Jinni A. Harrigan

Jinni A. Harrigan
California State University, Fullerton | CSUF · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

59
Publications
18,473
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,656
Citations
Introduction
Jinni A. Harrigan is Professor Emeritus at the Department of Psychology, California State University, Fullerton. Jinni conducted research on Nonverbal Behavior and Emotion, and behavioral analysis in medical communications between physicians and patients. Recent research was on highly successful communication using very brief hand gestures without audio input.
Additional affiliations
April 2015 - present
California State University, Fullerton
Position
  • Professor (Full)
July 1980 - August 1989
University of Cincinnati Medical School
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (59)
Article
Full-text available
This study was designed to analyze communication patterns between older patients and physicians by an in-depth examination of linguistic aspects of the interactions, including utterance form, process, and content variables.
Research
Full-text available
accuracy in determining meaning from hand gestures and self-touching
Research
accuracy in determining meaning of hand gestures and self-touching
Article
The present study investigated the interactive effects of situation types, neuroticism, and appraisals on coping with anxiety. Participants completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory to assess levels of neuroticism. They then recalled the most anxious event they had experienced and imagined they were in very similar situations. They described the...
Article
As technology advances, the trend is always to increase the quality of recording and decrease the cost and size of equipment. The purpose of this chapter is to provide information on the best methods of securing and maintaining audiovisual data. This allows researchers the opportunity to consider the technical methods most appropriate for collectin...
Book
This book is an updated text. It has new material on coding and methodological issues for a variety of areas in nonverbal behavior: facial actions, vocal behavior, and body movement. Issues relevant to judgment studies, methodology, reliability, analyses, etc. have also been updated. The topics are broad and include specific information about metho...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of a nonverbal behavior frequently displayed during social interaction, self-touching, was analyzed with respect to body location, other nonverbal behaviors, and expressers' role. In Study 1, hypotheses about role (job applicant, medical patient, friend, stranger) and levels of anxiety and familiarity were substantiated. In Study 2, subj...
Article
Full-text available
Detecting anxiety is essential both in help-giving settings such as psychotherapy and in everyday social relationships. This two-study experiment involved groups of observers who viewed and rated selected scenes from previously videotaped subjects’(expressers) descriptions of past emotional experiences. One group rated combined visual and auditory...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter focuses on the methodologies for coding behaviors in proxemics, kinesics (i.e. body and head movements), and gaze. The discussion in this chapter of methodological issues in body movement research is divided into two segments: body positions and body actions. The chapter gives some general conceptual issues and factors affecting coding...
Article
Full-text available
Observers' ability to detect state anxiety and trait anxiety in others was evaluated in a meta-analysis that also included a critical moderator variable, communication channel. The overall effect size (r) for accuracy was .39 for the 46 state anxiety studies and .26 for the 34 trait anxiety studies. However, the effect of communication channel was...
Article
Full-text available
Interpersonal sensitivity (emotional and social) is the ability to accurately assess others' abilities, states, and traits from nonverbal cues. The authors predicted that individuals' interpersonal sensitivity would be related to accurate judgments of friends' interpersonal sensitivity. Fifty participants were recruited, each bringing a friend to p...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has shown that decoders (judges) accurately identified state anxiety in peers when provided with brief, single channel (audio-only, video-only) stimuli, and appropriately differentiated trait anxiety. Using a similar approach in the present study with decoders and encoders from three distinct age groups, we discovered that the abi...
Article
Full-text available
Results from this research on facial affect indicative of state anxiety suggest that expressors' smiles may have masked self-reported state anxiety such that judges were misled in their judgments of expressors' state anxiety. While in 17 earlier studies judges were highly accurate in detecting state anxiety, judges were unable to distinguish low fr...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Defensive individuals have been shown to differ from non-defensive individuals on a number of physiological and behavioral measures. We report two studies on observers' inferences of defensiveness, and the contribution of communication channels in the inference of defensiveness. Observers judged high and low state anxious segments of high...
Article
Full-text available
Although anxiety is a frequent and disabling emotional state, the display of this affect through facial actions has not been previously studied. Participants were videotaped while describing an anxious past event, and answering stressful and nonstressful questions regarding reactions to the anxiety-producing experience. High and low self-rated anxi...
Article
Full-text available
Empirical studies on nonverbal communication in clinician—patient interaction are reviewed for both the psychotherapeutic and medical settings. Nonverbal behavior is considered both as the consequence of antecedent variables, such as individual or relationship characteristics, and as a predictor of clinical effectiveness and patient outcomes. The c...
Article
Full-text available
This study represents a follow-up to an earlier series of studies which showed that individuals′ state anxiety and defensiveness were more accurately detected from audio-only compared with video-only cues. Encoding studies also have shown that changes in speech patterns (increased speech errors) occurred when state anxiety increased. In the present...
Article
Full-text available
Detecting anxiety is essential in both help-giving settings and in everyday social relationships. The studies reported here represent a follow-up to an earlier set of studies in which observers (raters) accurately identified others' (expressers') state anxiety using either video-only cues or audio-video cues. The earlier studies had included expres...
Article
Full-text available
According to the fever model of Disclosure, the relationship of Disclosure (utterances that reveal subjective information) to psychological distress is analogous to the relationship of fever to physical infection: Both are indicators of some underlying disturbance and part of a restorative process. High and moderate trait anxious university student...
Article
Full-text available
Only minimal research has been conducted to determine if muscle contraction before relaxation is more effective than Edmund Jacobson's technique of using no muscle contraction relaxation. It is this question that the present investigation addressed with an analogue population consisting of three subject groups: muscle contraction relaxation (MC); r...
Article
Full-text available
Our goal was to evaluate an effective method for inducing experimental anxiety which would (a) be personally relevant, (b) be based on ‘real-life’ anxiety and (c) require as little experimenter intervention as possible. Undergraduates varying in trait anxiety (STAI) were videotaped while describing a very anxiety-producing and a happy event from th...
Article
Full-text available
This study was designed to analyze communication patterns between older patients and physicians by an in-depth examination of linguistic aspects of the interactions, including utterance form, process, and content variables. Sixteen family medicine residents were videotaped individually interviewing one of four simulated female patients. Verbal beha...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was designed to assess evaluations of physicians interacting with patients via the telephone. Observers used ten adjective scales which resulted in three variables: empathic, dominant, and calm. Thirty doctor-patient interactions were presented in two different communication modes: audio-only and typed transcript-only. As predicte...
Article
Full-text available
NONVERBAL expressions of anxiety were analyzed during patient presentation of conflicted emotional topics (i.e., hidden agendas) while consulting with family medicine practitioners. It was hypothesized that underlying anxiety would be revealed in higher frequencies of specific types of nonverbal behavior. As predicted, hand-to-body self-touching oc...
Article
Full-text available
Past research findings identified the gender-biased nature of language and the need to incorporate linguistic changes to alleviate this problem. One suggested change was the adoption of a generic pronoun. Given that most research in this area was conducted 10–15 years ago, it is important to determine present opinion on language and language change...
Article
Full-text available
This study compared subjects' impressions of their conversational partners who either displayed or did not display self-touching. Previous reports have focused on self-touching as an indication of underlying negative affect. Subjects were individually videotaped in two separate S-minute conversations with two different confederates: One confederate...
Article
Full-text available
Parental alcoholism affects 27 million children, but few of these children receive supportive care. The most consistent predictor of alcoholism is alcoholism in a biologic parent. A child's self-concept is derived largely from experiences at home and identification with the parents. Family physicians are in a unique position to recognize parental a...
Article
Full-text available
In order to describe the telephone management of gastroenteritis by family practice residents, audiotapes and transcripts of telephone calls by 31 family practice residents were analysed with respect to clinical content, temporal patterns, and physicians' utterance form. The study hypothesis were that year 3 residents would have shorter calls, take...
Article
Full-text available
This study addressed observers' perceptions of self-touching and the moderating effects of mode of presentation (spontaneous vs. posed) and stimulus persons' role and sex. Videotaped scenes were composed of stimulus persons in scenes containing factorial combinations of four dichotomous variables (self-touching vs. control; spontaneous vs. posed; p...
Article
Full-text available
Two studies addressed the question of observers' impressions of physicians and patients who displayed self-touching, a behavior reported to indicate negative affect. In Study 1 self-touching was regarded as more Expressive and Warm, while control scenes were viewed as more Calm. The results of Study 2 showed that observers judged hand gestures most...
Article
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
A telephone survey of Ohio residents was undertaken to measure how respondents rate 12 selected characteristics of physicians and medical practices when choosing a doctor. All parameters were found to be important, some more than others. "The doctor being able to explain things in an easily understood way" ranked first, followed closely by "being a...
Article
Full-text available
Family Medicine residents were videotaped in interviews with a new and a return-visit patient. Two coders recorded nonverbal behavior performed by the residents for two, one-minute segments of each interview. Categories of movement included: proxemic behaviors of distance, orientation, and trunk lean, and head, hand/arm, and leg/foot movement, faci...
Article
Full-text available
In conversation, speaking turns are exchanged rapidly and without explicit decisions about turn allocation. This suggests that participants cue each other in the process of switching speaker-listener roles. The verbal and nonverbal behaviors of five interactants engaged in conversation were analyzed in detail in relation to turn-taking. A significa...
Article
Full-text available
In this study of 28 physicians and their patients during the medical interview, information is presented on a class of nonverbal behavior, self-touching, thought to represent states of negative affect. A more recent perspective suggests that self-touching is associated with cognitive processing. The results of the present study focused on differenc...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between mood change and migraine headache has often been reported anecdotally, but these observations have not been followed up empirically. In this study 17 migraine sufferers recorded headache occurrence and intensity using 10 mood indicators 3 times daily for periods ranging from 21 to 75 days. Headaches were correlated with moo...
Article
Full-text available
Children 3, 6, 9, and 12 years of age were assessed on their ability to recognize and identify facial expressions of emotion. In an emotion recognition (ER) task, children were presented with three facial photographs and were asked to select the photo representing a particular emotion (e.g., happiness, disgust, sadness). Another task, emotion label...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between physicians' b]ody movement and judgments of rapport was examined in this study. One-hundred eighteen observers rated physicians' b]ehavior on 14 bipolar scales assessing dimensions of empathy. Physicians' n]onverbal behavior was manipulated so that there were three levels of trunk angle (forward, straight, backward), two le...
Article
Full-text available
Somatic complaints are a common feature of somatoform, depressive, and anxiety disorders. The distinction of these disorders is difficult in the primary care setting when somatic complaints are the presenting symptom. This study compared the characteristics and diagnostic consistency of 142 patients diagnosed by family physicians as having one of t...
Article
Full-text available
Learning climates were generated by students with different achievement styles through small group interactions around tasks at different times in the quarter. Achievement styles were based on scores on the Achievement via Conformance and the Achievement via Independence scales of the CPI, with scores either both high or both low, or high on one an...

Questions

Question (1)
Question
help. how do i see a list of my publications that you have?

Network

Cited By