Jiezhong Chen

Jiezhong Chen
University of Wollongong | UOW · Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

About

71
Publications
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2,928
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Publications

Publications (71)
Article
Full-text available
Antipsychotic drugs (APDs) are widely prescribed to control various mental disorders. As mental disorders are chronic diseases, these drugs are often used over a life-time. However, APDs can cause serious glucometabolic side-effects including type 2 diabetes and hyperglycaemic emergency, leading to medication non-compliance. At present, there is no...
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Mitochondrial functions are crucial for pancreatic β-cell survival and glucose-induced insulin secretion. Hexarelin (Hex) is a synthetic small peptide ghrelin analogue, which has been shown to protect cardiomyocytes from the ischemia-reperfusion process. In this study, we used in vitro and in vivo models of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced β-cell damag...
Article
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are known to cause many cancers by altering multiple signalling pathways through their oncogene integration into host genome and expression. Studies have shown that many microRNAs (miRs) may function as oncogenes (called as oncomiRs) to promote an oncogenic effect. MiR-34a among the reported oncomiRs is a key player in...
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Colon cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide with high mortality. A major issue in colon cancer treatment is drug-resistance and metastasis that have been ascribed to the cancer stem cells. In this study, we isolated colon cancer stem cells through sphere culture and verified with the cancer stem cell markers CD133, CD44, and CD24. We d...
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Aripiprazole is a wide-used antipsychotic drug with therapeutic effects on both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and reduced side-effects. Although aripiprazole was developed as a dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) partial agonist, all other D2R partial agonists that aimed to mimic aripiprazole failed to exert therapeutic effects in clinic....
Article
In addition to its well-established role in controlling cell survival and death, Liu et al. have recently identified receptor (TNFRSF)-interacting serine-threonine kinase 1 (RIPK1) as an oncogenic driver in melanoma. They showed that RIPK1 promoted melanoma cell proliferation through a positive feedback loop of nuclear factor of kappa light polypep...
Article
Cervical cancer is a major disease with high mortality. All cervical cancers are caused by infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV). Although preventive vaccines for cervical cancer are successful, treatment of cervical cancer is far less satisfactory because of multidrug resistance and side effects. In this review, we summarize the recent appli...
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Ghrelin and its synthetic analog hexarelin are specific ligands of growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) receptor. GHS have strong growth hormone-releasing effect and other neuroendocrine activities such as stimulatory effects on prolactin and adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion. Recently, several studies have reported other beneficial functions of G...
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Endometrial cancer (EC) is a common reproductive system cancer in females and one of the leading causes for cancer-related deaths in women, ranked only after ovarian and cervical cancers. It is classified into two types with type I having better prognosis. At present, surgical removal is the major approach for the treatment of the disease. For thos...
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CYP3A4 is a major cytochrome P450. It catalyses a broad range of substrates including xenobiotics such as clinically used drugs and endogenous compounds bile acids. Its function to detoxify bile acids could be used for treating cholestasis, which is a condition characterised by accumulation of bile acids. Although bile acids have important physiolo...
Article
Here, we report that siRNA transfection of β-adducin significantly disrupted the spectrin-based cytoskeleton and cytoskeletal arrangements of both β-adducin and PKCδ by substantially inhibiting expression of β-adducin, spectrin and PKCδ proteins in differentiating keratinocytes. However, extracellular Ca(2+) treatment blocked the inhibitory effects...
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Colon cancer is the third most common cancer and the third largest cause of cancer-related death. Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the front-line chemotherapeutic agent for colon cancer. However, its response rate is less than 60%, even in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. The side effects of 5-FU also limit its application. Nanoparticles have...
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Epidemiological surveys and molecular studies have indicated that infection of human papillomavirus (HPV)itself is necessary butinsufficient for completing transformation of the human epithelial cells in vivo to lead to differentcancers. Mounting evidence exists that HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins exactly alter thecellular and molecular events in their tra...
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Full-text available
Endometrial cancer is the third most common cancer in women. Endometrial carcinomas (EC) are clinicohistologically classified into two types. Type I tumours, which account for 80% of ECs, are estrogen-dependent and are low grade. Type II tumours are more aggressive with invasion into myometrium. Recently a new classification for endometrial cancer...
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There is currently no curative treatment for melanoma once the disease spreads beyond the original site. Although activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway resulting from genetic mutations and epigenetic deregulation of its major regulators is known to cause resistance of melanoma to therapeutic agents, including the conventional chemotherapeutic drug dac...
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Shiitake mushroom have been shown to have health benefits including lowering plasma lipids and preventing body weight gain. However, their underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The study aim was to assess the potential underlying mechanism of Shiitake mushrooms in lowering plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) in rats fed a high fat diet (HFD). Forty W...
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Epidemiological evidence has linked the development and progression of several cancers including melanoma with obesity. However, whether obesity impinges on responses of cancer cells to treatment remains less understood. Here we report that human adipocytes contribute to resistance of melanoma cells to various therapeutic agents. Exposure to media...
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Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer and has very high rates of mortality. An early stage melanoma can be surgically removed, with a survival rate of 99%. However, metastasized melanoma is difficult to cure. The 5-year survival rates for patients with metastasized melanoma are still below 20%. Metastasized melanoma is currently treat...
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Nanotechnology is a vigorous research area and one of its important applications is in biomedical sciences. Among biomedical applications, targeted drug delivery is one of the most extensively studied subjects. Nanostructured particles and scaffolds have been widely studied for increasing treatment efficacy and specificity of present treatment appr...
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Obesity is now a major health problem due to its rapidly increasing incidence worldwide and severe consequences.Among many conditions associated with obesity aresome cancers including melanoma.Both genetic defects and environmental risk factors are involved in the carcinogenesis of melanoma. Activation of multiple signal pathways such as the PI3K/A...
Article
Obesity is associated with the increased incidence of colon cancer. Many cancer risk factors have been identified including increased blood levels of insulin, leptin, interleukin-6, interleukin-17, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and decreased blood levels of adiponectin. However, the role of blood levels of estrogen in obesity-associated colon cancer...
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Objectives: HPV is known to play a key role in the growth and maintenance of cervical cancer. Its early genes E6 and E7 can activate several intracellular signal pathways for carcinogenesis. Studies have shown that in vitro knockdown of E6 and E7 can reduce the survival ability of cervical cancer cell lines. In this study, we tested the effect of a...
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ABSTRACT Preventing obesity could be done by lowering plasma TAG that inhibits adipogenesis. Oat and mushroom beta-glucans in the diet has been reported to lower plasma lipid; however the data focusing on their effects on TAG and obesity are insufficient. In the present study, lowering plasma triacylglycerol, fat deposition, body weight gain (BWG)...
Article
This study tested the effects of (1→3),(1→4) β-D-glucan from oats, on activation of the gut-hypothalamic (PYY3–36-NPY) axis, satiety, and weight loss in diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. DIO mice were fed standard lab chow diets or varied doses of β-glucan for 6 weeks. Energy intake, satiety, body weight changes and peptide Y-Y3-36 (PYY3-36) were me...
Article
Obesity has been associated with both the carcinogenesis and poor prognosis of colon cancer, one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Increased blood levels of insulin in obese subjects have been demonstrated to play a key role in carcinogenesis. It is also possible that insulin affects treatment efficacy, leading to poor prognosis. In th...
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Chest X-ray and CT examinations often find pulmonary nodules that could be malignant or benign. A case is presented and discussed here in order to improve diagnosis and management of pulmonary nodules. A 62-year-old lady was found to have multiple pulmonary nodules by X-ray when she complained of a cough and fever. This was confirmed by a CT scan....
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Obesity is associated with poor prognosis of colon cancer and the mechanism for this is unknown. This study tested insulin-caused resistance to oxaliplatin via activation of PI3K/Akt pathway in HT29 cells. The effect of insulin on oxaliplatin cytotoxicity was tested by pre-incubation with 1µM insulin followed by addition of oxaliplatin. Phosphoryla...
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Statins have been widely used for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions including psychoneurological disorders beyond their original use in lowering cholesterol. Histamine receptors play an important role in the regulation of neural activity, however, it is unknown whether statins act on histamine receptors, particularly for their neural...
Article
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer with a 5-year survival rate of less than 10%. It is caused by alterations of multiple signal pathways which are affected by both genetic and environmental factors. In some cases, EGFR is important in the carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer suggesting anti-EGFR therapy may be a potential treatment op...
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Obesity and overweight have become major medical and social problems. Both are increasing worldwide; two-thirds of the population in developed countries is obese or overweight. Obesity has been associated with many comorbidities, including diabetes and heart disease. Studies have also found that obesity is one of the risk factors involved in increa...
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Obesity is known to be a risk factor for colon carcinogenesis. Although there are several reports on the chemopreventive abilities of dietary flavonoids in chemically induced colon carcinogenesis, those have not been addressed in an obesity-associated carcinogenesis model. In the present study, the effects of 3 flavonoids (chrysin, quercetin and no...
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IL-10 IFN-gamma-secreting CD4(+) T cells were first found in the early 1990s. They are suppressive T cells able to inhibit cytotoxic T lymphocytes. These cells (Foxp3-T bet(+)) have a similar function but are distinct from conventional Tregs. The production of IL-10 in these cells requires IL-27 and TGF-beta and was regulated by several signal path...
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Colon cancer is the third most common cancer and third most common cause of cancer-related death in the USA according to 2008 American Cancer Society statistics. The carcinogenesis of colon cancer has been associated with both genetics and environmental factors. It has been found that several signal pathways, including K-ras, Src/PI3K/Akt, beta-cat...
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Obesity is associated with one-third of colon cancer. This is related to altered adipocyte-secreted factors including increased leptin and decreased adiponectin levels [3]. These risk factors cause increased signal pathways important in the carcinogenesis of colon cancer. We read with great interest the paper ‘‘Effects of adipocyte-secreted factors...
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Dietary beta-glucans lower the blood concentrations of cholesterol in animals and humans. Recent studies have uncovered mechanisms by which dietary beta-glucans may regulate cholesterol homeostasis. There is evidence that beta-glucans sequester bile acids in the intestine, reducing their reabsorption and return to the liver. Reducing hepatic bile a...
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Tyrosine hydroxylase is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of dopamine, a key neurotransmitter in the regulation of food intake. This study examined tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA expression in obese mice fed a high-fat diet. After 8 week feeding of high-fat diet mice were classified as diet-induced obese and obese-resistant according to body wei...
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Influenza is an infectious disease and can lead to life-threatening complications like pneumonia. The disease is caused by three types of RNA viruses called influenza types A, B and C, each consisting of eight negative single-stranded RNA-segments encoding 11 proteins. Current annual vaccines contain two type A strains and one type B strain and are...
Article
Interferon gamma (IFNgamma) plays a central role in the immune response against infection and tumur immune surveillance. Its functions include not only activation of the host immune system to control microbial infections but also repression of autoimmune responses by turning on T-regulatory cells and increasing T effector cell apoptosis. Defects in...
Article
Colon cancer is the fourth most common cancer worldwide and causes half a million deaths each year.¹ Colon cancer is treated by surgical resection of the tumor, but in a large proportion of patients the cancer is metastatic and cannot be cured by surgery; in most of these cases the disease carries a survival time from diagnosis of <2 years.
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B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is caused by the abnormal accumulation of non-functional B-cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow. However, the precise aetiology and mechanism of the disease are unclear. Recently, progress has been made in the identification of both the genetic deficiencies and environmental factors that may underlie C...
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Diabetes mellitus is characterized by high blood glucose level with typical manifestations of thirst, polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss. It is caused by defects in insulin-mediated signal pathways, resulting in decreased glucose transportation from blood into muscle and fat cells. The major risk is vascular injury leading to heart disease, whic...
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Over 99% of cervical cancers are associated with infection of high-risk type human papillomaviruses (HPV). These viruses infect epithelial cells lining the cervix and express the early viral genes E6 and E7, which are oncogenes and are primarily responsible for the transformation of the epithelial cells. The continuous expression of those genes is...
Article
Non-cellulosic beta-glucans are now recognized as potent immunological activators, and some are used clinically in China and Japan. These beta-glucans consist of a backbone of glucose residues linked by beta-(1-->3)-glycosidic bonds, often with attached side-chain glucose residues joined by beta-(1-->6) linkages. The frequency of branching varies....
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Abstract Many fungi produce exocellular -glucan-degrading enzymes, the -glucanases including the noncellulolytic -(1,3)- and -(1,6)-glucanases, degrading -(1,3)- and -(1,6)-glucans. An ability to purify several exocellular -glucanases attacking the same linkage type from a single fungus is common, although unlike the -1,3-glucanases, produc...
Article
Hepatoma is caused by many factors including alcohol, chemicals, viral infection, and chronic inflammation. Cytochrome P450 polymorphism plays an important role in its pathogenesis. CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP1A1 have been identified to be related with hepatic carcinogenesis and tumor size and stage. However, no studies have been performed on CYP2C9, a...
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Full-text available
Rifampicin, an important drug in the treatment of tuberculosis, is used extensively despite its broad effects on drug-drug interactions, creating serious problems. The clinical importance of such interactions includes autoinduction leading to suboptimal or failed treatment. The concomitantly administered effects of rifampicin on other drugs can res...

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Project (1)
Project
This project is to develop encapsulated functional nano-particles for drug delivery and siRNA delivery to enhance their activities and knockdown efficiency in cancer treatment