Jian Kang

Jian Kang
University College London | UCL · IEDE, The Bartlett

Professor

About

1,032
Publications
197,616
Reads
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19,299
Citations
Additional affiliations
February 2018 - present
University College London
Position
  • Professor
Education
January 1994 - September 1996

Publications

Publications (1,032)
Article
Full-text available
Façades cover a significant amount of surfaces in cities and are in constant interaction with the acoustic environment. Noise pollution is one of the most concerning burdens for public health and wellbeing; however, façade acoustic performance is generally not considered in outdoor spaces, in contrast to indoor spaces. This study presents a systema...
Article
This paper proposes a new design of an acoustic diffuser based on the construction rules of the Sierpinski triangle in order to broaden the effective diffusion frequency range. The diffuser is made of triangular blocks of different sizes attached to a plane surface. The effects of the number of fractal iterations, the height of triangular blocks, a...
Article
Acoustic metamaterials (AMMs) have become so far a resourceful solution for standard materials’ physical limitations, and their tuneable acoustic properties have shown potential for noise reduction and absorption over standard materials. At the same time, the building’s features’ ergonomics value has been discovered to play a key role in indoor wel...
Conference Paper
The present study investigates acoustic comfort in naturally ventilated residential buildings through an indoor soundscape approach. Preliminary results from a laboratory listening test are presented, where, in a mock-up living room with a window sight, participants have been exposed to 20 acoustic scenarios, obtained as a combination of 4 indoor s...
Article
Qualitative investigation of the sound environment from human perception has lately reached wider attention through psychophysical and Soundscape descriptors; However, laboratory or in situ questionnaire can only reach a limited amount of demographic backgrounds, as, in a limited variety of cultural and geographical variation in a medium-short time...
Article
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The indoor environmental quality is based on the indoor environmental performance of buildings, such as air temperature, lighting, and acoustics. These parameters have a specific impact on users' health and experience. This study explores the relationship between the indoor environment of residential elderly care facilities in cold regions and the...
Article
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The past two decades have seen an ongoing paradigm shift from noise control to soundscaping, and soundscape approaches have been applied in noise management projects. However, cost-benefit analysis (CBA), which is widely used for economic appraisal of projects that would impact on the sound environment, remains noise-based and residential-location-...
Article
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This article aims to review the development of acoustic computer simulation for performance spaces. The databases of Web of Science and Scopus were searched for peer-reviewed journal articles published in English between 1960 and 2021, using the keywords for “simulation”, “acoustic”, “performance space”, “measure”, and their synonyms. The inclusion...
Article
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The unique architectural form and religious background of Taoist buildings can lead to a special acoustic environment, but there is a lack of research on the soundscape evaluation of Taoist buildings. Laojundong Taoist Temple was selected as the research site. The psychological and physiological responses of Taoist priests and ordinary people, and...
Article
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This study first examines the methods presented in ISO 12913 for analysing and representing soundscape data by applying them to a large existing database of soundscape assessments. The key issue identified is the inability of the standard methods to summarise the soundscape of locations and groups. The presented solution inherently considers the va...
Article
This study aims to explore the specific effects of audio-visual combinations on the restorative quality of soundscapes in blue spaces. In the experiments, 6 types of blue space were combined with 14 sounds, and the Short-version Revised Restoration scale (SRRS) was utilized by 65 volunteers to measure the restorative quality of the audio-visual com...
Article
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In contemporary society, mental health issues have received increasing attention. Moreover, how people perceive the acoustic environment affects mental health. In religious places, the unique religious soundscape, composed of the acoustic environment and sounds, has an obvious effect on mental health. In China, Han Chinese Buddhism has a long histo...
Article
Studies on the effects of absorber location on low-frequency noise control in acoustically coupled rooms have been limited. This study investigated the effects of the absorption area and location on low-frequency noise control in typical dwelling layouts for different room connection types. In-situ measurements under a steady-state noise showed sig...
Article
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The present work constitutes the sequel to the analysis of data from an online survey administered to 464 home workers in London in January 2021 during the COVID-19 lockdown. Perceived affective quality of indoor soundscapes has been assessed in the survey through a previously developed model, as the combination of two perceptual dimensions, one re...
Article
The role of soundscape quality is being increasingly recognised in human well-being. This is also true for older adults, an increasingly growing group. In this study, we investigated the influence of different sound environments on the emotions and behaviour of older adults, as well as the correlation between crowd density and sound environment. Th...
Article
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Soundscape assessments by citizens are starting to emerge as a common practice, normally carried out in context by means of soundwalks along selected paths with volunteers. However, when such assessments are carried out, either in situ or in laboratory experiments, visually impaired citizens are not usually involved. To address this question, three...
Article
The perception of the architectural acoustic environment of both architects and non-architects is important. Through interviews with architects and non-architects, theoretical frameworks on acoustic environment perception for the two groups are created in the present study. The entire perception process is summarised into four steps for both groups...
Article
Sound field modelling of sequential spaces is required for large-scale public buildings. A FEM model comprising five successive rooms was used for a parametric study considering, i.e., contextual (opening dimension and position, number of rooms), acoustical (absorption coefficient and position) and source (directional radiation of opening and addit...
Conference Paper
Human environmental perception leads occupants' behaviour when interacting with buildings components, affecting the final building energy performance. A solid understanding of human comfort perception includes simultaneous multisensory stimuli and cross-modal interactions among different comfort domains. This study aims to explore the cross-modal e...
Article
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This paper is part of a special issue on COVID-19 Pandemic Acoustic Effects. The unprecedented lockdowns due to COVID-19 in spring 2020 triggered changes in human activities in public spaces. A predictive modeling approach was developed to characterize the changes in the perception of the sound environment when people could not be surveyed. Buildi...
Article
Sequential spaces are a spatial system comprising a series of single spaces connected in sequence by openings. They are not uncommon in the built environment and have similar acoustic characteristics with long and coupled spaces. To explore the sound attenuation and reverberation in such spaces, nine in situ measurements were conducted to examine t...
Article
Full-text available
Human environmental perception leads occupants’ behaviour when interacting with buildings components, affecting the final building energy performance. A solid understanding of human comfort perception includes simultaneous multisensory stimuli and cross-modal interactions among different comfort domains. This study aims to explore the cross-modal e...
Article
Understanding the complex interaction between human needs and physical facilities in public spaces remains a challenge given the knowledge gap in sustainable cities design and research. This study selected six typical urban business walkways to compare the physiological and psychological effects of a visual-audio environment dominated by visual med...
Article
Background Exposure to noise is an increasingly serious public health problem globally. The frequency of noise complaints is a useful indication in terms of adverse effects of noise on mental health, such as anxiety and annoyance. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between noise complaints and urban density across cities of different...
Article
Full-text available
Data from an online survey conducted in January 2021 by 464 participants living in London and working from home (WFH) after the COVID-19 outbreak were analysed, focusing on: (1) types of building services at home, (2) perceived sound dominance of building services, and (3) the perception of the indoor acoustic environment (i.e. the indoor soundscap...
Article
Full-text available
Results of an online survey conducted during the COVID-19 lockdown among 848 home workers living in London (United Kingdom) and in Italy are reported with a focus on (1) the impacts of building services on the perception of the acoustic environment while working and relaxing at home and (2) the factors associated with window opening behaviour. The...
Article
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For the improvement of emotional experience in buildings and environments, this study investigated the effect of different non-urban contexts on urban sounds in terms of change in mood state. The current model used to evaluate emotional response in soundscape (Principle Component Model) makes limited consideration of the formation process of emotio...
Presentation
No PDF available ABSTRACT The recent developments in the standardization of soundscape as both a research and engineering field have highlighted the need for models which can predict likely soundscape assessment from objective measurements. Such a need was highlighted during the COVID-19 lockdowns. The unprecedented restrictions in human activity p...
Conference Paper
The aim of this study is to investigate the relation-ship between the perceived width and different interpolation setups of a line source, and whether it is possible to reduce interpolations of a line source in a virtual open urban space. In order to auralise sound sources efficiently and accurately, the subjective evaluation was carried out in acc...
Article
Full-text available
The exhausting fast pace of life in modern urban society is leading to overwhelming stress and diminished cognitive alertness. Moreover, people are spending more and more time indoors due to building densification and urban lifestyle. Therefore, indoor environments that can promote positive psychological perception will become more important. Use o...
Article
The present study aimed to identify the trends of changes in physiological indicators and subjective restorativeness in response to audio-visual interactions in the environment. Four scenarios types were presented using four different modalities (video-sound, image-sound, sound-only, and video-only; each modality was evaluated by independent groups...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Data from an online survey conducted in January 2021 by 464 participants living in London and working from home (WFH) after the COVID-19 outbreak were analysed, focusing on: (1) types of building services at home, (2) perceived sound dominance of building services, and (3) the perception of the indoor acoustic environment (i.e. the indoor soundscap...
Article
Full-text available
The housing environment is of utmost importance as people spend most of their time indoors; it is closely related to the occupant’s quality of life (QOL) and health, especially among the elderly. This study evaluated the relationships among the architectural composition (AC), indoor environmental quality (IEQ), residential satisfaction (RS), and th...
Article
Soundscape studies aim to consider the holistic human perception of a sound environment, including both the physical phenomena and how these are mediated by internal factors. This study aims to assess the influence of psychological well-being and demographic factors including age, gender, occupation status, and education levels on the dimensions of...
Article
Full-text available
Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, as a result of the adoption of worldwide lockdown measures, the home environment has become the place where all the daily activities are taking place for many people. In these changed social and acoustical contexts, we wanted to evaluate the perception of the indoor acoustic environment in relation to tr...
Article
Contextual perceptions have a complicated effect on soundscapes in urban open public spaces. The objective of this study was to explore the systematic relationship between urban contextual factors and soundscape evaluations in open public spaces with a recreational function. Six areas in northern China were selected, and a questionnaire survey was...
Article
Both the noise and the vocal power level of the crowd are parameters for evaluating the acoustic environment. The former is from the perspective of the environment, and the latter is from the perspective of the user's needs. This paper aims to explore the crowd noise and vocal power level of diners in large college canteens in China. Measurements w...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
No PDF available ABSTRACT Three studies in London are presented about the changes of the acoustic environment and its perception, triggered by the first lockdown measures imposed during Spring 2020 because of the COVID-19 outbreak. The first study compared short-term binaural recordings performed pre- and during-lockdown at 11 public locations. Res...
Article
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Background: Development of green building as future buildings has become a trend and played a significant role in changing the general direction of building development and creating an environment for sustainable development ’People-centric’ explores the relationship between people and building development. From the perspective of users, what are t...
Article
Nursing homes are places where the elderly conduct their daily activities, and frequent gatherings of nursing home residents may lead to a complicated acoustic environment in which elderly people may have declining ability to function. This study explores the acoustic environment of an activity hall in a nursing home in Harbin, China and assesses t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Following the successful first Urban Sound Symposium held at Ghent University in 2019, the second edition in 2021 had to face the challenges of the pandemic. The symposium turned this challenge into an opportunity for giving easier access to practitioners and experts from around the globe who are confronted with urban sound in their professional ac...
Article
Full-text available
Following the successful first Urban Sound Symposium held at Ghent University in 2019, the second edition in 2021 had to face the challenges of the pandemic. The symposium turned this challenge into an opportunity for giving easier access to practitioners and experts from around the globe who are confronted with urban sound in their professional ac...
Article
To investigate the effect of augmenting natural sounds in noisy environments, an in-situ experiment was conducted using a mixed-reality head-mounted display (MR HMD). Two outdoor locations close to an expressway were selected for the experiment. A natural sound (birdsong or stream) along with a hologram (sparrow/fountain or loudspeaker) was project...
Article
University students are very likely to experience temperature steps before class in hot summer. This study aims to investigate the overall effects of step changes on students' subjective perception, physiological response and learning performance, so as to explore an optimal thermal condition for classrooms in hot summer. Four typical temperature s...
Article
Full-text available
Many cities around the world have claimed that the enforcement of lockdown measures to contain the spread of COVID-19 and the corresponding limitations of human activities led to reduced environmental noise levels. However, noise complaints reported by many local authorities were on the rise soon after the local lockdowns came into force. This rese...
Article
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Sound environments in large public buildings are likely to be different from those of performance spaces, as well as those not specifically designed for acoustic “performance”, but where sounds still play an important role because of the function they can promote (or disrupt). The aim of this study was identifying common strategies and empirical ap...
Article
Full-text available
Crucial factors in window performance, such as natural ventilation and noise control, are generally conceived separately, forcing users to choose one over the other. To solve this dualism, this study aimed to develop an acoustic metamaterial (AMM) ergonomic window design to allow noise control without dependence on the natural ventilation duration...
Article
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Aims: This research aimed to investigate the major user behavior patterns of noise sources in healthcare environments and summarize such information as evidence that can inform the design of maternity wards for indoor noise control and patients' well-being. Methods: Field investigations were conducted to identify users' behaviors as the major co...
Article
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Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) is a simulated technology used to deliver multisensory information to people under different environmental conditions. When IVR is generally applied in urban planning and soundscape research, it reveals attractive possibilities for the assessment of urban sound environments with higher immersion for human participati...
Article
This paper sets new criteria to improve windows design strategies using participatory ergonomics and the grounded theory method. Focus groups are used to investigate participants' reactions and discussions about the visual stimuli and their deduction in terms of further employment of specific window design techniques or uses. Results framework is e...
Article
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This study aimed to characterise spatial-temporal distribution of noise complaints across urban areas with different densities and to analyse the associations between urban morphology and noise complaints. Taking New York City as the study area, crowdsourced noise complaints and urban morphology datasets from the city government’s open data source...
Article
'Soundscape' refers to how individuals or groups of people perceive sounds. This study focuses on whether and to what extent companion factors, compared with other demographic factors, influence the various aspects of soundscape evaluation. Two kinds of companion factors are studied here: one is companion status, the other is the social relationshi...
Article
Evacuation systems in buildings are frequently assessed to improve emergency response processes. This paper proposes a method to evaluate the performance of different evacuation modes, and determine a rational mode for large railway stations. We developed a simulation for the evaluation of fire safety in large buildings based on an analytic hierarc...
Conference Paper
There is a great deal of literature on contributing environmental factors of the soundscape, the perception of the acoustic environment by humans in context. Yet the impacts of some personal factors are largely unknown. Hence, the main objective of this study was to assess the associations between these factors and the soundscape Pleasantness and E...
Article
Full-text available
Likert scales are useful for collecting data on attitudes and perceptions from large samples of people. In particular, they have become a well-established tool in soundscape studies for conducting in situ surveys to determine how people experience urban public spaces. However, it is still unclear whether the metrics of the scales are consistently i...
Article
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Hospitals are controlled yet complex ecosystems which provide a therapeutic environment that promotes healing, wellbeing, and work efficiency for patients and staff. As these buildings accommodate the sick and vulnerable, occupant wellbeing and good indoor environmental quality (IEQ) that deals with indoor air quality (IAQ), thermal comfort, lighti...
Article
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Exceptional circumstances in the city of Granada due to the COVID-19 lockdown have provided the opportunity to characterise the impact of humans on its urban acoustic climate. Traditional environmental noise management and urban sound planning usually take into account noise sources in the city, such as industrial activities or road traffic noise,...
Article
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Acoustics (ISSN 2624-599X) is an open access peer-reviewed journal published quarterly online by MDPI [...]
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A systematic review for soundscape modelling methods is presented. The methods for developing soundscape models are hereby questioned by investigating the following aspects: data acquisition methods, indicators used as predictors of descriptors in the models, descriptors targeted as output of the models, linear rather than non-linear model fitting,...
Article
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The solar incidence on an indoor environment and its occupants has significant impacts on indoor thermal comfort. It can bring favorable passive solar heating and can result in undesired overheating (even in winter). This problem becomes more critical for high altitudes with high intensity of solar irradiance, while received limited attention. In t...
Article
The degradation of the sound environment contributes significantly to the external costs of mobility and is an obstacle to the development of cities. Action plans aiming at fighting traffic noise often take a long time to reach mature implementation. Therefore, it is advantageous to envisage how societal and urban changes and associated changes in...
Article
The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of the elderly individuals’ acoustic demands and the effects of six influencing factors, categorized into the following three types: activity type, objective environment (number of people in a room, sound pressure level), and demographic factors (age, sex, and occupation type). In addition, w...
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Sound environment is a vital part of our overall environment [...]
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Traditional Chinese performance buildings and performing arts are different from those in the west. However, sound quality evaluation factors for western halls have been used in traditional Chinese performance buildings for a long time. In this study, grounded theory was used to establish a sound quality evaluation system for traditional Chinese pe...