Jiri Patocka

Jiri Patocka
University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice · Faculty of Health and Social Studies

prof. RNDr. DrSc.

About

627
Publications
197,625
Reads
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4,616
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Introduction
Jiri Patocka currently works at the Faculty of Health and Social Studies, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice. Their current project is 'Bioactive compounds of knotweed (Reynoutria)'.
Additional affiliations
August 2013 - present
Fakultní nemocnice Hradec Králové
Position
  • research worker
July 2005 - August 2015
University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice
Position
  • Professor
January 2005 - December 2015
University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (627)
Article
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Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. is a nitrogen-fixing deciduous shrub with spiny branches that grows in cold mountainous areas ranging from southeastern Europe through Asia Minor, the Himalayas to China, Japan and Korea. It has white, fragrant flowers and edible, dark red fruits, about 1 cm in size. They contain a large amount of bioactive compounds whic...
Article
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Mangostan je tropické ovoce považované za jedno z nejchutnějších, bývá nazýváno "královna ovoce" či "ovoce bohů". Konzumuje se obvykle v čerstvém stavu a je možné ho koupit i v České republice. Kromě jedlé dužniny poskytuje mangostan i listy a oplodí, které jsou hojně využívány v tradiční medicíně, především v ájurvédě. Oplodí obsahuje velké množst...
Article
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Třešně nedávno dozrály a nyní nastává čas, říci si o nich pár zajímavostí. Třešeň obecná (Prunus avium L.) je statný strom dorůstající výšky až 30 m. Třešně původně rostly v oblastech Malé Asie, odkud je do Evropy dovezl v 1. století př. n. l. římský vojevůdce Lucullus. Třešně Co možná nevíte? švestka, meruňka, broskvoň, mandloň a jiné. Třešeň je f...
Article
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Nigella sativa is an annual herb of the buttercup family, native to Western Asia and North Africa. Its seeds are used as a spice, especially in India and the Middle East, but also for medicinal purposes. Nigella sativa seeds contain a large number of bioactive substances, which have a number of pharmacological effects. It is a forgotten medicine an...
Article
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Řada běžně známých rostlin, které se používají jako koření, léčivky či v kosmetice, patří do čeledi hluchavkovitých. Patří sem např. rozmarýn, bazalka, meduňka, tymián, mateřídouška, saturejka, dobromysl („oregano“), hluchavka, šanta či šalvěj. Jejich význam je dán obsahem velkého množství různých bioaktivních látek, především silic. V následujícím...
Article
S liánou akébii pětičetnou jste se již možná setkali pod názvem „čokoládové víno“, který rostlina obdržela pro vůni svých květů. Zdobí ji výrazné fialové kališní lístky samičích květů i hrozny menších květů samčích a v zahradních kompozicích je možnou alternativou „psího vína“, tedy loubince pětilistého. Hlavní je ale její rozsáhlý léčebný potenciá...
Article
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Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved protein kinase acting as a central regulator of cell functions. The kinase forms two distinct mTOR complexes termed as mTORC1 and mTORC2. Dysregulation of mTOR activity is associated with various pathological conditions. Inhibition of overactivated mTOR represent a rational approach in th...
Article
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Devětsil lékařský (Petasites hybridus L., Obrázek 1) je rostlina, která po staletí pomáhala lidem při léčbě mnoha zdravotních problémů, jak naznačuje její české jméno. Latinské jméno devětsilu pochází z řeckého slova petasos, které znamená široký klobouk – lidé si jeho listy chránili hlavu před sluncem. Dnes jsou jeho velké listy spíše vnímány jako...
Article
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Sedges (Cyperus L.) are annual or perennial herbs of the Cyperaceae family. The genus includes about 600 species, including edible and medicinal species. Cyperus esculentus is an edible and medicinal plant, widely used for its numerous health-promoting effects, including alleviating the symptoms associated with neurological disorders. Cyperus rotun...
Article
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Některé muchomůrky rodu Amanita jsou schopny kumulovat vanad až v 400 násobném množství v porovnání s jeho běžným obsahem v rostlinách. Téměř všechen vanad je v muchomůrce červené (A. muscaria) přítomný ve formě komplexní sloučeniny amavadinu. Amavadin je v kyselých roztocích za přítomnosti silného oxidantu schopen provádět oxidaci vody bez přístup...
Article
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Sněženka podsněžník (Galanthus nivalis L.) je naší nejznámější jarní kvetoucí rostlinou. Je to 10 – 20 cm vysoká, vytrvalá cibulovitá rostlina z čeledi amarylkovitých (Amaryllidaceae), kterážto je v naší květeně zastoupena třemi dobře známými a oblíbenými druhy: sněženkou, bledulí a narcisem. Sněženka se objevuje v naší přírodě často ještě ve zbytc...
Article
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A synthetic opioid called fentanyl is a well-known therapeutic agent for the relief of chronic and extreme pain. In medical practice, it is applied to patients in several ways. Outside medical facilities, patients are mainly helped by the application of patches, from which the active substance is gradually released and penetrates transdermally into...
Article
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Antimicrobial peptides are an important component of many organisms’ innate immune system, with a good inhibitory or killing effect against the invading pathogens. As a type of biological polypeptide with natural immune activities, antimicrobial peptides have a broad spectrum of antibacterial, antiviral, and antitumor activities. Nevertheless, thes...
Article
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Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder belonging to the autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In ASDs, the individuals show substantial impairments in social communication, repetitive behaviours, and sensory behaviours deficits in the early stages of their life. Globally, the prevalence of autism is estimated to be less than 1%, especially in high-incom...
Article
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Lycium barbarum and L. chinense are two closely related shrubs known as goji, which have been used in China for more than 2000 years as a traditional medicine and food supplement. These fruits contain a number of bioactive substances, of which polysaccharides (LBP) in particular are of interest for their inhibitory effects on the aging process. LBP...
Article
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Pěťoury (Galinsoga) jsou jednoleté byliny z čele-di hvězdnicovitých (Asteraceae). Rod zahrnuje cca 15 druhů, z nichž v České republice rostou dva: pě-ťour maloúborný (Galinsoga parviflora) a pěťour srstnatý (G. quadriradiata). Oba druhy jsou v ČR nepůvodní, pocházejí z Jižní a Střední Ameriky, odkud se postupně rozšířily do celého světa; dnes jsou...
Article
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Posezení na zahradě pod ořešákem vytváří jedinečnou atmosféru ne jenom v průběhu horkých letních dní. Veliká koruna ořešáků představuje přírodní úkryt před sluncem. Na první pohled by se mohlo zdát, že právě nedostatek slunečného světla je odpovědný za výrazně nižší vegetaci kolem ořešáků. Tahle skutečnost má ale chemickou podstatu. Listy a plody t...
Article
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Gedunin se nachází hlavně v plodech Azadirachta indica (neem), přičemž vyšších koncentrací dosahuje v nezralém ovocí v porovnání se zralými plody. Malé množství geduninu se nachází také v listech, ještě menší pak ve zbytku stromu. Sloučenina sama o sobě vykazuje širokou paletu biologických aktivit, jako je například antibakteriální, antifungální, i...
Article
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Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. is an ancient medicinal plant known in traditional Chinese medicine for its immunomodulatory, spermatogenic, neuroprotective and rejuvenating effects. Phytochemical research has led to the identification of a large number of bioactive compounds, most of which are concentrated in the rhizomes of this plant. The rhizome i...
Article
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At present, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related dementias cannot be cured. Therefore, scientists all over the world are trying to find a new approach to prolong an active life of patients with initial dementia. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological pathways are investigated to improve the key symptom of the disease, memory loss. In this res...
Article
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Bazální část rostliny zázvoru (a), detail oddenku (b) Zázvor na historické ilustraci (c) Léčivé rostliny provázejí lidstvo pravděpodobně po celou jeho existenci; nejstarší doklady používá-ní léčivých rostlin pocházejí ze Sumeru z doby cca 3000 let př. n. l. Dříve empiricky získávané znalosti jsou v současné době ověřovány moderními metoda-mi a rost...
Article
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CHKO Slavkovský les tvoří rozsáhlé lesní komplexy, které spolu s rašeliništi a podmáčenými loukami vytvářejí ohromný přírodní vodní rezervoár, příznivě ovlivňující vodní režim širokého okolí, především západočeských lázní. Ochranou míst tvorby minerálních pramenů se CHKO Slavkovský les výrazně odlišuje od jiných chráněných krajinných oblastí v Čes...
Article
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Cyclosporine A (CsA) is a cyclic undecapeptide with strong immunosuppressive potency. Firstly marketed in the mid-1980s, CsA was widely used in transplantation and greatly improved the survival rates of patients and grafts after solidorgan transplantation. Unfortunately, CsA administration can be associated with a number of side effects due to its...
Article
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Teasel (Dipsacus fullonum L.) is an old traditional herbal medicine with a wide range of indications similar to some other species of the Dipsacus genus. In folk medicine, it is used mainly for rheumatism and gastric and duodenal ulcers. In the form of compresses, it has proven itself on cracked skin. It contains a number of bioactive substances (i...
Article
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The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global health crisis. Flavon baicalein, a major bioactive molecule of Scutellaria baicalensis, inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome in humans. Animal experiments show th...
Article
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Heřmánek pravý (matricaria cHamomilla l.) a jeHo účinky na nervový systém cHamomile (matricaria cHamomilla l.) and its effects on tHe nervous system Zdeňka Navrátilová 1 , orciD 0000-0001-5027-901X Jiří Patočka 2,3 , orciD 0000-0002-1261-9703 1 Katedra botaniky, Přírodovědecká fakulta Univerzity Karlovy v Praze 2 Katedra radiologie, toxikologie a o...
Article
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Since December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) has been a worldwide pandemic with enormous consequences for human health and the world economy. Remdesivir is the only drug in the world that has been approved for the treating of COVID-19. This drug, as well as vaccination, still has uncertain effectiveness. Drug repurposing could be a promising strategy...
Article
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Mushroom poisoning has always been a threat to human health. There are a large number of reports about ingestion of poisonous mushrooms every year around the world. It attracts the attention of researchers, especially in the aspects of toxin composition, toxic mechanism and toxin application in poisonous mushroom. Inocybe is a large genus of mushro...
Book
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Visí nad nami azbestová hrozba? Prečo jeme jedovaté jedlá? Ako dlho dojčiť? Škodí hliník nášmu zdraviu alebo prospieva? Odpovede na tieto a mnohé ďalšie otázky inšpirované knihou Doba jedová autorov prof. Anny Struneckej a prof. Jiřího Patočku prináša aktualizovaná publikácia Doba jedová 2, ktorá ponúka pútavé čítanie o bežných nápojoch, nových typ...
Chapter
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Podle současných poznatků je Alzheimerova nemoc progresivní degenerativní onemocnění mozku, které způsobuje duševní a fyzický úpadek vedoucí postupně k smrti. Prvními příznaky této choroby jsou většinou malé změny chování. Postižený má potíže s krátkodobou pamětí. Dělá mu problémy učení, počítání, rozhodování nebo správa osobních financí. Stále obt...
Article
Full-text available
The Terminalia spp. (family Combretaceae) are medicinal plant with a wide spectrum of medicinal properties. The fruits of Terminaliachebula are used as a traditional medicine in Asia, especially in India. These plants contain various phytochemicals such as hydrolysable tannins, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, and flavonoids, so it may prove to be a...
Article
Perovskie lebedolistá je v Evropě známá především jako okrasná rostlina, v oblastech svého původu však patří mezi ceněné léčivé byliny. V současnosti je perovskie předmětem mnoha studií, které potvrdily široké spektrum farmakologických účinků.
Article
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New psychoactive substances are being used as drugs and appear to be quite popular nowadays. Thanks to their specific properties, these drugs create inimitable experiences for intoxicated people. Synthetic cathinones are the most common compounds in these new drugs. Among them, α-pyrrolidopentadione (α-PVP), or "Flakka" (street name), is one of the...
Article
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Fruit-derived bioactive substances have been spotlighted as a regulator against various diseases due to their fewer side effects compared to chemical drugs. Among the most frequently consumed fruits, apple is a rich source of nutritional molecules and contains high levels of bioactive compounds. The main structural classes of apple constituents inc...
Article
Nard pravý (Nardostachys jatamansi) je vytrvalá bylina z čeledi zimolezovitých, která roste na alpinských a subalpinských loukách v horách indie, nepálu, Bhútánu, Barmy a jihozápadní èíny v nadmořské výšce 2 500-5 000 m. V tradiční čínské medicíně je znám jako Gan song nebo kan song a v ájurvédské medicíně je nazýván maansi nebo jataamaansi. V souč...
Article
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Souhrn: světlice barvířská (Carthamus tinctorius L.) je široce používána v tradiční čínské medicíně k léčbě kardiovaskulárních chorob a zánětů. Světlice a její bioaktivní látky působí také na nervový systém; zjištěny byly anxiolytické, antidepresivní, neuroprotektivní a prokognitivní účinky. K dispozici jsou však pouze studie in vitro a experimenty...
Book
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16.1 Introduction Strychnine is a poisonous indole-type alkaloid found in the genus Strychnos. Its basic compound forms colorless or white rhombic crystals. These have a bitter taste and melt at approximately 290°C. Strychnine was the first alkaloid to be identified in plants of the genus Strychnos, Family Loganiaceae. Strychnos, created by Linnaeu...
Article
Full-text available
Interest in the use of medicinal plants in Western medicine was inspired by extensive ethnopharmacological studies of plants used in traditional folk medicine, which confirmed their effect and discovered substances responsible for their pharmacological effect. Such a plant is also the sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), a medicinal plant coming from...
Article
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Cynomorium coccineum and Cynomorium songaricum are unusual parasitic plants in the family Cynomoriaceae characterized by their unusual appearance and way of life. Due to their special habit and extremely rare occurrence, in the past, various magical properties have been attributed to these plants. The plant Cynomorium coccineum, which is found in t...
Article
Full-text available
The Terminalia spp. (family Combretaceae) are medicinal plants with a wide spectrum of medicinal properties. the fruits of Terminalia chebula are used as a traditional medicine in asia, especially in india. these plants contain various phytochemicals such as hydrolysable tannins, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, and flavonoids, so it may prove to be...
Article
Global interest in the use of medicinal plants has been growing. Current drug discovery research has been inspired by extensive ethnopharmacological applications of natural products. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a medicinal plant native to the Mediterranean region and cultivated around the world. Besides the therapeutic purpose, it is commo...
Article
Full-text available
Biological weapons include infectious agents and toxins. Toxins are poisons produced by living organisms. An important group of toxins are ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) of plant or microbial origin that inhibit protein synthesis by inactivating ribosomes. RIPs have been of great scientific interest due to their importance in human health, a...
Article
Full-text available
Perfluoroisobutene (PFIB) is a colorless toxic gas which can be absorbed into the body by inhalation. The substance irritates the respiratory tract and may be used as a potential chemical warfare agent. Inhalation exposure may cause severe symptoms of pulmonary edema associated with wheezing, difficulty in breathing and sputum expectoration. A blui...
Article
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This paper deals with Echium amoenum, which is one of the most important medicinal plants in Iranian traditional medicine. The flowers of this plant have been used as antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and analgesic, anxiolytic, and sedative effects in folk medicine. In recent years, the importance of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of many...
Article
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D-serin acts as a coagonist at the glycine site associated with the N-methyl-D-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptors (NMDAR) and has an important modulatory role in major NMDAR-dependent processes. Either over or underfunction of NMDARs may be involved in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. A first animal and first clinical studi...
Article
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Coffee, one of the world’s most consumed products, is extracted from the roasted seeds of Coffea sp., a plant native to Africa. The effects of coffee on the human body have been recognized for centuries and have now become the subject of systematic research. Caffeine’s impact on a person’s cognitive ability were reviewed through a large set of lite...
Article
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The paper deals with Lilium candidum L., a well-known ancient plant in folk medicine for the treatment of burns, ulcers, inflammations and wound healing. The petals and bulbs of this plant contain many bioactive compounds. Many of them could also find their place in modern medicine.
Article
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Mushrooms are a rich source of chemical compounds. Such a mushroom is also polypore Laetiporus sulphureus, in which a large number of bioactive substances with cytotoxic, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, and antioxidant activity have been found. This short review summarizes the results of the most important chemical and b...
Article
Gardenia jasminoides is an evergreen shrub grown in multiple regions in china. it was used for centuries in traditional chinese medicine for treatment of many illnesses, such as headaches, insomnia, fever, liver diseases, dysphoria, gonorrhoea, conjunctivitis, and hypertension. Many studies have confirmed that G. jasminoides possess multiple biolog...
Article
Carphedon is a phenyl derivative of the nootropic drug piracetam (Nootropil) and is effective in increasing physical endurance and cold resistance and is used for amnesia treatment. It was developed in Russia as a stimulant to keep astronauts awake on long missions, and occasionally used in Russia as a nootropic prescription for various types of ne...
Article
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In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the popularity of medicinal plants derived from the traditional sources of knowledge. The desert plant Achillea fragrantissima is traditionally used internally in traditional medicine of the Arabian region against hepatobiliary disorders, inflammatory and spasmodic gastrointestinal complaints, ag...
Article
Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) is a well-known medicinal plant from the family Lamiaceae, distributed throughout Eastern Mediterranean region and Western Asia and also widely cultivated. Lemon balm is used traditionally in the treatment of many illnesses, including melancholy, depression, anxiety, and cognitive disorders. All these psychologic...
Article
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Evidence-Based Toxicology (EBT) was introduced in 2005 as a tool for toxicological risk assessment and causal links based on parallel relationships between the assessment of toxicology testing methods and the Evidence-based Evidence-Based Diagnostic Testing Assessment (EBM). Introducing evidence-based approaches can provide tools that are necessary...
Article
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Beauvericin (BEA) is a cyclic hexadepsipeptide, which derives from Cordyceps cicadae. It is also produced by Fusarium species, which are parasitic to maize, wheat, rice and other important commodities. BEA increases ion permeability in biological membranes by forming a complex with essential cations, which may affect ionic homeostasis. Its ion-comp...
Article
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Various parts of the tropical plant Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) have been widely used in traditional medicine in South and Southeast Asia for several centuries. The therapeutic effects of noni are believed to be mediated through several groups of phytochemicals such as anthraquinones, iridoids, fatty acid glycosides, alcohols, flavonoids, triterpe...
Article
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Beauvericin (BEA) is an emerging Fusarium mycotoxin that contaminates food and feeds globally. BEA biosynthesis is rapidly catalyzed by BEA synthetase through a nonribosomal, thiol-templated mechanism. This mycotoxin has cytotoxicity and is capable of increasing oxidative stress to induce cell apoptosis. Recently, large evidence further shows that...
Article
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Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are crucial effectors of the innate immune system. They provide the first line of defense against a variety of pathogens. AMPs display synergistic effects with conventional antibiotics, and thus present the potential for combined therapies. Insects are extremely resistant to bacterial infections. Insect AMPs are cation...
Chapter
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Handbook of Foodborne Diseases summarizes the latest findings on more than 100 foodborne diseases and their causative agents. With contributions from international experts on foodborne pathogens, toxins, and toxic agents research, this volume provides state-of-the-art overviews on foodborne diseases in relation to their etiology, biology, epidemiol...
Article
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Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine] is one the world's most widely used agricultural herbicide. It allows farmers to spray a planted field, generally before the crops have sprouted, killing weeds but not the crops that will grow there. GMO critics claim glyphosate is linked to autism, cancer, gluten allergies, ‘leaky gut’ syndrome and other di...
Article
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Beauvericin (BEA) is a cyclic hexadepsipeptide that derives from Codyceps cicadae. It is also produced by several phytopathogenic Fusarium species, parasitic to maize, wheat, rice, and other important commodities. BEA is capable to increase oxidative stress and cause cell apoptosis. BEA increases ion permeability in biological membranes by forming...
Article
The genus Salvia (sage) contains about 900 species, many of them are used in many parts of the world in traditional medicine for treatment of many illnesses, including memory deficit. Sages contain a large array of bioactive compounds and some of them may enhance cognitive activity and protect against neurodegenerative diseases. Neuroprotective and...
Article
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Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS, tetramine) is a toxic organic compound that is used as an effective rodenticide. However, this neurotoxin is not only toxic to rodents, it also causes poisoning in humans. Due to its high level of toxicity for humans, the use of TETS as a rodenticide has been banned and its production has been discontinued. Des...
Book
Léčivé byliny jsou u nás tradičně velmi populární a není třeba přesvědčovat širokou laickou veřejnost o tom, že čaje, sirupy, koupele, masti, tinktury nebo i likéry připravené z léčivých bylin jsou prospěšné jak v prevenci pro udržení zdraví, tak i za situace, kdy se projeví nemoc. Fytoterapie je stará jako lidstvo samo. V českém lidovém léčitelstv...
Article
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Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are one of the most common components of the innate immune system that protect multicellular organisms against microbial invasion. The vast majority of AMPs are isolated from the frog skin. Anuran (frogs and toads) skin contains abundant AMPs that can be developed therapeutically. Such peptides are a unique but diverse...
Data
Chemical legislation Safety in the chemical industry Ecotoxicology and pollutant analysis in the environment Toxicology and methods of determination of toxic substances
Article
Biological weapons include infectious agents and toxins. Toxins are poisons produced by living organisms. An important group of toxins are ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) of plant or microbial origin that inhibit protein synthesis by inactivating ribosomes. RIPs have been of great scientific interest due to their importance in human health, a...
Conference Paper
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JAK SE SBALUJÍ PROTEINY J. Patočka Ústav radiologie, toxikologie a ochrany obyvatelstva, Zdravotně sociální fakulta Jihočeské univerzity v Českých Budějovicích. Nemocnice České Budějovice, a.s., B. Němcové 54, 370 01 České Budějovice. Sbalování proteinů (angl. protein folding) je děj, který rozhoduje o tom, zda bude čerstvě syntetizovaný protein...
Article
Celastrus paniculatus je opadavá popínavá rostlina, která roste divoce na celém indickém subkontinentu a používá se v tradiční lidové medicíně pro zlepšení paměti a zbystření duševních funkcí. Rostlina je léčivá a olej ze semen se používá jako tradiční lék ájurvédská medicína. Bylo prokázáno, že její ve vodě rozpustné látky mají antioxidační vlastn...
Article
Ajuga reptans, bugleweed or carpet bugle, is a low-growing ground cover with either green, purple or variegated foliage. It flowers in late April or early May with 10-inch spikes of blue, white or pink flowers, the blue being the most commonly grown. Spreading rapidly by above-ground stolons similar to those of the strawberry. It is an herbaceous f...
Preprint
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On March 4, Sergei Skripal, a former Russian spy who was convicted and imprisoned in Russia for working as a double agent, and his daughter were found unresponsive and slumped on a shopping-center bench in Salisbury, England. On 12 March 2018, British Prime Minister Theresa May said in Parliament that the two had been poisoned with Novichok, a “mil...
Article
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Our review suggests that most autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk factors are connected, either directly or indirectly, to immunoexcitotoxicity. Chronic brain inflammation is known to enhance the sensitivity of glutamate receptors and interfere with glutamate removal from the extraneuronal space, where it can trigger excitotoxicity over a prolonged...
Article
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Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae), tropical plant commonly known as „velvet bean“ and „atmagupta“ in India, is a climbing legume growing in India and in other parts of the tropics. The seed powder of the M. pruriens has long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for a number of diseases, including parkinsonism. The seeds of M. pruriens contai...
Article
Rubroboletus satanas (Lenz) Kuan Zhao & Zhu L. Yang, known as Boletus satanas (Lenz) until 2014, and commonly known as the Devil's bolete or Satan's bolete, is a basidiomycete mushroom of the bolete family. Grows in mixed woodlands in the southern, warmer regions of Europe and North America. Satan's bolete generally regarded as a poisonous mushroom...
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