Jianguo Liu

Jianguo Liu
Michigan State University | MSU · Center for Systems Integration and Sustainability

Ph.D

About

456
Publications
230,315
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
29,730
Citations
Introduction
A human-environment scientist and sustainability scholar, Jianguo "Jack" Liu holds the Rachel Carson Chair in Sustainability, is University Distinguished Professor of fisheries and wildlife at Michigan State University and also serves as director of the Center for Systems Integration and Sustainability.
Additional affiliations
February 2009 - May 2009
Princeton University
Position
  • Visiting Scholar, Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
September 2008 - December 2008
Harvard University
Position
  • Visiting Scholar, Kennedy School of Government
May 2002 - present
University of Michigan
Position
  • Research Affiliate, Population Studies Center, Institute of Social Research

Publications

Publications (456)
Article
Global sustainability challenges, from maintaining biodiversity to providing clean air and water, are closely interconnected yet often separately studied and managed. Systems integration—holistic approaches to integrating various components of coupled human and natural systems—is critical to understand socioeconomic and environmental interconnectio...
Article
Full-text available
Human population size and growth rate are often considered important drivers of biodiversity loss, whereas household dynamics are usually neglected. Aggregate demographic statistics may mask substantial changes in the size and number of households, and their effects on biodiversity. Household dynamics influence per capita consumption and thus biodi...
Article
Full-text available
Integrated studies of coupled human and natural systems reveal new and complex patterns and processes not evident when studied by social or natural scientists separately. Synthesis of six case studies from around the world shows that couplings between human and natural systems vary across space, time, and organizational units. They also exhibit non...
Article
Interactions between distant places are increasingly widespread and influential, often leading to unexpected outcomes with profound implications for sustainability. Numerous sustainability studies have been conducted within a particular place with little attention to the impacts of distant interactions on sustainability in multiple places. Although...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has posed severe threats to global sustainable development. However, a comprehensive quantitative assessment of the impacts of COVID-19 on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is still lacking. This research quantified the post-COVID-19 SDG progress from 2020 to 2024 using projected GDP growth and population and machine learni...
Article
Full-text available
Achieving the 17 United Nations sustainable development goals (SDGs) in China largely depends on the transition of cities towards sustainable development. However, significant knowledge gaps exist in evaluating the SDG index at the city scale and in understanding how to simulate pathways to achieve the 17 SDGs for Chinese cities by 2030. This study...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the complex interactions among the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is key to achieving all of the SDGs and ‘leaving no one behind’. However, research about dynamic changes of SDG interactions is limited, and how they change as sustainable development progresses remains elusive. Here, we used a correlational network approach and a...
Article
Full-text available
To achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals related to food security and biodiversity, understanding their interrelationships is essential. By examining datasets comprising 189 food items across 157 countries during 2000–2018, we found that high-income countries exported more food to low-income countries than they imported. Many low...
Article
Full-text available
The needs and capacities to achieve the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) differ across regions and nations, but little research has been done to investigate their similarities and differences. Here, we proposed using SDG bundles (i.e. groups of regions with similar performances on all individual SDGs) to classify regions when assessing SDG p...
Article
Full-text available
The Arctic is an epicenter of complex environmental and socioeconomic change. Strengthened connections between Arctic and non-Arctic systems could threaten or enhance Arctic sustainability, but studies of external influences on the Arctic are scattered and fragmented in academic literature. Here, we review and synthesize how external influences hav...
Preprint
Construction minerals – sand, gravel, limestone – are the most extracted solid raw materials ¹ and account for most of the world’s anthropogenic mass, which as of 2020 outweighed all of Earth’s living biomass ² . However, knowledge about the magnitude, geography, and profile of this widespread threat to biodiversity remains scarce and scattered 3–6...
Article
Full-text available
Rural areas are increasingly subject to the effects of telecouplings (socioeconomic-environmental interactions over distances) whereby their human and natural dynamics are linked to socioeconomic and environmental drivers operating far away, such as the growing demand for labor and ecosystem services in cities. Although there have been many studies...
Article
While the 17 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have explicitly called on businesses to contribute, little is known to what extent have the business sectors engaged with the SDGs. Here we benchmarked the engagement of the Fortune Global Top 500 corporations with the SDGs based on publicly available information screened between Nove...
Article
Full-text available
As the two largest countries by population, China and India have pervasive effects on the ecosphere. Because of their human population size and long international boundary, they share biodiversity and the threats to it, as well as crops, pests and diseases. We ranked the two countries on a variety of environmental challenges and solutions, illustra...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid urbanization throughout the globe increases demand for fresh water and the ecosystem services associated with it. This need is conventionally met through the construction of infrastructure. Natural infrastructure solutions have increased to provide freshwater ecosystem services, but little global research has examined the intricate relationsh...
Article
Full-text available
Hundreds of indicators are available to monitor progress of countries and regions towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, the sheer number of indicators poses unprecedented challenges for data collection and compilation. Here we identify a subset of SDG indicators (principal indicators) that are relatively easy to collect data fo...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Rapid increases in the trade of global red and processed meat impede international efforts toward sustainable diets by increasing meat consumption. However, little research has examined cross-country variations in diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) because of meat trade. We aimed to examine the impact of red and processed me...
Article
Mariculture has a profound potential to meet the escalating demand for food. However, so far the understandings of spatiotemporal dynamics of mariculture and indicators of underlying mechanisms are altogether missing in the existing literature. Using high-resolution satellite images, here we provide a first ever detailed analysis to map the spatiot...
Article
Humanity is facing many grand challenges at unprecedented rates, nearly everywhere, and at all levels. Yet virtually all these challenges can be traced back to the decision and behavior of autonomous agents that constitute the complex systems under such challenges. Agent-based modeling has been developed and employed to address such challenges for...
Article
Full-text available
Human–environment interactions within and across borders are now more influential than ever, posing unprecedented sustainability challenges. The framework of metacoupling (interactions within and across adjacent and distant coupled human–environment systems) provides a useful tool to evaluate them at diverse temporal and spatial scales. While most...
Article
The relationships between habitat amount and fragmentation level and functional connectivity and inbreeding remain unclear. Thus, we used genetic algorithms to optimize the transformation of habitat area and fragmentation variables into resistance surfaces to predict genetic structure and examined habitat area and fragmentation effects on inbreedin...
Article
Integrating multiple external and internal processes into the evaluation of how payments for ecosystem services (PES) programs can affect socioeconomic outcomes allows us to distinguish the relative importance of each factor and identify specific strategies to enhance the desired outcomes of PES programs; yet, the methods available are limited. Bas...
Article
The booming development of large-scale infrastructure projects (LSIPs) facilitated by China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) has drawn global concern regarding the scale, pace, and potential impact. Studies have largely focused on the geopolitical impact (i.e., politics and international relations) but less is known about social and environmental i...
Article
Full-text available
Sand, gravel, and crushed rock, together referred to as construction aggregates, are the most extracted solid materials. Growing demand is damaging ecosystems, triggering social conflicts, and fueling concerns over sand scarcity. Balancing protection efforts and extraction to meet society's needs requires designing sustainable pathways at a system...
Article
Full-text available
A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03479-2.
Article
Full-text available
Human and natural systems are more interconnected across distances than ever before [...]
Article
Full-text available
Macrosystems are integrated human–natural systems, in recognition of the fact that virtually every natural system on Earth influences and is influenced by human activities, even over long distances. It is therefore crucial to incorporate inherent properties of broad-scale systems, such as human–nature connectivity and feedbacks at multi-scales, int...
Article
Full-text available
In an era of unprecedented human impacts on the planet, macrosystems biology (MSB) was developed to understand ecological patterns and processes within and across spatial and temporal scales. We used machine-learning and qualitative literature review approaches to evaluate the thematic composition of MSB from articles published since the 2010 creat...
Article
Globally, the number and extent of terrestrial protected areas (PAs) are expanding rapidly. Nonetheless, their impacts on preventing forest loss and the factors influencing the impacts are not well understood, despite the critical roles of forests in biodiversity conservation, provision of ecosystem services, and achievement of the United Nations’...
Article
Payment for ecosystem services (PES) has become a widely accepted strategy for combining environmental conservation or restoration with socioeconomic development. Understanding the spatial heterogeneity of the effects of PES programs and their influencing factors is necessary for the design and implementation of effective programs. However, few res...
Article
Protected areas (PAs) form the backbone of global conservation efforts. Although many studies have evaluated the impact of PAs on land cover, human disturbances, and people’s welfare, PAs’ impact on wildlife habitat quality remains poorly understood. By integrating wildlife habitat mapping and information of 2,183 rural households, we assessed the...
Article
The use of a charismatic umbrella species as surrogate for sympatric species is often advocated as an efficient approach. However, comprehensive evaluations from a spatio-temporal perspective are few, leaving the long-term effectiveness of such practices remain uncertain. We modeled the habitat change for giant panda and eight sympatric mammalian s...
Article
Full-text available
Irrigated agriculture has important implications for achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. However, there is a lack of systematic and quantitative analyses of its impacts on food–energy–water–CO2 nexus. Here we studied impacts of irrigated agriculture on food–energy–water–CO2 nexus across food sending systems (the North China...
Article
Full-text available
The United Nations has adopted 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with 169 targets. International trade has substantial influences on global sustainability and human well-being. However, little is known about the impacts of international trade on progress towards achieving the SDG targets. Here we show that international trade positively affec...
Article
Full-text available
With increasing global integration, distant coupled human and natural systems have more interactions than ever before, which often lead to unexpected outcomes with profound implications for sustainability. The integrated framework of telecoupling (socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances) has been proposed to address such cross-b...
Article
Full-text available
Agricultural systems are heterogeneous across temporal and spatial scales. Although much research has investigated farm size and economic output, the synergies and trade-offs across various agricultural and socioeconomic variables are unclear. This study applies a GIS-based approach to official Brazilian census data (Agricultural Censuses of 1995,...
Article
Full-text available
Global biodiversity policy is at a crossroads. Recent global assessments of living nature (1, 2) and climate (3) show worsening trends and a rapidly narrowing window for action. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has recently announced that none of the 20 Aichi targets for biodiversity it set in 2010 has been reached and only six have bee...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid increases in meat trade generate complex global networks across countries. However, there has been little research quantifying the dynamics of meat trade networks and the underlying forces that structure them. Using longitudinal network data for 134 countries from 1995 to 2015, we combined network modeling and cluster analysis to simultaneous...
Article
New conceptual frameworks are urgently needed to understand the nature and scope of global interconnections and govern their profound impacts on the environment and human wellbeing. Telecoupling is a novel concept that integrates human–nature interactions over distances. Such integration is essential for addressing the fundamental challenge in huma...
Article
Full-text available
Synergies and trade-offs among the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have been hotly debated. Although the world is increasingly metacoupled (socioeconomic-environmental interactions within and across adjacent or distant systems), there is little understanding of the impacts of globally widespread and important flows on enhancing...
Article
Mountain regions are key hotspots for biodiversity conservation and for provisioning ecosystem services. Containing fragile ecosystems and home to millions of inhabitants, mountains are also places of great value for tourism, cultural practices and endemic species. In this paper, we developed the first multitemporal land-use and land-cover assessme...
Article
Full-text available
Synergies and tradeoffs among the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) within specific locations have been widely studied. However, there is little understanding of SDG synergies and tradeoffs across spatial/administrative boundaries although the world is increasingly interconnected and the United Nations aims to achieve SDGs everywh...
Article
Full-text available
1. There have been calls for greater inclusion of Indigenous and local knowledge (ILK) in applied ecosystems research and ecological assessments. The Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) Global Assessment (GA) is the first assessment to systematically work with ILK and issues of concern to Indigen...
Article
Understanding habitat selection is important for effective habitat management and recovery of species. However, many habitat selection studies are based on presence and absence data and do not differentiate the intensity of use and its association with fine-scale habitat characteristics. Such information is critical for improving our understanding...
Article
Full-text available
Humanity is on a deeply unsustainable trajectory. We are exceeding planetary boundaries and unlikely to meet many international sustainable development goals and global environmental targets. Until recently, there was no broadly accepted framework of interventions that could ignite the transformations needed to achieve these desired targets and goa...
Article
Full-text available
Human health and livelihoods are threatened by declining marine fisheries catches, causing substantial interest in the sources and dynamics of fishing. Catch analyses in individual exclusive economic zones (EEZs) and the high seas are abundant, and research across multiple EEZs is growing. However, no previous studies have systematically compared c...
Article
Full-text available
Gross domestic product (GDP) summarizes a vast amount of economic information in a single monetary metric that is widely used by decision makers around the world. However, GDP fails to capture fully the contributions of nature to economic activity and human well-being. To address this critical omission, we develop a measure of gross ecosystem produ...
Article
Water scarcity and poverty are among the most significant global challenges, especially in the world's arid regions. Many countries have been trying to address these challenges. Facilitated by the construction of infrastructure (e.g., high-speed rails) and development of services industries (e.g., hotels and resorts), telecouplings (human-nature in...
Article
Full-text available
Despite a growing number of national-scale ecosystem service (ES) assessments, few studies consider the impacts of ES use and consumption beyond national or regional boundaries. Interregional ES flows-ecosystem services "imported" from and "exported" to other countries-are rarely analyzed and their importance for global sustainability is little kno...
Article
Outputs of species distribution models (SDMs) are widely used as indicators of climate conditions favorable for species occurrence. When using these outputs to inform planning and decision making, it is essential that the uncertainties associated with the projections of present-day and future climatic suitability are carefully considered. Climate c...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing connections and influences from near to far have changed social structures, access tonatural resources, and essential livelihoods of smallholders (i.e., those with incomes generated primarilyfrom natural resources on small rural properties). However, the potential benefits and negative impactsfrom these connections to smallholdersʹ livel...
Article
Full-text available
To address global challenges1–4, 193 countries have committed to the 17 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)5. Quantifying progress towards achieving the SDGs is essential to track global efforts towards sustainable development and guide policy development and implementation. However, systematic methods for assessing spatio-temporal...
Article
International agricultural trade has changed land uses in trading countries, altering global food security and environmental sustainability. Studies have concluded that local land-use drivers are largely from global sources (e.g., trade increases deforestation in exporting countries). However, little is known about how these local land-use changes...