...
Article
PREMISE OF THE STUDY Plant responses to past climate change could have been shaped by life‐history traits. Here we explore the influence of life form on the response of xerophytic plants to Quaternary climate fluctuations, through a comparison of genetic patterns of codistributed herbaceous and shrubby lineages of the genus Nolana. METHODS We reco...
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Knowledge of bird diets is important to understand population fluctuations and the persistence of bird communities in changing landscapes. However, there is a general lack of quantitative information about the composition of bird diets at the community level in the Neotropics. Although consumption of fruits and seeds by birds has been well document...
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An understudied consequence of growing urbanization is the rapid and concurrent loss of native biological and cultural diversity. Here, we measured the concordance between avian species richness in public green areas of the city of Santiago, Chile, and the corresponding knowledge of local citizens of this avian diversity. To assess this corresponde...
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We tested the main hypothesis that nutrient accumulation during late stages of postglacial succession would decrease nutrient limitation of diazotrophic activity. We tested this hypothesis by adding carbon (C), phosphorus (P), and molybdenum (Mo) independently or in combination, and nitrogen (N) only to symbiotic, epiphylls on bryophytes, and free-...
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The successional pathways linking the Acacia caven-dominated savanna habitat “espinal” and the closed sclerophyllous forest of central Chile have long been debated. Previously, espinal was considered an invasive degradation of closed forest that tended toward desertification, could not be restored to forest, and had little ecological value. Recent...
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Biological nitrogen fixation is a key ecosystem function incorporating new nitrogen (N) during primary successions. Increasing evidence from tropical and northern temperate forests shows that phosphorus (P) and molybdenum (Mo) either alone or in combination limit the activity of free-living diazotrophs. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Mo...
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The exceptional occurrence of tall rainforest patches on foggy coastal mountaintops, surrounded by extensive xerophytic shrublands, suggests an important role of plant–plant interactions in the origin and persistence of these patches in semiarid Chile. We asked whether facilitation by shrubs can explain the growth and survival of rainforest tree sp...
Conference Paper
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Background/Question/Methods Today, over half of humanity lives in cities and the expansion of urban areas is considered one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Urbanization, negatively affects bird’s richness, abundances and reproduction because it constitutes a drastic habitat modification, and enhance inhospitable environment for many specie...
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Background and aims: Mycorrhizal associations are influenced by abiotic and biotic factors, including climate, soil conditions and the identity of host plants. However, the effect of environmental conditions on orchid mycorrhizal associations remains poorly understood. The present study examined how differences in soil nutrient availability are re...
Article
After catastrophic disturbances, depleted substrates are readily colonised by organisms that capture nitrogen from the atmosphere and extract phosphorus from minerals. Our main objective was to compare the pattern of ecosystem development following deglaciation in Chile and New Zealand. Results show a similar pattern of C and N accumulation and dec...
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Ecological processes in the upper canopy of temperate forests have been seldom studied because of the limited accessibility. Here, we present the results of the first survey of the pollinator assemblage and the frequency of insect visits to flowers in the upper branches of ulmo, Eucryphia cordifolia Cav., an emergent 30-40 m-tall tree in rainforest...
Conference Paper
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Ecological succession is an orderly process of species replacement through time, based on the modification of the physical environment by the established vegetation following disturbance. Forest ecosystems support services that provide welfare to human societies, but their relationship to forest succession is still poorly understood. We assessed th...
Conference Paper
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Glacier retreats leaves behind substrates depleted of organic matter and nutrients, which are readily colonized by organisms that capture elemental nitrogen (N) from the atmosphere. Organic matter progressively accumulates in the ecosystem, reaching a maximum and if no disturbances occur, leaching losses of N, P and C from soils give rise to the re...
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An important issue in ecological restoration of forest ecosystems is to establish where reforestation is more limited by ecological factors and thus where additional treatments (e.g. irrigation, shading) are more needed. Population growth, density and reproduction in plants have frequently been documented to decrease with altitude, although in semi...
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Scientists are increasingly interested in the evolutionary responses of organisms to unpredictable, variable, and extreme climate changes. In semiarid environments, inter-annual variability in the frequency and amount of rainfall affects both the growth and recruitment of plant species, especially annuals. In these inherently variable environments,...
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Climate change and fragmentation are major threats to world forests. Understanding how functional traits related to drought tolerance change across small-scale, pronounced moisture gradients in fragmented forests is important to predict species' responses to these threats. In the case of Aextoxicon punctatum, a dominant canopy tree in fog-dependent...
Article
Nitrogen and phosphorus are the main elements limiting net primary production in terrestrial ecosystems. When growing in nutrient-poor soils, plants develop physiological mechanisms to conserve nutrients, such as reabsorbing elements from senescing foliage (i.e. nutrient retranslocation). We investigated the changes in soil N and P in post-fire suc...
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Differences in litter quality, microbial activity or abiotic conditions cannot fully account for the variability in decomposition rates observed in semiarid ecosystems. Here we tested the role of variation in litter quality, water supply, and UV radiation as drivers of litter decomposition in arid lands. And show that carry-over effects of litter p...
Article
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The tropical conservatism hypothesis (TCH) suggests that phylogenetic niche conservatism (the tendency for traits to be maintained during diversification) should be the main driver of latitudinal diversity gradients. For example, the tropical–temperate diversity gradient for woody angiosperms should reflect the tropical, older origin of most clades...
Chapter
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Earth Stewardship implies a paradigm shift in linking facts and values, multiple forms of ecological knowledge and practices, and broadening the mission of the ecological sciences. However, two core limitations need to be addressed: (i) geographical gaps in the coverage of long-term ecological and socio-ecological research (LTER, LTSER, and other l...
Book
Full-text available
Earth Stewardship implies a paradigm shift that links facts and values, multiple forms of ecological knowledge and practices, and broadens the mission of the ecological sciences. To confront global environmental change it is necessary, but not sufficient, to conduct long-term socio-ecological research. It is also necessary to act. Earth stewardship...
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La Reserva Nacional Río Clarillo (RNRC) en la Región Metropolitana se encuentra rodeada por extensas zonas cubiertas con vegetación nativa. La más importante es el Fundo El Principal (FEP), el cual cubre más de 5000 ha, pudiendo actuar como zona de amortiguación de las zonas residenciales y agrícolas alrededor de la reserva. En este trabajo compara...
Data
Full-text available
In book: ECOLOGÍA DE LOS VERTEBRADOS DE CHILE by Fabián Jaksic., Edition: Segunda Edición. Impresos Universitaria S.A, Chapter: Relaciones de Nicho entre aves de bosque Higrófilos templados:, Publisher: Ediciones Universidad Católica de Chile. Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas., Editors: Fabián Jaksic A., pp.108-109. ISBN: 956-14-14-0440-0
Data
Full-text available
lnformation on the biology and food habits of Scelorchilus rubecula is wanting. The diets of 41 individuals of this terrestrial bird species captured in three zones of the temperate rain forest region of southem Chile (38°-42°S) were investigated analyzing their stomach contents. We recorded the diversity and abundance of invertebrates and identifi...
Article
Indicator species could help to compensate for a shortfall of knowledge about the diversity and distributions of undersampled and cryptic species. This paper provides background knowledge about the ecological interactions that affect and are affected by herbaceous diversity in central Chile, as part of the indicator species selection process. We fo...
Article
Epiphytes have the potential to modify the canopy environments in which they grow. Accurately evaluating the impact of epiphytes can be challenging, since plants without epiphytes may also otherwise differ from host plants, and experimental removal is impractical and difficult to replicate in many forests.We studied the impacts of epiphytes (primar...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background/Question/Methods . In unpredictable and temporally variable environments, evolution should select for life-history strategies to survive challenging times and to capitalize on times of resource availability. In semiarid environments, variability in the frequency and strength of rainfall pulses controls annual plant recruitment. Under s...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Cloud cover is a major and nearly permanent feature (80% persistence) of the eastern Pacific Ocean in the arid and semiarid continental margin of South America. The cloud field is maintained at a fixed elevation (above 600 m) by a thermal inversion, providing the main or the only source of humidity for a chain of highl...
Conference Paper
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Background/Question/Methods Chile’s growing economy is largely dependent on natural resource use, including ore mining, hydroelectric power generation, crop production, exotic species forestry, and salmon farming. However, environmental impacts of these activities, accompanied by climate change, are generating fast-paced deterioration and loss of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background/Question/Methods Ecological succession is a process of species replacement through time, based on the modification of the physical environment by the biological community following a disturbance event. Forest ecosystems are important to support various services that provide welfare to human societies. Knowledge of the relationship betw...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background/Question/Methods The seeds of Orchidaceae are very small and lacking of energetic reserves, so they need to associate with mycorrhizal fungi for germination and early development. The requirement of find a compatible fungus to germinate can limit the distribution and abundance of orchids. In this way it is expected that orchids with sp...
Article
Full-text available
Increased droughts due to regional shifts in temperature and rainfall regimes are likely to affect forests in temperate regions in the coming decades. To assess their consequences for forest dynamics, we need predictive tools that couple hydrologic processes, soil moisture dynamics and plant productivity. Here, we developed and tested a dynamic for...
Article
Full-text available
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a key process for ecosystem development on new substrates. On young volcanic substrates, the near absence of nitrogen (N) and the presence of available phosphorus (P) in the soil should stimulate the activity of diazotrophic, N-fixing, bacteria. Our main hypothesis is that ecosystem N gain through BNF is tightl...