Jinkook Lee

Jinkook Lee
University of Southern California | USC

PHD,PHD

About

164
Publications
28,455
Reads
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3,234
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2013 - present
University of Southern California
Position
  • Professor (Full)
October 2009 - present
RAND Corporation
Position
  • senior economist

Publications

Publications (164)
Preprint
Background The coronavirus disease (COVID) pandemic caused disruption globally and was particularly distressing in low- and middle-income countries such as India. This study aimed to provide population representative estimates of COVID-related outcomes in India over time and characterize how COVID-related changes and impacts differ by key socioecon...
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In social environments characterized by high levels of gender inequality, women fare worse than men in human capital accumulation and health. We examine the association of gender inequality with female disadvantage in late-life cognitive function, using newly available data from Wave 1 (2017–2019) of the Longitudinal Aging Study in India (LASI), re...
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Background: Cognitive aging is a complex phenomenon, which comprises various cognitive skills, broadly categorized into fluid and crystallized intelligence. Crystallized intelligence (gc) tends to be maintained, as opposed to fluid intelligence (gf), which tends to decline rapidly with age. The association of the two with cognitive decline remains...
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Using data collected in 2017–18 for the baseline wave of the Longitudinal Ageing Study in India, this paper analyzes labor force participation among older adults (people aged 60 years and older) and their job characteristics, income, and associated social security benefits. Analysis of a cohort of 31,464 older adults shows that although labor force...
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Objectives: Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, behavioural interventions to reduce disease transmission have been central to public health policy worldwide. Sustaining individual protective behaviour is especially important in low-income and middle-income settings, where health systems have fewer resources and access to vaccination is limit...
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Background Hypertension is the most important cardiovascular risk factor in India, and representative studies of middle-aged and older Indian adults have been lacking. Our objectives were to estimate the proportions of hypertensive adults who had been diagnosed, took antihypertensive medication, and achieved control in the middle-aged and older Ind...
Article
The Longitudinal Aging Study in India (LASI), the largest national health and retirement study in the world, released its wave 1 microdata earlier this year. The principal investigators of LASI introduce the study and explain how it can advance aging research in India and beyond in response to the impending challenges of rapid population aging.
Article
Since the seminal paper of Rohwedder and Willis (2010), the effect of retirement on cognition has drawn significant research interest from economists. Especially with ongoing policy discussions about public pension reforms and the increasing burden of dementia, it is indisputably an important research question with significant policy implications....
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This study aimed to determine the dose–response relationship between the levels of statin exposure and the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We included 119,013 Korean adults (≥ 60 years old) using a database from the Korean National Health Insurance Service (2002–2013). Statin exposure was treated as a time-varying variable. Incidence of AD w...
Article
Objectives: The Gateway to Global Aging Data (Gateway; g2aging.org) is a data and information platform developed to facilitate cross-country analyses on aging, especially those using the international family of Health and Retirement studies. We provide a brief introduction to the Gateway to Global Aging Data, discussing its potential for cross-nat...
Article
Objectives: We evaluated whether the effects of recent stressful life events (SLEs) and early childhood adversities (ECAs) on depressive symptoms are consistent between men and women and across older age, and whether there was evidence for the following: stress sensitization, whereby the psychological impact of SLEs is greater for individuals with...
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Background: Inequality in gender varies across social contexts, which may influence the health of both men and women. Based on theories of gender as a social system, we examine whether systematic gender inequality at the macro level influences health of men and women. Methods: Using harmonized panel data from the Gateway to Global Aging Data in...
Article
Background To investigate whether female reproductive factors are associated with dementia. Methods We identified 4,696,633 postmenopausal women without dementia using the Korean National Health Insurance System database. Data on reproductive factors were collected using self‐administered questionnaire. Dementia was determined using dementia diagn...
Article
To investigate the association between visit-to-visit variability in blood pressure and the incidence of dementia and its subtypes in a general population, we conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using the Korean National Health Insurance System database. We identified 7 844 814 subjects without a history of any dementia who unde...
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We document side-by-side trends in the gender gap of educational achievement and late-life cognition across countries. By and large, we find that, within the cohorts born between 1920 and 1959, women have had significantly lower educational attainment than men, with the gap narrowing over time. Correspondingly, we estimate a pronounced tendency of...
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Introduction Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias can be considered the epidemic of the 21st century. Particularly, the predicted growth in the size of elderly populations in low-income and middle-income countries is expected to produce a dramatic surge in dementia prevalence and incidence. Although a rising burden of dementia presents an urge...
Article
In an effort to promote comparative research on pensions, the Gateway to Global Aging Data is developing harmonized cross-national panel data on pension benefits and retirement incentives. Past research has varied in how it predicts pension benefits for individuals who have not yet claimed their benefits when administrative data on earnings histori...
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Background Significant gains in life expectancy have been achieved, but living longer does not necessarily mean the years gained are productive and healthy. Different theories predict different patterns of time trends in old-age disability prevalence. Methods Using the Gateway to Global Aging Data, which provides internationally harmonized longitu...
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The concept of frailty has been used in the clinical and research field for more than two decades. It is usually described as a clinical state of heightened vulnerability to poor resolution of homeostasis after a stressor event, which thereby increases the risk of adverse outcomes, including falls, delirium, disability and mortality. Here we report...
Data
Phenotypes. Lists of deficits for the Frailty Index. (XLSX)
Data
Graphs. Distribution of the phenotypic variable. (XLSX)
Data
Plots. QQ and Manhattan plots of the GWAS. (XLSX)
Data
GenAssoc. The most significant results of the genome-wide association scan. (XLSX)
Article
The stress sensitization hypothesis (SSH) postulates that the psychological impact of stressful life events (SLEs) is greater for adults with childhood trauma than those without. Most prior research evaluating the SSH and depressive symptoms (DepSx) is based on younger adults in cross-sectional studies, which cannot rule out alternative explanation...
Article
Objectives: The Health and Retirement Study (HRS) was designed as an interdisciplinary study with a strong focus on health, retirement, and socioeconomic environment, to study their dynamic relationships over time in a sample of mid-life adults. The study includes validated self-report measures and individual items that capture the experiences of...
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Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, we examine the association between cognition and financial outcomes among older American couples. We first investigate the relationship between couple members’ cognitive ability and financial responsibility within the household. Our results suggest that differences in the level of cognitive ability p...
Article
Unlike the diagnosed Major Depressive Disorder, depressive symptomatology in the general population has received less attention in genome-wide association scan (GWAS) studies. Here we report a GWAS study on depressive symptomatology using a discovery-replication design and the following approaches: To improve the robustness of the phenotypic measur...
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Background This study evaluated whether baseline results of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test is associated with future dementia occurrence. Methods Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort database, we identified 49 283 subjects without a dementia diagnosis who participated in the National Screening Program...
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Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether anemia is associated with dementia incidence in the elderly. Methods Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort (NHIS-HEALS) database, we identified 66-year-old subjects (n = 37,900) who were free of dementia and stroke. Anemia (hemoglobin < 12 g/d...
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Background International comparisons of disease prevalence have been useful in understanding what proportion of disease might be preventable and in informing potential policy interventions in different cultural and economic contexts. Using newly available, harmonized data from 20 countries, we compare disability and morbidity of older adults betwee...
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Imbalances in the sex ratio at birth in Southeast and East Asia increased especially after the mid-1980s. We study how ultrasonic technology affected sex ratios at birth in South Korea, a country with a strong son preference. Between 1985 and 1995 fetal screenings and abortion services were widely available, though not available in the years before...
Article
Objectives: Cardiovascular disease has become a major public health challenge in developing countries. The goal of this study is to compare socioeconomic status (SES) gradients of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) both within and between China and India. Methods: We used multivariable logistic regression models to examine the associations betwe...
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We examine several methodological considerations when eliciting probabilistic expectations in a developing country context using the Longitudinal Ageing Study in India (LASI). We conclude that although, on average, individuals are able to understand the concept of probability, responses are sensitive to framing effects and to own versus hypothetica...
Article
We investigate the health effects of short-term macroeconomic fluctuations as described by changes in unemployment rate, house, and stock market price indexes. The ‘Great Recession’ provides the opportunity to conduct this analysis as it involved contemporaneous shocks to the labor, housing, and stock markets. Using panel data from the Health and R...
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Informal care is increasingly important in countries undergoing population ageing. Previous research has discussed how the long-term care system may affect the behaviours of informal caregivers but has not paid much attention to how changes in caregivers' circumstances, particularly their health, affect those receiving their care. Using the Japanes...
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Portable, user-friendly diagnostics have increased the use of biological markers in national health surveys. The 2010 pilot wave of the Longitudinal Ageing Study in India used a comprehensive biomarker module to measure more accurately the burden of health risks and morbidity among older Indians in four pilot states. This paper presents results fro...
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This guide reviews and summarizes questions on informal/non-institutional care/help from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and its sister surveys. These include: the 2010 wave of the HRS, five waves (2002-03, 2004-05, 2006-07, 2008-09 & 2010-11) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), Waves 1, 2, and 42 (2004-05, 2006-07 & 2010-11)...
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Background: The USA and England have very different health systems. Comparing hypertension care outcomes in each country enables an evaluation of the effectiveness of each system. Method: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing and the Health and Retirement Survey are used to compare the prevalence of controlled, uncontrolled and undiagnosed hy...
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The disablement process can be viewed conceptually as a progression from disease to impairment to functional limitation and finally disability (frequently operationalized as activity limitation). This article assesses the extent to which early phases of the process are associated with individual-level disability trajectories by age. We use data fro...
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Using new biomarker data from the 2010 pilot round of the Longitudinal Aging Study in India (LASI), we investigate education, gender, and state-level disparities in health. We find that hemoglobin level, a marker for anemia, is lower for respondents with no schooling (0.7g/dL less in the adjusted model) compared to those with some formal education...
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This study examines how living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation for older adults in South Korea, which has the highest suicide rate among OECD countries, and a particularly high suicide rate for older persons. Analyzing a sample of 5795 women and 3758 men aged 65 and older from a nationwide representative cross-sectional data-set,...
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Depending on genetic sensitivity to it, stress may affect depressive symptomatology differentially. Applying the stress-diathesis hypothesis to older adults, we postulate: (1) recent stress will associate with increased depressive symptoms levels and (2) this effect will be greater for individuals with at least one short allele of the serotonin tra...
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This study examined relationships between and predictors of objective and subjective health measures among 766 individuals aged ≥ 45 years in India using the 2010 pilot wave of the Longitudinal Aging Study in India (LASI). Correlations between and gender differences in objective [grip strength, lung function] and subjective [self-rated health (SRH)...
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Measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, in dried blood spots has been increasingly incorporated into community-based social surveys internationally. Although the dried blood spot-based CRP assay protocol has been validated in the United States, it remains unclear whether laboratories in other less-developed countries can...
Chapter
Based on Becker’s (1965) theory of time allocation, this paper develops a formal model to explain consumers’ distribution channel switching behavior. Our model suggests that consumers choose among alternative distribution channels on the basis of the relative opportunity costs of time, costs of the goods, pleasure derived from shopping, perceived v...
Article
We study the sensitivity of analyses on income and wealth to the methods of imputation for missing data. We do so by implementing a conditional hot-deck imputation, based on the method used by the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, in the Health and Retirement Study. We compare marginal and joint distributions and regression models estimated fro...
Technical Report
Continued improvements in life expectancy and fiscal insolvency of public pensions have led to an increase in pension entitlement ages in several countries, but its consequences for subjective well-being are largely unknown. Financial consequences of retirement complicate the estimation of effects of retirement on subjective well-being as financia...
Article
This study aims to validate a modified dried blood spot (DBS)-based glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) assay protocol, after a pretest in India showed poor correlation between the original DBS-based protocol and venous results. The original protocol was tested on different chemistry analyzers and then simplified at the University of Washington (UW). A...
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It has been suggested that depression is a polygenic trait, arising from the influences of multiple loci with small individual effects. The aim of this study is to generate a polygenic risk score (PRS) to examine the association between genetic variation and depressive symptoms. Our analytic sample included N = 10,091 participants aged 50 and older...
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Background Insurance against the cost of preventing and treating oral diseases can reduce inequities in dental-care use and oral health. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of variation in dental insurance coverage for older adult populations within and between the USA and various European countries.Method The analyses relied on 200...
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We use two waves of a population based survey (the RAND American Life Panel) to investigate the relations between various evaluative and experienced well-being measures based on the English Longitudinal Study of Aging, the Gallup Wellbeing Index, and a 12-item hedonic well-being module of the Health and Retirement Study. In a randomized set-up we a...
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Background To identify levels of physical inactivity and smoking and examine their relationships to health among older people in India. Methods In 2010, Longitudinal Aging Study in India researchers interviewed 1,683 older adults in randomly sampled households with members aged ≥ 45 years in eight stratified districts in four states (90.9% respons...
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Objectives.To examine gender disparities in cognitive functioning in India and the extent to which education explains this disparity in later life. This study uses baseline interviews of a prospective cohort study of 1,451 community-residing adults 45 years of age or older in four geographically diverse states of India (Karnataka, Kerala, Punjab, R...
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We examine determinants of financial and subjective well-being, in particular poverty and depression, among older individuals in Europe. We do so using the 2004, 2006, and 2010 waves of the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe and estimating dynamic panel data and binary choice transition models. We find a number of common effects acros...