Jinger Gottschall

Jinger Gottschall
Pennsylvania State University | Penn State · Department of Kinesiology

About

62
Publications
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1,527
Citations

Publications

Publications (62)
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility, acceptability, and short-term adherence to an adult outdoor group sport play program designed to maximize enjoyment that was modified to incorporate COVID-19 risk mitigation strategies. We enrolled 17 healthy, but sedentary, central Pennsylvania adults (mean age = 31.6 ± 7.3) without obe...
Article
Background: Over 60 million Americans participate in running as a form of exercise or sport annually, making it the most popular form of physical activity in the country. Although there are numerous health benefits from a regular running routine, it is also an activity associated with a high risk of injury. Multiple factors, such as core muscle we...
Article
Objective: How can we distinguish between a collection of individuals exercising alongside one another from group that is exercising ‘together’? This question is central to research on the extent that individuals perceive their fitness settings to entail core features of groups. To advance understanding of the nature of groupness and its implicatio...
Article
Full-text available
Group contexts such as fitness classes are popular forms of physical activity, and studying them can uncover new ways to promote exercise adherence. Focusing on the potential for group fitness experiences to vary from class-to-class, we examined how exercisers’ dynamic perceptions of groupness relate to recalled perceptions of exercise enjoyment, a...
Article
The growing prevalence and popularity of interval training necessitate additional guidelines in regard to maximal levels of time and intensity. Purpose: To correlate salivary hormones and time in varying heart-rate (HR) zones. The hypothesis was that chronic exercise durations >9% of total exercise time in the >90% maximum HR zone would lead to d...
Article
Popular topics for upper body resistance training involve the differences between hand positions, open versus closed chain exercises, and movement variations for the novice to the advanced. We hypothesized that there will be no difference between closed (push-up) versus open (bench press) chain exercises for the primary muscle group activity nor wo...
Article
Objectives: Given apparent consumer interest in calorie counting and arguably inadequate understanding of the differential effects of exercise modality despite equivalent caloric expenditure, we sought to quantify and compare the acute physiological responses within and between a BODYPUMP™ (BP) group-fitness class and steady-state cycling (CARDIO)...
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Purpose: To examine the effect of TRP agonist ingestion on voluntarily-induced EAMC and motor function. Methods: Study 1: 39 subjects completed 2 trials after ingesting TRP agonist-containing active treatment (A), or vehicle (V) control. Cramping in the triceps surae muscle was induced via voluntary isometric contraction. Study 2: After ingestin...
Article
In a previous study, we found that participants modified how they transitioned onto and off of ramp configurations depending upon the incline. While the transition strategies were originally attributed to ramp angles, it is possible that the plateau influenced the strategies since the final surface height also differed. Ultimately for the current s...
Article
Aim: High load, low repetition resistance training increases BMD in untrained adults; however, many older and untrained adults cannot maintain this type of strenuous program. Our goal was to evaluate whether a low load, high repetition resistance training program would increase BMD in untrained adults. Methods: Twenty sedentary, but otherwise he...
Article
Full-text available
Engaging in regular physical activity is a challenging task for many adults. Intrinsic satisfaction with exercise classes is thought to promote adherence to physical activity. This study examined the characteristics of exercise classes that impact within-person changes in intrinsic satisfaction over the course of an extended group exercise program....
Article
Falls are the leading cause of injury for all age groups. However, adults over 65 are at a higher risk, with one-third falling each year. Transitioning between level and hill surfaces poses a greater fall risk than walking on either surface alone. In order to mitigate this risk, young adults adopt a cautious gait pattern. As older adults typically...
Article
Locomotion on ramped surfaces requires modulation of both pattern-generating circuits and limb stiffness. To meet the mechanical demands of locomotion under these conditions, muscular activation patterns must correspond to the appropriate functions, whether the muscles are serving as force generators or brakes. Limb stiffness is a critical mechanic...
Article
Segment lengths are known to influence walking kinematics and muscle activity patterns. During level walking at the same speed, taller individuals take longer, slower strides than shorter individuals. Based on this, we sought to determine if segment lengths also influenced hill walking strategies. We hypothesized that individuals with longer segmen...
Article
Full-text available
There is a need to provide interventions that are of interest to older adults who are not inclined to participate in conventional exercise programs and that can improve balance and fear of falling. One purpose of this pilot study was to assess feasibility and acceptability of an eight-week (3x/wk, 90-minute sessions) multifaceted, small group, expe...
Article
Falls are the leading cause of nonfatal injury across all age groups and a common incident for pregnant women. Thus, there is a critical demand for research to evaluate if walking strategies in pregnant women change throughout pregnancy in order to effectively intervene and minimize the incidence rate. The aim of the present study was to analyze mo...
Article
It is well established that metabolic cost is minimized at an individual's running preferred step frequency (PSF). It has been proposed that the metabolic minimum at PSF is due to a tradeoff between mechanical factors, however, this ignores muscle activity, the primary consumer of energy. Thus, we hypothesized that during downhill running, total mu...
Article
Full-text available
In the past 5 years, 1 of every 3 deaths in the United States was attributed to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Regular physical activity has numerous benefits associated with the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Despite these details, 60% of Americans are not regularly physically active and 25% are not active at all. Previous studie...
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Full-text available
Many theories of motor control suggest that we select our movements to reduce energy use. However, it is unclear if this process underlies short-term motor adaptation to novel environments. Here we asked whether adaptation to walking on a split-belt treadmill leads to a more economical walking pattern. We hypothesized that adaptation would be accom...
Article
Individuals must constantly modify their gait patterns to safely transition between different surfaces. The goal of the current study was to determine if gait changes could be detected two steps from a transition, and whether these changes scaled with the angle of the hill. We hypothesized that during the anticipation of uphill walking and the afte...
Article
The purpose of our study was to determine if altering the insoles within footwear or walking barefoot, as an attempt to increase or decrease cutaneous stimuli, would improve dynamic balance during a hill-walking task. We hypothesize that compared with foam insoles or iced bare feet, textured insoles or bare feet will result in greater speeds, longe...
Article
Gait maturation, evidenced in, for example, the ability to walk over nonlevel surfaces, is an important indicator of typical development in children. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the walking strategies used by children and adults during hill walking. Temporal-spatial gait parameters and trial-to-trial coefficient of variation...
Article
Full-text available
Unique compared with recent and prehistoric Homo sapiens, Neandertal humeri are characterised by a pronounced right-dominant bilateral strength asymmetry and an anteroposteriorly strengthened diaphyseal shape. Remodeling in response to asymmetric forces imposed during regular underhanded spear thrusting is the most influential explanatory hypothesi...
Data
Experimental set up for spearing tasks. (TIF)
Data
Experimental setup for the vertical pull down scraping task. (TIF)
Data
Electrode placement. Left to right: left posterior deltoid, left infraspinatus, right infraspinatus, right posterior deltoid, right anterior deltoid, right pectoralis major, left pectoralis major, left anterior deltoid. (TIF)
Data
Experimental setup for the hack task. (TIF)
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Experimental setup for the push and pull scraping tasks. (TIF)
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Activity window definition; spearing tasks. Processed EMG patterns shown in black, with the final activity time windows shown in green. (TIF)
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Activity window definition; scraping tasks. Processed EMG patterns in black. Blue lines indicate local minima, determined from peak detection code, whereas green lines illustrate the activity bursts. (TIF)
Data
Chisel (top) and mini-crowbar utilized in the hack and vertical pull down scraping tasks, respectively. (TIF)
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Replica side scrapers used for the push and pull scraping tasks. (TIF)
Article
Full-text available
In level running, humans and other animals store and recover elastic energy during each step. What role does elastic energy play during downhill and uphill running? We measured the fluctuations of the mechanical energy of the center of mass (CoM) of 15 human participants running at 3 m s(-1) on the level, downhill and uphill on a force-measuring tr...
Article
The American College of Sports Medicine and the United States Department of Health and Human Services advocate core training as a means to improve stability, reduce injury, and maintain mobility. There are countless exercises that target the primary core trunk muscles (abdominal and lumbar) with the aim of providing these benefits. However, it is u...
Article
Walking on both outdoor and indoor surfaces requires the ability to negotiate connections between vertical distances, simply known as hills and stairs. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the muscle activity patterns of the TFL and ADL during both hill and stair walking. We hypothesized that TFL and ADL activity during initi...
Article
According to the CDC, falls are the leading cause of injury for all age groups with over half of the falls occurring during slope and stair walking. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to compare and contrast the different factors related to fall risk as they apply to these walking tasks. More specifically, we hypothesized that compared to...
Article
Healthy young adults transition between level and hill surfaces of various angles while walking at fluctuating speeds. These surface transitions have the potential to decrease dynamic balance in both the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. Hence, the purpose of the current study was to analyze modifications in temporal-spatial paramet...
Article
Full-text available
Despite continual fluctuations in walking surface properties, humans and animals smoothly transition between terrains in their natural surroundings. Walking transitions have the potential to influence dynamic balance in both the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions, thereby increasing fall risk and decreasing mobility. The goal of the c...
Article
According to the CDC, the majority of fall-related accidents occur during stair walking. It is likely that the required increases in range of motion and muscle activity during stair walking contribute to increased fall risk. In addition, compared to level walking, the transition strides before and after stair walking demonstrate increased fall risk...
Article
When climbing stairs, there are 2 practical strategies, contact each step with alternating feet (single) or contact every other step (double) with alternating feet. Our purpose was to evaluate the metabolic cost and muscular activity of these single and double stair-climbing strategies. We hypothesized that metabolic cost would not differ between t...
Article
The sensory and neural mechanisms underlying postural control have received much attention in recent decades but remain poorly understood. Our objectives were 1) to establish the decerebrate cat as an appropriate model for further research into the sensory mechanisms of postural control and 2) to observe what elements of the postural response can b...
Article
Full-text available
Our purpose was to quantify the effects of head pitch on muscle activity patterns of the decerebrate cat hindlimb during walking. Five decerebrate cats walked at 0.7 m/s on a treadmill positioned level with the head pitch either parallel to the treadmill, 50% nose down or 50% nose up. We collected electromyography data from six hindlimb muscles. Du...
Article
Full-text available
Humans and other animals exchange gravitational potential energy (GPE) and kinetic energy (KE) of the center of mass during level walking. How effective is this energy exchange during downhill and uphill walking? Based on previous reports and our own reasoning, we expected that during downhill walking, the possibility for mechanical energy exchange...
Article
Full-text available
To investigate the metabolic cost and muscular actions required for the initiation and propagation of leg swing, we applied a novel combination of external forces to subjects walking on a treadmill. We applied a forward pulling force at each foot to assist leg swing, a constant forward pulling force at the waist to provide center of mass propulsion...
Article
Full-text available
Animals must perform mechanical work during walking, but most conserve substantial mechanical energy via an inverted-pendulum-like mechanism of energy recovery in which fluctuations of kinetic energy (KE) and gravitational potential energy (GPE) are of similar magnitude and 180 degrees out of phase. The greatest energy recovery typically occurs at...
Article
We investigated the normal and parallel ground reaction forces during downhill and uphill running. Our rationale was that these force data would aid in the understanding of hill running injuries and energetics. Based on a simple spring-mass model, we hypothesized that the normal force peaks, both impact and active, would increase during downhill ru...
Article
Full-text available
We reasoned that with an optimal aiding horizontal force, the reduction in metabolic rate would reflect the cost of generating propulsive forces during normal walking. Furthermore, the reductions in ankle extensor electromyographic (EMG) activity would indicate the propulsive muscle actions. We applied horizontal forces at the waist, ranging from 1...
Article
To determine if cycling cadence affects subsequent running speed through changes in stride frequency. Thirteen male triathletes completed three sessions of testing on separate days. During the first session (control condition), the participants completed a 30-min cycling bout of high intensity at their preferred cadence, immediately followed by a 3...
Article
Purpose: To determine if cycling cadence affects subsequent running speed through changes in stride frequency. Methods: Thirteen male triathletes completed three sessions of testing on separate days. During the first session (control condition), the participants completed a 30-min cycling bout of high intensity at their preferred cadence, immediate...
Article
This study determined the acute effects of an intense cycling bout on running kinematics (step length and step frequency) and on running performance (speed and efficiency). Ten male triathletes completed 2 sessions of testing on separate days. During the first session (the cycle/run condition), the participants completed a 30-minute high-intensity...
Article
INTRODUCTION Walking on sloped surfaces increases the risk of falls in the elderly [1], the leading cause of unintentional injury in the United States. However, it is nearly impossible for individuals to avoid surface transitions when walking either inside or outside during daily life. An appropriate biomechanical response to reduce the risk of fal...

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