Jim D Richards

Jim D Richards
University of Central Lancashire | UCLAN · Allied Health Research Unit

PhD, MSc, BEng

About

496
Publications
218,080
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
3,075
Citations
Introduction
I was appointed Professor of Biomechanics and research lead for the Allied Health Research unit at University of Central Lancashire in 2004. My work includes the clinical application of biomechanics, the development of new assessment tools for chronic disease, conservative and surgical management of orthopaedic and neurological conditions, and development of evidence based approaches for improving clinical management and rehabilitation.
Additional affiliations
September 2020 - November 2021
University of Central Lancashire
Position
  • Managing Director
July 2004 - November 2021
University of Central Lancashire
Position
  • Research Lead
July 1995 - July 2004
University of Salford
Position
  • Lecturer
Education
November 1992
Glasgow Caledonian University
Field of study
  • Clinical Biomechanics
September 1991
University of Strathclyde
Field of study
  • Bioengineering
July 1988
University of Plymouth
Field of study
  • Mechanical Enginnering

Publications

Publications (496)
Article
Background: Current multimodal approaches for the management of non-specific patellofemoral pain are not optimal, however, targeted intervention for subgroups could improve patient outcomes. This study explores whether subgrouping of non-specific patellofemoral pain patients, using a series of low cost simple clinical tests, is possible. Method:...
Article
Background: The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of knee brace (KB) and kinesiotaping (KT) on functional performance and self-reported function in individuals six months post-ACLR who desired to return to their pre-injury activity levels but felt unable to do so due to kinesiophobia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional st...
Article
Full-text available
Aim/objective: The aim is to critically analyse and discuss the current literature and determine the effectiveness of rehabilitation for patients after surgical repair of rotator cuff tears for range of motion (ROM), pain, functional status and retear rates; in addition, an update of new literature is included. Design: Overview of systematic rev...
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of biomechanical and clinical measurements in relation to the knee adduction moment when wearing a standard shoe and a shoe design for individuals with knee osteoarthritis (Flex-OA). Methods: Kinematic and kinetic data were collected from thirty-two healthy individuals (64...
Article
Full-text available
Background Cognitive age-related decline is linked to dementia development and gait has been proposed to measure the change in brain function. This study aimed to investigate if spatiotemporal gait variables could be used to differentiate between the three cognitive status groups. Methods Ninety-three older adults were screened and classified into...
Article
Full-text available
Background Different multi-segment foot models have been used to explore the effect of foot orthoses. Previous studies have compared the kinematic output of different multi-segment foot models, however, no study has explored if different multi-segment foot models detect similar kinematic changes when wearing a foot orthoses. The aim of this study w...
Article
A limitation of the ability to rotate the head with respect to the upper body has been associated with turning problems; however, the extent of head constraints on whole-body coordination has not been fully determined. The aim of this study was to limit head on body rotation and observe the effects on whole-body coordination during standing turns a...
Article
Background: Previous studies have demonstrated changes in lumbar multifidus muscle (LM) contractility after motor control exercises (MCE), and it has been hypothesized that adding neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) may help to re-activate motor units. Objective: To present the effects of combined NMES and MCE on LM contractility, spatia...
Article
Introduction: En bloc turning highlights a lack of rotational intersegmental coordination, which commonly impacts turning ability in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Whilst this turning deficit responds fairly well to medical treatment, it may be further mitigated by performing specific exercise training. Thus, the present study aimed to exam...
Article
Full-text available
It is well-established that processes involving changing direction or turning in which either or both standing and walking turns are utilized involve coordination of the whole-body and stepping characteristics. However, the turn context and whole-body coordination have not been fully explored during different turning amplitudes. For these reasons,...
Preprint
Background: Different multi-segment foot models have been used to explore the effect of foot orthoses. Previous studies have compared the kinematic output of different multi-segment foot models, however, no study has explored if different multi-segment foot models detect similar kinematic changes when wearing a foot orthoses. The aim of this study...
Article
Full-text available
Background: External cues are effective in improving gait in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the most effective cueing method has yet to be determined. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the immediate effects of using visual, auditory, or somatosensory cues on their own or in combination during walking compared to no...
Article
Full-text available
Thoracolumbar pain has been identified in both human and equine patients. Rehabilitation and conditioning programs have focused specifically on improving trunk and abdominal muscle function (1–5). Equine exercise programs routinely incorporate ground poles and training devices for the similar goals of increasing spinal and core stability and streng...
Article
Context: Abnormal knee frontal plane projection angles (FPPA) during movement have been associated with patellofemoral pain. As such, clinicians are interested in valid and reliable instruments suitable for broad-based clinical use that allow them to objectively measure such variables. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine the...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two 10-week non-laboratory based running retraining programs on foot kinematics and spatiotemporal parameters in recreational runners. One hundred and three recreational runners (30 ± 7.2 years old, 39% females) were randomly assigned to either: a barefoot retraining group (BAR) with 3 sessions/we...
Article
Objective: To determine lumbar multifidus muscle (LM) activation deficits in individuals with impaired lumbopelvic control (iLPC) based on musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSKUS) in conjunction with electrical stimulation approach, and the correlation between back extension force and LM activation. Design: A cross-sectional study design. Setting: A univ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Explore whether dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) influences cutting kinematics. Methods: Dorsiflexion ROM was measured in 42 individuals using the weight-bearing lunge test (WBLT). Unanticipated cutting kinematics were collected at initial contact (IC) and between IC and maximum knee flexion using three-dimensional motion and inertial m...
Article
Background: Running is a cyclic movement requiring bilateral symmetry between the lower limbs to reduce injury risk. The assessment of side-to-side differences is often performed to detect functional deficits. Objectives: The purpose was to study side-to-side differences using clinical and running performance assessments in healthy runners (HR), r...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Excessive knee valgus has been strongly suggested as a contributing key factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis is considered the "gold standard" to assess joint kinematics, however, this is difficult for on-field assessments and for clinical setting. Purpose: To investigate the co...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) identifies participants displaying potentially high-risk movement patterns during a double-leg jump-landing (DLJL) task. However, the DLJL has been criticized for not reflecting injury-prone situations in sport. The biomechanics and perceived difficulty of a rotated single-leg jump-landing (SLJLro...
Article
Full-text available
The identification of movement strategies in situations that are as ecologically valid as possible is essential for the understanding of lower limb interactions. This study considered the kinetic and kinematic data for the hip, knee and ankle joints from 376 block jump-landings when moving in the dominant and non-dominant directions from fourteen s...
Article
Full-text available
Background: This study aimed to determine the effects of a standard therapeutic cooling protocol using crushed ice on the elbow to explore if changes in the motor unit (MU) firing rates in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle are comparable to known changes in sensory and motor nerve conduction velocity (NCV) due to a regional temperature dr...
Article
Introduction The use of motor imagery (MI) has been shown to offer significant improvements in movement performance in sports, and is now receiving a lot of attention as a relatively new therapeutic approach which can be applied in rehabilitation. However, the effects of MI on the quality of movement is still unclear. This study explored the immedi...
Article
Background Kinesio Taping is frequently used in the management of lower limb injuries, and has been shown to improve pain, function, and running performance. However, little is known about the effects of Kinesio Taping on running biomechanics, muscle activity, and perceived benefits. Research question This study aimed to explore the immediate effe...
Article
Background Although the effects of medial wedge insoles on lower limb biomechanics have been investigated, information about the effects of different magnitudes of medial posting is still lacking. Research question: What are the dose-response effects of medial wedge insoles with postings varying between 0 °, 3 °, 6 °, and 9 ° of inclination on the...
Article
Core strengthening and postural stability are desired outcomes of certain therapeutic exercises performed in horses. This study aimed to quantify changes in muscle activation at a walk and trot in horses traveling over eight consecutive ground poles evenly spaced (at 30 inches for walk and 48 inches for trot) in parallel fashion in a straight line,...
Article
Background: Turns are often cited as a difficult task for individuals with Parkinson's disease and often lead to falls, however targeted exercise interventions may help to reduce this problem. This study examined the effects of a 10-week home-based exercise program focusing on turns which may be an exercise approach for improving mobility and reduc...
Article
Full-text available
The rotator cuff has an important role in the stability and function of the glenohumeral joint. It is a complex anatomic structure commonly affected by injury such as tendinopathy and cuff tears. The rotator cuff helps to provide a stabilising effect to the shoulder joint by compressing the humeral head against the glenoid cavity via the concavity...
Article
Full-text available
Current restrictions on clinical visits as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic has increased the need for home-based exercise regimes to facilitate useful, long term patterns of behaviour in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD). This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a 10-week home-based exercise program designed to target improv...
Article
BACKGROUND: The number of rotator cuff repairs performed worldwide is increasing every year. However, there are still controversies regarding when rehabilitation after surgery should start. OBJECTIVES: To assess and to compare clinical and biomechanical outcomes of patients who were randomised and allocated to early or conservative rehabilitation a...
Article
Background The Targeted Interventions for Patellofemoral Pain studies (TIPPs) have identified three subgroups exist in UK and Turkish patellofemoral pain (PFP) populations: Strong; Weak and Tight; and Weak and Pronated, based on six clinical assessments. The thresholds used to develop the subgrouping algorithms were based on normative values source...
Article
Full-text available
Difficulty in turning is prevalent in older adults and results in postural instability and risk of falling. Despite this, the mechanisms of turning problems have yet to be fully determined, and it is unclear if different speeds directly result in altered posture and turning characteristics. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of turni...
Article
Background Generalized joint hypermobility is an important risk factor for knee injuries, including to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Examining movement patterns specific to hypermobile individuals during sport-specific movements could facilitate development of targeted recommendations and injury prevention programs for this population. Hyp...
Article
Objective: To evaluate the effect of different taping techniques on back muscle fatigue in people with low back pain. Methods: Sixty women with chronic non-specific low back pain were randomly assigned to four groups of 15 participants each: control (CG), Kinesio Taping (KT) with tension (KTT), KT no tension (KTNT) and Micropore® (MP), which wer...
Article
Background: The double-leg jump-landing (DLJL) task is commonly used as a movement screen that can be implemented in large cohorts of athletes. However, it is debatable whether the DLJL is ecologically valid and reflects sporting requirements or injury-prone situations, such as cutting and pivoting. Research question: Which jump-landing movement v...
Article
Full-text available
Selection and training practices for jumping horses have not yet been validated using objective performance analyses. This study aimed to quantify the differences and relationships between movement and muscle activation strategies in horses with varying jump technique to identify objective jumping performance indicators. Surface electromyography (s...
Article
Background Sensorimotor foot orthoses is an alternative concept, which in addition to mechanical effects, are designed to change muscle activation by altering sensory input to the plantar surface of the foot. However, there is little evidence of how these affect the kinematics of the foot during gait. Research question The aim of the study was to...
Article
Full-text available
Contrast therapy is the alternation of thermotherapy and cryotherapy. Commonly used modalities of contrast therapy include contrast water therapy (CWT) and cold/hot packs. Despite a lack of research, it is widely used in clinical and sporting settings, particularly to aid recovery. The scoping review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of rese...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the impact of different mobile phone tasks on gait behaviour in healthy young adults. Methods An experimental design was used in this study. Twenty-five participants, 7 males and 18 females, aged 22.56 ± 2.45 years completed 5 tasks whilst walking. The conditions consisted of no task, calling, play...
Article
Background Varus thrust during walking, visualized as excessive frontal plane knee motion during weight acceptance, is a modifiable risk factor for progression of knee osteoarthritis. However, visual assessment does not capture thrust severity and quantification with optical motion capture is often not feasible. Inertial sensors may provide a conve...
Article
Background: Previous thorax models have been proposed for gait analysis, however these require markers to be placed on the back. This presents a limitation in the kinematic analysis of the thorax under load carriage conditions. Research question: This study evaluated the validity and reliability of a thorax marker set that does not require markers...
Article
Background The differences and relationship between joint stiffness and leg stiffness can be used to characterize the lower limb behavior during different walking speeds. Research question This study aimed to investigate the differences in whole leg and lower limb joint stiffness at different walking speeds and the interactions between leg and low...
Article
Full three-dimensional movements and external moments in golfers' knees and the possible involvement in injuries have not been evaluated using motion capture at high sample frequencies. This study measured joint angles and external moments around the three anatomical axes in both knees of ten professional golfers performing golf drives whilst stand...
Chapter
A thorough understanding of the human gait cycle is a fundamental prerequisite for anyone intending to undertake forensic gait analysis, and useful knowledge for those involved in its commissioning and application. Human locomotion is usually based on walking, which is a process involving two legs alternately providing support and propulsion of the...
Article
Objectives to investigate the distribution of patella skin temperature (Tsk) measurements and to explore the presence of temperature subgroups in patellofemoral pain (PFP) patients. Design cross-sectional observational study design Participants One dataset of 58 healthy participants and 232 PFP patients from three different datasets. Main outcom...
Article
Full-text available
Camera-based 3D motion analysis systems are considered to be the gold standard for movement analysis. However, using such equipment in a clinical setting is prohibitive due to the expense and time-consuming nature of data collection and analysis. Therefore, Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) have been suggested as an alternative to measure movement...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in plantar pressure under the lead and trail foot between two lunge tasks to the net in the dominant (LD) and non-dominant (LND) directions, and to explore how fatigue affects the plantar pressure patterns whilst performing movements before and after a competitive match. Peak and mean pre...
Article
Introduction Injury prevention programs for athletes are still limited by a lack of understanding of specific risk factors that can influence injuries within different sports. The majority of studies on volleyball have not considered the movement patterns when moving in different directions or in planned and unplanned block jump-landings. Methods...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the study was to explore differences in the coronal biomechanics of the trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee joints, and gluteus medius muscle activity (GMed) during walking and step down from two riser heights. Joint kinematics and kinetics from 20 healthy participants were recorded using a 10-camera Qualisys system and force plates, and GM...
Research
Full-text available
This report highlights the successes of the Allied Health Research Unit in 2018-2019 including current projects and publications, through to future developments.
Article
Full-text available
Background Foam roller and vibration techniques are currently used to assist in recovery after fatigue. The main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the use of a foam roller with and without vibration on dynamic balance, ankle dorsiflexion, hamstring and lumbar spine flexibility and perceived knee and ankle stability after an indu...
Article
Background Targeted intervention for subgroups is a promising approach for the management of patellofemoral pain. Hypothesis Treatment designed according to subgroups will improve clinical outcomes in patients unresponsive to multimodal treatment. Study Design Prospective crossover intervention. Level of Evidence Level 3. Methods Patients with...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction There is limited evidence to suggest that a ‘one-size fits all’ mattress provides the appropriate support in individuals with diverse body shapes, a greater understanding of how different mattresses affect the human body is required. By having a more objective approach to choosing a mattress, individuals may improve quality of sleep....
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Back Pain is a worldwide problem that often interferes with work, daily activities and sleep. The stress and disability experienced at night by individuals with simple mechanical Low Back Pain (LBP) could potentially be reduced by targeted treatments designed specifically for this period. This study aimed to assess the clinical effectivenes...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction Volleyball-specific tasks such as jumping or landing need to be combined with fast movements to replicate real game situations, which demands a lot from the musculoskeletal system (1). Identification of injury risk factors between limbs during these tasks is essential for the development of targeted prevention programmes. Therefore, it...
Article
Low-frequency noise attenuation and normalisation are fundamental signal processing (SP) methods for surface electromyography (sEMG), but are absent, or not consistently applied, in equine biomechanics. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of different band-pass filtering and normalisation conventions on sensitivity for identifying d...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Anecdotal evidence supports stretching exercises to minimize symptoms of low back pain and improve function. This study aimed to assess whether a passive gravity assisted traction (PGAT) device can reduce LBP through stretching techniques. Methods Sixty-seven participants with mechanical LBP were randomly assigned to a control or interve...