Jing-Sheng Song

Jing-Sheng Song
Duke University | DU · Fuqua School of Business, Duke University

Ph.D, Columbia University

About

109
Publications
36,274
Reads
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4,013
Citations

Publications

Publications (109)
Article
Problem definition: We consider an OEM supplying a single part to multiple buyers over an infinite horizon. We study how the OEM can digitize the spare parts supply chain by leveraging 3D printing via intellectual property (IP) licensing. Academic/practical relevance: Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, has the potential to shift sup...
Article
Problem definition: We study the optimal inventory ordering, expediting, and allocation decisions in a multiechelon supply chain over a finite horizon, in which customer orders are quoted with a fixed fulfillment time window, termed the service time target (STT). Academic/practical relevance: Service time target is commonly used as a marketing stra...
Article
We consider a retailer that sells a perishable product, making joint pricing and inventory ordering decisions over a finite time horizon of T periods with lost sales. Exploring a real-life data set from a leading supermarket chain, we identify several distinctive challenges faced by such a retailer that have not been jointly studied in the literatu...
Preprint
Full-text available
In 2020, inventory shrinkage eroded $61.7 billion profit in the U.S. retail industry. Unfortunately, fighting inventory shrinkage to protect retailers' already slim profits is challenging due to unknown shrinkage rates and invisible inventory levels. While the latter has been studied in the literature, the former has not. To deal with this challeng...
Article
Motivated by the need of small and medium-sized hospitals to improve their platelet inventory management and achieve best practices, we consider an inventory system for a perishable product with 3-period shelf-life over a finite horizon. In the system, the regular replenishment in each cycle is supplemented by an inventory adjustment opportunity in...
Article
We present a general framework to study the design of spare parts logistics in the presence of three-dimensional (3-D) printing technology. We consider multiple parts facing stochastic demands and adopt procure/manufacture-to-stock versus print-on-demand to highlight the main difference of production modes featured in traditional manufacturing and...
Article
In a supply network consisting of a buyer, a purchasing agent and a supplier, the buyer can procure the component from the supplier directly and rely on the purchasing agent for complementary services (named direct sourcing (DS), or authorize the purchasing agent to conduct both procurement and complementary services (named agent sourcing (AS). Whe...
Article
Full-text available
We present a reproducible, objective review of research trends using text mining and citations of papers published in M&SOM during its first 20 years whose abstracts or keywords contain capacity or inventory. The review is followed by our subjective projections on future research opportunities.
Article
The numerical simulation method is used to analyze the flow field,temperature field and Thermal NO x formation rate in the combustion chamber of a heavy gas turbine under different swirl numbers.The results show that in the main nozzle outlet of the combustion chamber there forms the main recirculation zone,and in the bottom near the wall there exi...
Article
The effects of equivalence ratio on the combustion and the characteristics of NO x generation in the annular combustion chamber were studied by numerical simulation.The changes of the flow field,temperature field,thermal NO x generation rate distribution,OTDF and outlet NO x concentration in the combustion chamber at different equivalence ratios we...
Article
Effects of chamber cross-sectional area on the characteristics of pressure oscillation and NOx for-mation inside a gas turbine combustion chamber were numerically studied using a fully three dimensional compressible Large Eddy Simulation approach to evaluate its impacts on the performance of combustion chamber. The numerical results show that incre...
Article
We consider a single-item continuous-review (r, q) inventory system with a renewal demand process and independent, identically distributed stochastic lead times. Using a stationary marked-point process technique and a heavy-traffic limit, we prove a previous conjecture that inventory position and inventory on-order are asymptotically independent.We...
Article
We study inventory control of serial supply chains with continuous, Markovmodulated demand (MMD). Our goal is to simplify the computational complexity by resorting to certain approximation techniques, and, in doing so, to gain a deeper understanding of the problem. First, we perform a derivative analysis of the problem's optimality equations and de...
Article
In cargo logistics, a key performance measure is transport risk, defined as the deviation of the actual arrival time from the planned arrival time. Neither earliness nor tardiness is desirable for customer and freight forwarders. In this paper, we investigate ways to assess and forecast transport risks using a half-year of air cargo data, provided...
Article
Effects of fuel split on the combustion pressure dynamic and NOx emission characteristics were studied using a compressible large eddy simulation method. Increasing the pilot fuel percentage reduces the pressure oscillations and frequency. The fact that the reduction in pressure oscillation amplitude decreases with pilot fuel percentage indicates t...
Article
Full-text available
In today's increasingly globalized environment, more and more companies recognize the mutual dependence of supply chain partners in value creation. When making business decisions, they take into consideration their partners’ bottom line profitability, especially in emerging markets. The question is, is this kind of practice sustainable? This paper...
Article
In some manufacturing and service processes, several stages must be performed, but there is some freedom in the ordering of stages. Operations reversal means switching the order of two stages. Several authors have studied the benefits of operations reversal, focusing on the reduction of a certain variable’s variance or a related measure. This paper...
Article
Partial cross ownership (PCO) in a dyad supply chain refers to a situation where each firm holds a portion of its partner?s shares. We study this topic in push and pull supply chains, and prove that neither the supply chain?s nor any member?s profit changes with the percentage of the leader?s shares the follower holds. However, while the profits of...
Article
Globalization, innovation, social media, and exposure to natural and man-made disasters have increased organizations' need to cope with demand surges: random, significant increases in demand in an otherwise relatively stable demand environment. To build supply chain capabilities, organizations face a choice between two fundamentally different sourc...
Article
Motivated by our experience with a global company, we propose and study the concept of a semi-centralized supply chain and analyze its coordination issues. We focus on a supply chain consisting of a home plant and a foreign branch, both of which are under the same parent company but have considerable autonomy. The role of the home plant is to provi...
Article
"Spillover" learning is defined as customers' learning about the quality of a service (or product) from their previous experiences with similar yet not identical services. In this paper, we propose a novel, parsimonious and general Bayesian hierarchical learning framework for estimating customers' spillover learning. We apply our model to a one-yea...
Article
We consider a make-to-stock, finite-capacity production system with setup cost and delay-sensitive customers. To balance the setup and inventory related costs, the production manager adopts a two-critical-number control policy, where the production starts when the number of waiting customers reaches a certain level and shuts down when a certain qua...
Article
Stockpiling inventory is an essential strategy for building supply chain resilience. It enables firms to continue operating while finding a solution to an unexpected event that causes a supply disruption or demand surge. While extremely valuable when actually deployed, stockpiles incur large holding costs and usually provide no benefits until such...
Article
We consider two specially structured assemble-to-order (ATO) systems—the N- and W-systems—under continuous review, stochastic demand, and nonidentical component replenishment leadtimes. Using a hybrid approach that combines sample-path analysis, linear programming, and the tower property of conditional expectation, we characterize the optimal compo...
Article
We present a general framework to analyze and quantify the impact of 3D printing on spare parts logistics. We consider multiple parts facing stochastic demands. To minimize long-run average system cost, our model determines which parts should be printed and which should be stocked and the corresponding base-stock levels. When a demand for a stocked...
Article
In today's increasingly globalized environment, more and more companies recognize the mutual dependence of supply chain partners in value creation. When making business decisions, they take into consideration their partners' bottom line profitability, especially in emerging markets. The question is, is this kind of practice sustainable? This paper...
Article
In some manufacturing and service processes, several stages must be performed, but there is some freedom in the ordering of stages. Operations reversal means switching the order of two stages. Several authors have studied the benefits of operations reversal, focusing on the reduction of a certain variable’s variance or a related measure. This paper...
Article
We consider a single-product, two-source inventory system with Poisson demand and backlogging. Inventory can be replenished through a normal supply source, which consists of a two-stage tandem queue with exponential production time at each stage. We can also place an emergency order by skipping the first stage, for a fee. There is no fixed order co...
Article
A retail cluster refers to a collection of horizontally differentiated retailers of a particular business sector locating in close proximity. Retail clusters are commonly seen in developing countries. In this paper, we develop a game-theoretic model to explore why the retail cluster phenomenon is so popular in developing countries and how the gover...
Article
We study the management of social responsibility in a three-tier supply chain in which a Tier 2 supplier sells to a Tier 1 supplier, which in turn sells to a Tier 0 buyer. The Tier 2 supplier potentially violates social and environmental standards, resulting in harm to the Tier 0 and 1 firms. Each member of the supply chain can exert effort to impr...
Technical Report
We consider a three level supply chain in which a Tier 2 supplier sells to a Tier 1 supplier, which in turn sells to a downstream (Tier 0) firm. The Tier 2 supplier potentially violates social and environmental standards, resulting in harm to the Tier 0 firm. Both the manufacturer and Tier 1 supplier can exert effort to improve the responsibility o...
Article
In cargo logistics, a key performance measure is transport risk, defined as the deviation of the actual arrival time from the planned arrival time. Neither earliness nor tardiness is desirable for customer and freight forwarders. In this paper, we investigate ways to assess and forecast transport risks using a half-year of air cargo data, provided...
Article
Advanced information technologies are increasing the variety of payment triggers between supply chain stages. The cost assumptions made by standard multiechelon inventory models, however, do not have the flexibility to account for these rapid changes. We take one step towards closing this gap by focusing on common payment triggers used with wholesa...
Article
Globalization, innovation, social media, and exposure to natural and man-made disasters have increased organizations’ need to cope with demand surges: random, significant increases in demand in an otherwise relatively stable demand environment. To build supply chain capabilities, organizations face a choice between two fundamentally different sourc...
Article
Several leading companies have realized the importance of sustainable quality supply and have initiated programs to achieve it. One example is Starbucks' C.A.F.E. Practices. This paper investigates whether the guidelines in such programs provide the right incentives and information structures for all parties to participate in order to achieve the i...
Article
We study inventory control of serial supply chains with continuous, Markov-modulated demand (MMD). Our goal is to simplify the computational complexity by resorting to certain approximation techniques, and, in doing so, to gain a deeper understanding of the problem. First, we perform a derivative analysis of the problem's optimality equations, and...
Article
We consider single-item (r, q) and (s, T) inventory systems with integer-valued demand processes. While most of the inventory literature studies continuous approximations of these models and establishes joint convexity properties of the policy parameters in the continuous space, we show that these properties no longer hold in the discrete space, in...
Article
A supply stream is a continuous version of a supply chain. It is like a series inventory system, but stock can be held at any point along a continuum, not just at discrete stages. We assume stationary parameters and aim to minimize the long-run average total cost. We show that a stationary continuous-stage echelon base-stock policy is optimal. That...
Article
Full-text available
We consider an N -stage serial supply chain with random demand, and study the problem of minimizing average inventory-holding cost subject to a pre-specified fill-rate constraint. Since the form of the optimal policy is unknown, we focus on base-stock policies. We present a bottom-up recursive procedure for policy evaluation and develop bounds on t...
Article
This paper studies the optimization of the (S, T) inventory policy, where T is the replenishment interval and S is the order-up-to level. First, we demonstrate that the previously established joint convexity of the long-run average cost is false. Hence, the optimization is not straightforward. We then point out that the joint convexity concept depe...
Article
This article analyzes a capacity/inventory planning problem with a one-time uncertain demand. There is a long procurement leadtime, but as some partial demand information is revealed, the firm is allowed to cancel some of the original capacity reservation at a certain fee or sell off some inventory at a lower price. The problem can be viewed as a g...
Article
Full-text available
We propose an approximation for the inverse first passage time problem. It is similar in spirit and method to the tangent approximation for the original first passage time problem. We provide evidence that the technique is quite accurate in many cases. We also identify some cases where the approximation performs poorly.
Article
We propose an approximation for the inverse first passage time problem. It is similar in spirit and method to the tangent approximation for the original first passage time problem. We provide evidence that the technique is quite accurate in many cases. We also identify some cases where the approximation performs poorly.
Article
We consider a three-tier supply chain consisting of an original equipment manufacturer (OEM), a contract manufacturer (CM) and a supplier. We analyze and compare three outsourcing structures that are currently implemented by top-tier OEMs: (1) inhouse consignment, under which the OEM signs independent contracts with the CM and the supplier; (2) tur...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyzes a class of common-component allocation rules, termed no-holdback (NHB) rules, in continuous-review assemble-to-order (ATO) systems with positive lead times. The inventory of each component is replenished following an independent base-stock policy. In contrast to the usually assumed first-come-first-served (FCFS) component alloca...
Article
Full-text available
We consider a multiproduct assemble-to-order (ATO) system, in which inventory is kept only at the component level and the finished products are assembled in response to customer demands. In addition to stochastic demand for finished products, the system experiences stochastic returns of subsets of components, which can then be used to satisfy subse...
Article
Free riding in a multichannel supply chain occurs when one retail channel engages in the customer service activities necessary to sell a product, while another channel benefits from those activities by making the final sale. Although free riding is, in general, considered to have a negative impact on supply chain performance, certain recent industr...
Article
Full-text available
Component commonality has been widely recognized as a key factor in achieving product variety at low cost. Yet, the theory on the value of component commonality is rather limited in the inventory literature. The existing results were built primarily on single-period models or periodic-review models with zero lead times. In this paper, we consider a...
Article
Full-text available
This paper studies a periodic-review, serial supply chain in which materials are ordered and shipped according to (R,nQ) policies. Three information scenarios are considered, depending on the level of information available: echelon, local, and quasilocal. In the echelon scenario, each stage can access the inventory and cost information within its e...
Article
Full-text available
Consider an inventory system with multiple supply sources and Poisson demand. The replenishment lead times from each source are stochastic, representing congestion and disruption. We develop performance evaluation and optimization tools for a family of reasonable order policies. These policies take into account real-time supply information, which c...
Article
We consider a multiperiod inventory system of a perishable product with unobservable lost sales. Demand distribution parameters are unknown and are updated periodically using the Bayesian approach based on the censored historical sales data. We develop an explicit expression of the first-order condition for optimality that demonstrates the key trad...
Article
The Internet has provided traditional retailers a new means with which to serve customers. Consequently, many “bricks-and-mortar” retailers have transformed to “clicks-and-mortar” by incorporating Internet sales. Examples of companies making such a transition include Best Buy, Wal-Mart, Barnes & Noble, etc. Despite the increasing prevalence of this...
Article
Full-text available
This paper studies dynamic inventory and pricing decisions for a set of substitutable prod-ucts over a finite planning horizon. We present a general stochastic, price-dependent demand model that unifies many commonly used demand models in the literature. Unsatisfied demands are backlogged. There are linear purchasing, inventory-holding, and backord...
Article
Full-text available
We consider two models of stochastic serial inventory systems with economies of scale for which the forms of optimal policies are known. In the first model, each stage has a fixed-order quantity, while in the second model, there is a fixed-order cost for external supplies. For each model, we show that the optimal policy parameters can be bounded an...
Article
Full-text available
We study channel coordination policies for products subject to midlife price declines during their short product life cycles. Using a two-period supply chain model consisting of one supplier and one retailer, we identify policies and/or conditions under which the supply chain can be coordinated and a win-win situation can be guaranteed. We also pro...
Article
We consider a finite-horizon, periodic-review inventory model with demand forecast updates following the Martingale Model of Forecast Evolution (MMFE). The optimal policy is a state- dependent base-stock policy, which, however, is computationally intractable to obtain. We develop tractable bounds on the optimal base-stock levels, and derive a neces...
Article
Full-text available
We study a finite-horizon lost-sales inventory model. The demand distribution is unknown, and is dynamically updated based on the previous sales data in a Bayesian fashion. While the literature on inventory problems with censored demand data has mostly focused on multi-period newsvendor models, in which the leftovers at each period must be salvaged...
Article
Full-text available
We analyze a serial base-stock inventory model with Poisson demand and a fill-rate constraint. Our objective is to gain insights into the linkage between the stages to facilitate optimal system design and decentralized system control. To this end, we develop a closed-form approximation for the optimal base-stock levels. The development consists of...
Article
The authors comment on Ding et al. (2002), and Ding, Bisi, and Puterman respond.
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyzes a series inventory system with stationary costs and stochastic demand over an infinite horizon. A distinctive feature is that demand can be negative, representing returns from customers, as well as zero or positive. We observe that, as in a system with nonnegative demand, a stationary echelon base-stock policy is optimal here. H...
Article
Full-text available
We study a multi-item stochastic inventory system in which customers may order different but possibly overlapping subsets of items, such as a multiproduct assemble-to-order system. The goal is to determine the right base-stock level for each item and to identify the key driving factors. We formulate a cost-minimization model with order-based backor...
Article
Full-text available
As widely accepted performance measures in supply chain management practice, frequency-based service levels such as fill rate and stockout rate are often considered in supply contracts under vendor-managed-inventory (VMI) programs. Using a decentralized two-party capacitated supply chain model consisting of one manufacturer and one supplier in a VM...
Article
Full-text available
We noticed an error in the upper bound on the optimal system stock in Boyaci and Gallego (2001). We provide a procedure to compute the correct bound.
Article
Full-text available
We consider an assemble-to-order (ATO) system: Components are made to stock by production facilities with finite capacities, and final products are assembled only in response to customers' orders. The key performance measures in this system, such as order fill rates, involve evaluation of multivariate probability distributions, which is computation...
Article
Full-text available
We consider the classic N-stage serial supply systems with linear costs and stationary random demands. There are deterministic transportation leadtimes between stages, and unsatisfied demands are backlogged. The optimal inventory policy for this system is known to be an echelon base-stock policy, which can be computed through minimizing N nested co...
Article
We consider the classic N-stage serial supply systems with linear costs and stationary random demands. There are deterministic transportation leadtimes between stages, and unsatisfied demands are backlogged. The optimal inventory policy for this system is known to be an echelon base-stock policy, which can be computed through minimizing, N nested c...
Article
Full-text available
We consider a multiproduct assemble-to-order system. Components are built to stock with inventory controlled by base-stock rules, but final products are assembled to customer orders only. There are multiple types of orders, which arrive at the system following batch Poisson processes. The leadtimes for replenishing component inventory are stochasti...
Article
We study a single-product assembly system in which the final product is assembled to order whereas the components (subassemblies) are built to stock. Customer demand follows a Poisson process, and replenishment lead times for each component are independent and identically distributed random variables. For any given base-stock policy, the exact perf...
Article
In a multi-item inventory system, such as an assemble-to-order manufacturing system or an online-retailing system, a customer order typically consists of several different items in different amounts. The average order-based backorders are the average number of customer orders that are not yet completely filled. While this is an important measure of...
Article
Full-text available
We study an assemble-to-order system with stochastic leadtimes for component replenishment. There are multiple product types, of which orders arrive at the system following batch Poisson processes. Base-stock policies are used to control component inventories. We analyze the system as a set of queues driven by a common, multiclass batch Poisson inp...
Chapter
The structure of a supply chain is fundamentally a reflection of a firm’s business model. For example, in the personal computer (PC) industry, the supply chain often takes a hybrid form: the components — processor, memory, hard disk, monitors, and other peripherals — are built to stock, whereas the end product, the “box”, is assembled to order. In...
Book
In the foreword to Supply Chain Structures, Professor Paul Zipkin notes three global changes that have enabled the recent vast developments in the field of supply chains. Moreover, these changes may be only the beginning and more change is likely in the fast-moving field of supply chain management. These global changes are: • the explosive growth...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a tool called GISMO (Generator of Internet Streaming Media Objects and workloads). GISMO enables the specification of a number of streaming media access characteristics, including object popularity, temporal correlation ...