Jill Alexander

Jill Alexander
University of Central Lancashire | UCLAN · School of Sport and Health Sciences

PhD. MSc. BSc (Hons).

About

53
Publications
13,486
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199
Citations
Citations since 2017
45 Research Items
176 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023010203040
2017201820192020202120222023010203040
Introduction
Ph.D. Utilisation of Cryotherapy in Sport: Understanding the Multifaceted Response

Publications

Publications (53)
Article
Full-text available
Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) is the therapeutic application of extreme cold air for a short duration. Minimal evidence is available for determining optimal exposure time. To explore whether the length of WBC exposure induces differential changes in inflammatory markers, tissue oxygenation, skin and core temperature, thermal sensation and comfort. T...
Article
Full-text available
The key aim of classification in Para sport is to try and ensure that competitors are grouped so that they compete against others with impairments that cause a similar level of activity limitation within a specific sport. This synthesis aimed to identify existing, valid, and reliable, impairment assessment tools to measure eligible impairments that...
Article
Full-text available
Quantification of eccentric hamstring strength within elite youth sporting populations is a contemporary issue within practice. The aim of the study was to identify the reliability of eccentric strength metrics obtained via isokinetic dynamometry (IKD) and the NordBord in an elite youth football population. Furthermore, relationships between the st...
Presentation
Full-text available
Optimal strategies for recovery in elite sport presents ongoing debate. The effects of cold-water immersion (CWI) compared to passive recovery (PR) through a triad of performance measures after fatiguing exercise within a normal micro-cycle, during the mid-competitive season, in elite male footballers were investigated. Participants were randomly a...
Presentation
Full-text available
Limited evidence advocates the most beneficial recovery strategies including contemporary cooling applications. Twenty, elite male academy footballers took part. Following a normal fatiguing training session, players were randomly assigned to receive either cryotherapy (CRYO) or passive recovery (PAS). Data was collected at match-day+1, immediately...
Article
Full-text available
For centuries, cold temperatures have been used by humans for therapeutic, health and sporting recovery purposes. This application of cold for therapeutic purposes is regularly referred to as cryotherapy. Cryotherapies including ice, cold-water and cold air have been popularised by an ability to remove heat, reduce core and tissue temperatures, and...
Article
Background/Aims Foam rolling is a popular form of self-administered soft tissue therapy, commonly used in sporting environments. There are several variations in foam roller types including differences in density. No studies have examined the effects of different density type rollers on performance. This study compares the effects of varying foam ro...
Article
Objectives. — The purpose of the present study was to analyse the association between grip strength and performance of the standardised protocol of the isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP)test. Methods. — In total, 31 elite premier league footballers completed test—retest measures of peak force (PF) grip strength and IMTP, measures were taken 7 days ap...
Article
Full-text available
# BACKGROUND Currently there is no reliability data available for the isometric soleus strength test (ISST), commonly used as a monitoring tool in elite football settings. Isometric strength testing for other muscle groups, most notably the hamstrings, is utilized to identify injury risk and readiness to train/play. To profile athletes efficiently...
Article
Full-text available
The key aim of classification in Para sport is to try and ensure that competitors are grouped so that they compete against others with impairments that cause a similar level of activity limitation within a specific sport. This synthesis aimed to identify existing, valid, and reliable, impairment assessment tools to measure eligible impairments that...
Article
In equestrian sports the novice rider learns first to follow the movements of the horse's back and then how to influence the horse's performance. One of the rider's challenges is to overcome inherent horse/rider asymmetry patterns when riding in straight lines, mirroring the movements on the left and right sides when turning. This study compares th...
Article
Background/Aims For the management of sports injury, cryotherapy is commonly applied, yet modalities differ extensively in application including levels of compression. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive review of the current position in the literature on contemporary cryo-compression applications for musculoskeletal sports inj...
Article
Full-text available
This survey sought to establish current use, knowledge and perceptions of cold-water immersion (CWI) when used for recovery. 111 athletes, coaches and support practitioners completed the anonymous online survey, answering questions about their current CWI protocols, perceptions of benefits associated with CWI and knowledge of controlling mechanisms...
Article
Full-text available
Background: This study aimed to determine the effects of a standard therapeutic cooling protocol using crushed ice on the elbow to explore if changes in the motor unit (MU) firing rates in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle are comparable to known changes in sensory and motor nerve conduction velocity (NCV) due to a regional temperature dr...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Previous research has highlighted the frequency of high-intensity accelerations and decelerations in elite football. The influence of these actions on match performance outcomes has not been established. The aim of the present study was to identify the influence of high-intensity accelerations and decelerations on match performance out...
Article
Background: Rising injury rates within football require further understanding of the etiological risk factors associated with lower-limb injury. Aim: To examine the temporal pattern of recovery of directional dynamic stability measures post football-specific fatigue. Methods: Eighteen male elite footballers completed baseline assessments of di...
Article
BACKGROUND: The effects of contemporary cryo-compression devices on function are limited compared to traditional applications of cooling. Development of cooling protocols are warranted. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of three different cryo-compressive modalities applied at the knee on the isokinetic strength of the quadriceps over a re-warm...
Article
Research contributing to the understanding of the mechanisms that underpin cryotherapy application in sport are evident. The translation of impactful findings that contribute to the design and implementation of cryotherapy protocols which are advantageous to the athlete in an applied sport setting, however, are still being explored. The role of cry...
Article
ABSTRACT: Fatigue is a predisposing risk factor for injury commonly investigated in elite football populations. Little evidence advocates the most beneficial recovery strategies including contemporary cooling applications. The aim of the study was to examine immediate effects of the Game Ready® on physiological and biomechanical measures in a popul...
Article
ABSTRACT: Optimal strategies for recovery following training and competition in elite athletes presents ongoing debate. The effects of cold-water immersion (CWI) compared to passive recovery (PR) though a triad of performance measures after fatiguing exercise within a normal micro-cycle, during mid-competitive training cycle, in elite male football...
Article
Introduction The effectiveness of different forms of cryotherapy and combined compression (cryo-compression) commonly used in sport to enhance recovery following exercise are not fully understood. Therefore, the exploration of protocols that use contemporary cryo-compression is warranted. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectivenes...
Article
Full-text available
Contrast therapy is the alternation of thermotherapy and cryotherapy. Commonly used modalities of contrast therapy include contrast water therapy (CWT) and cold/hot packs. Despite a lack of research, it is widely used in clinical and sporting settings, particularly to aid recovery. The scoping review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of rese...
Article
Comment on: Alexander, J., Selfe, J., Birdsall, D., Rhodes, D. The effects of three different cryotherapy modalities on skin surface temperature across squad positions in a population of male, rugby union players. Int J Sports Physical Therapy. 2020;15(2): 210-220.
Article
Objectives Previous research describes dynamic stability and functional strength as key aetiological risk factors associated with lower limb non-contact musculoskeletal injury. Due to the multi factorial nature of injury risk, relationships between the two factors will inform injury management and training design. Methods Fifty-nine elite academy...
Article
Objectives: Significant loss of playing time and the impact of treatment costs due to lower limb injury in football demonstrates a need for improved protocols for injury risk reduction. The aim of the present study is to assess the effect of a proprioceptive training program on the lower limb dynamic stability of elite footballers. Methods: A to...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In deliberation of the diverse physical traits of rugby union and the known interference adipose tissue has on the ability to cool deeper tissues, evidence is required to understand the effect of cryotherapy modalities to provide optimum outcomes post-injury. Purpose: To investigate differences in the cooling ability of three different...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Eccentric hamstring training is a contemporary approach to reducing injury risk in elite footballers. Understanding the temporal pattern of recovery would inform training design. METHODS 20 male professional football players completed baseline assessments of eccentric hamstring strength at isokinetic speeds of 60, 150 and 300°·s-1. Post-...
Article
Background: The effectiveness of simultaneous compression and cooling applications that cryo-compressive devices offer are of interest in the management of sports injury or post-exercise recovery. Dose-response in terms of physiological parameter is required to inform current practice in the remit of sports medicine to help define optimal protocols...
Article
Background: To analyse the relationship between Peak Height Velocity (PHV) and Dynamic Balance (Y-Balance) vs non-peak growth to identify risk factors for non-contact lower limb injuries using a retrospective study design in elite youth footballers. Methods: Ninety-Three elite category 1 academy football players completed Y-Balance assessment du...
Research
Full-text available
This report highlights the successes of the Allied Health Research Unit in 2018-2019 including current projects and publications, through to future developments.
Article
Context: The effect of local cooling on muscle strength presents conflicting debates, with literature undecided as to the potential implications for injury, when returning to play following cryotherapy application. Objective: To investigate concentric muscle strength following local cooling over the anterior thigh compared to the knee joint in m...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Anecdotal evidence supports stretching exercises to minimize symptoms of low back pain and improve function. This study aimed to assess whether a passive gravity assisted traction (PGAT) device can reduce LBP through stretching techniques. Methods Sixty-seven participants with mechanical LBP were randomly assigned to a control or interve...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To investigate the effects of cryotherapy on knee skin surface sensitivity and temperature using monofilaments and thermal imaging. Methods Following a 20-minute cryotherapy exposure (crushed ice), knee skin surface sensitivity and temperature was mapped in 19 healthy participants using infrared camera and tactile sensory evaluation. The...
Article
Abstract: Objective: To establish if consistent concepts exist amongst sports medicine professionals working within elite cricket when developing a multi-disciplinary performance team. Design: An exploratory research design was adopted and the findings were coded using a thematic analysis approach. Method: 6 semi structured interviews were conducte...
Article
Background: Cryotherapy is commonly used in sport for the management of injury or during recovery, however the effects on concentric isokinetic strength appear unclear when considering the effect of joint cooling distal to the anterior thigh. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cooling of the knee joint on quadric...
Presentation
•Introduction / background Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) is an alternative method of compression treatment designed to compress the leg, mimicking the action of muscles to actively promote venous return. IPC has been shown to reduce venous stasis and increase blood flow and skin tissue oxygenation (StO2), promoting healthy tissue (Kolar...
Article
Introduction Nerve conduction velocity is a common assessment of peripheral demyelinating conditions used to locate the lesions and assess severity. Considering measurements involve low frequency or single stimuli, changes due to continuous activity would remain out of their scope. Accordingly, slowing of conduction velocity is not thought to resul...
Article
Introduction: The effect of cryotherapy on joint positioning presents conflicting debates as to whether individuals are at an increased risk of injury when returning to play following cryotherapy application at the lower limb. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether a 20 min application of crushed ice at the knee affects kne...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
DELAYED EFFECTS OF A 20 MINUTE CRUSHED ICE APPLICATION ON KNEE JOINT POSITION SENSE DURING A FUNCTIONAL TASK. Alexander J1, May K1, Selfe J2, Richards J1. 1. Allied Health Professions Research Unit, Division of Physiotherapy and Sports Therapy, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK. 2. Department of Health Professions, Faculty of Health,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
THE IMMEDIATE EFFECTS OF A 20 MINUTE CRUSHED ICE APPLICATION ON KNEE JOINT POSITION SENSE DURING A SMALL KNEE BEND. Alexander J1, May K1, Selfe J2, Richards J1. 1. Allied Health Professions Research Unit, Division of Physiotherapy and Sports Therapy, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK. 2. Department of Health Professions, Faculty of He...
Article
Objectives The effect of cryotherapy on joint positioning presents conflicting debates as to whether individuals are at an increased risk of injury when returning to play or activity immediately following cryotherapy application at the knee. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a 20 minute application of crushed ice at the knee immedia...
Article
Background Low back pain (LBP) is widespread in all populations and is a worldwide health problem, which poses substantial challenges for clinical management. Individuals with LBP may reduce their symptoms by implementing self-managed at-home interventions. The theoretical design of the LumbaCurve™ promotes the principles of a passive gravity-assis...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To observe postural characteristics of female dressage riders, through application of three-dimensional motion analysis and to assess the effects of athletic taping on postural asymmetry during sitting trot. Design Randomised cross-over. Setting Data collection took place at Myerscough Agricultural College in an indoor riding area....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Growing ever popular within elite sports, Whole Body Cryotherapy (WBC) is the therapeutic application of extreme cold air for a short duration. Minimal evidence is available for determining the physiological effects of WBC, including observation of skin surface and core temperature changes, in particular across specific pre-determined regions of in...

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Projects (2)
Project
Projects, articles, publications and conference presentations related to elite performance in sport from the Hub of Elite Sport Performance and the Football Performance Hub (UCLan) collaborative work.