J.G.Bell Gordon Bell

J.G.Bell Gordon Bell
University of Stirling · Institute of Aquaculture

Full Professor

About

227
Publications
58,233
Reads
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22,667
Citations
Citations since 2017
2 Research Items
7239 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200
Additional affiliations
January 2014 - December 2014
University of Stirling
Position
  • Professor of Fish Nutrition
January 1989 - December 2014
University of Stirling
Position
  • Professor of Fish Nutrition
January 1981 - December 2015
University of Stirling
Position
  • g.j.bell@stir.ac.uk
Description
  • Professor of Aquaculture Studies at the University of Stirling

Publications

Publications (227)
Article
In striated muscle, EPA and DHA have differential effects on the metabolism of glucose and differential effects on the metabolism of protein. We have shown that, despite similar incorporation, treatment of C2C12 myotubes (CM) with EPA but not DHA improves glucose uptake and protein accretion. We hypothesized that these differential effects of EPA a...
Article
Full-text available
Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) supplementation could promote adaptation to soccer-specific training. We examined the impact of a 4 wk period of n-3 FA supplementation during training on adaptations in 1RM knee extensor strength, 20m sprint speed, vertical jump power, and anaerobic endurance capacity (Yo-Yo test) in competitive soccer players. Twenty s...
Article
Juvenile salmon, with an initial weight of 9 g, were fed three experimental diets, formulated to replace 35 (SPC35), 58 (SPC58) and 80 (SPC80) of high quality fishmeal (FM) with soy protein concentrate (SPC) in quadruplicate tanks. Higher dietary SPC inclusion was combined with increased supplementation of methionine, lysine, threonine and phosphor...
Article
Full-text available
Diets with 50 (SPC50), 65 (SPC65) and 80 % (SPC80) substitution of prime fish meal (FM) with soy protein concentrate (SPC) were evaluated against a commercial type control feed with 35 % FM replacement with SPC. Increases in dietary SPC were combined with appropriate increases in methionine, lysine and threonine supplementation, whereas added phosp...
Article
Abstract Atlantic salmon post-smolts of an average of 940 g were fed six diets including two marinebased commercial diets one with partial inclusion of vegetable proteins (VPs) and oils (VOs) (2011/ 12 EU standards) (MB) and a second with partial inclusion of VPs, land animal-by-product (ABP) proteins and VOs (non-EU standards) (MBABP), a fully ve...
Article
Full-text available
The pattern of conservation and loss of fatty acids from the yolk sac during the endogenous feeding period and subsequent starvation was studied in pompano and snook larvae. Fundamental information on the early fatty acid dynamic and mobilization of pompano and snook larvae was collected. In both species, fatty acids were utilized as an energy sour...
Article
Full-text available
Fish oil (FO) supplementation potentiates muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in response to a hyperaminoacidemic-hyperinsulinemic infusion. WhetherFOsupplementation potentiatesMPSin response to protein ingestion or when protein ingestion is combined with resistance exercise (RE) remains unknown. In a randomized, parallel group design, 20 healthy males...
Article
Full-text available
A number of recent trials have demonstrated positive effects of dietary supplementation with the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on measures of cognitive function in healthy young and older adults. One potential mechanism by which EPA, and DHA in particular, may exert these...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the effect of a commercial mix of Bacillus sp. on survival, growth and digestive enzyme activities of Florida pompano, red drum and common snook. Larvae were fed either live feed enriched with Algamac 3050 (Control), Algamac 3050 and probiotics (PB), or the previous diet combined with a daily addition of probiotics to the tank w...
Article
Abstract Faba bean (Vicia faba) is a legume with good potential that has previously been tested in fish species with some promising results. The present study aimed to determine whether an air-classified faba bean protein concentrate (BPC, 615 g kg− 1 crude protein content) could offer improved or favourable growth performance, body composition and...
Article
Salmon pancreas disease (SPD) is one of the most commercially significant viral diseases of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Europe. In this study, the potential for dietary mitigation of the disease using different polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) profiles was assessed in rainbow trout. We experiment...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the lipid composition of wild and captive common snook broodstock were investigated to identify potential nutritional deficiencies and formulate suitable diets for captive stocks. Results showed captive snook incorporated significantly more lipid than their wild counterparts. However, cholesterol and arachidonic acid (ARA) levels wer...
Article
Barley protein concentrate (BPC) was tested as a protein source in the diets of Atlantic salmon post-smolts. Fish were fed one of four experimental diets consisting of a fish meal/soya protein concentrate control (CT) along with two feeds supplemented with increasing levels of BPC replacing the more costly SPC. A fourth diet partially replaced FM i...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, salmon products available from UK retailers were analysed to determine the levels of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA), a key determinant of nutritional quality. There was a wide variation in the proportions and absolute contents of EPA and DHA in the products. Relatively high contents of 18 : 1n-9, 18 : 2n-6 and 18 : 3n-3, charac...
Article
The aim of this study was to examine changes in the lipid profile of red blood cells and muscle tissue along with muscle expression of anabolic signalling proteins in human skeletal muscle. Following a 2-week control period ten healthy male participants consumed 5 g d−1 of fish oil (FO) for 4-weeks. Muscle biopsies and venous blood samples were col...
Article
The objective of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of dietary marine phospholipids (MPL) obtained from krill and soybean lecithin (SBL) on the rearing performance and development of seabream (Sparus aurata) larvae. Larvae were fed from 16 to 44 day posthatching (dph) five formulated microdiets with three different levels (50, 70 an...
Article
Full-text available
A study with varying dietary inclusion levels (1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g kg(-1)) of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) was conducted with post-smolt (111 ± 2.6 g; mean ± S.) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) over a 9-week period. In addition to the series of DHA inclusion levels, the study included further diets that had DHA at 10 g kg(-1) in combination...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, three microdiets were tested on weaning of Florida pompano larvae: Otohime, Gemma and a reference diet LR803. The experimental system was stocked with 11-day-old larvae, which were co-fed micro-diets and live food from 11dph to 17dph then micro-diets only until 28dph. Survival from 11dph to 28dph was similar for all treatments, with...
Conference Paper
Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are biologically active, with arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) being the two major omega-6 and omega-3 counterparts, respectively. The enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and 5-Lypooxygenase (ALOX-5) bioconvert ARA into the commonly termed "inflammatory eicosanoids", including...
Article
It is widely accepted that intake of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) can have positive benefits for human health, particularly for CVD, although recent evidence suggests similar benefits may exist over a wider range of inflammatory and lifestyle disorders. This study describes the development of a rapid whole blood finger tip anal...
Article
Previous studies on Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) indicated that cultured broodstock (first generation, G1) have lower tissue levels of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, ARA) than wild counterparts. ARA is metabolized to form prostaglandins (PGs) that are involved in steroid production and follicle maturation in fish. In the present study the effec...
Conference Paper
Abstract The aim of the study was to monitor the effects of fishmeal (FM)-,fish oil(FO)- and fish-free diets on growth performance and health status of Atlantic salmon growers. Atlantic salmon post-smolts with an initial average weight of 939 g were fed in quadruplicate either a fishery based control diet or one of three plant based diets and two a...
Article
The ability to fully control sexual maturation and spawning and to produce large numbers of high quality seeds ‘on demand’ (i.e. all year long) is a primary requirement for the successful development of aquaculture. This relies on optimal broodstock management practices based on extensive knowledge of the nutritional and environmental requirements...
Article
Full-text available
Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation (HSMI) is an emerging viral disease caused by a novel Atlantic salmon reovirus (ASRV) affecting farmed fish. Primary symptoms associated with HSMI include myocardial and skeletal muscle necrosis indicating a severe inflammatory process. Recently, we applied the concept of clinical nutrition to moderate the lon...
Article
The relationship between lipid and digestible energy content of the feed and growth performance has been exploited with great effect in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The precise metabolic consequences of so-called “high-energy” feeds have not been fully defined, but increased and altered tissue lipid deposition patterns impacting on carcass and pr...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have shown higher levels of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, ARA) in testis, liver, and muscle of wild Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) compared to fish reared in captivity (first generation, G1). The present study was conducted to establish the optimal level of dietary ARA for G1 Senegalese sole broodstock, using as a reference the...
Article
Full-text available
Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation (HSMI), recently associated with a novel Atlantic salmon reovirus (ASRV), is currently one of the most prevalent inflammatory diseases in commercial Atlantic salmon farms in Norway. Mortality varies from low to 20%, but morbidity can be very high, reducing growth performance and causing considerable financial...
Data
Normalized gene expression levels in heart for different gene groups. The genes listed in Tables 4–9 are included in figures A–F, showing the average gene expression levels (as whiskers), with maximum and minimum range for each gene group. Outliers are depicted as black dots. A) Viral infection-related genes; B) Innate immune system-related genes;...
Data
Complete list of the down-regulated genes at 12wpc on the group of fish fed with the ST diet and 16wpc on the group of fish fed with the FF2 diet from cluster groups (identified by SOM). (XLSX)
Data
Complete list of the down-regulated genes at 12wpc on the group of fish fed with the ST diet and 16wpc on the group of fish fed with the FF2 diet from cluster groups (identified by SOM). (XLSX)
Data
Criteria used to score the histological changes in the heart (epicard, ventricle and atrium). (DOCX)
Data
Primers used for RT-qPCR analyses. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an essential fatty acid necessary for many biochemical, cellular and physiological functions in fish. However, high dietary levels of DHA increase free radical injury in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae muscle, even when vitamin E (α-tocopherol, α-TOH) is increased. Therefore, the inclusion of other nutrients wit...
Article
Full-text available
Dietary fatty acid supply can affect stress response in fish during early development. Although knowledge on the mechanisms involved in fatty acid regulation of stress tolerance is scarce, it has often been hypothesised that eicosanoid profiles can influence cortisol production. Genomic cortisol actions are mediated by cytosolic receptors which may...
Article
Full-text available
Expansion of aquaculture requires alternative feeds and breeding strategies to reduce dependency on fish oil (FO) and better utilization of dietary vegetable oil (VO). Despite the central role of intestine in maintaining body homeostasis and health, its molecular response to replacement of dietary FO by VO has been little investigated. This study e...
Article
Full-text available
Genetic selection of Atlantic salmon families better adapted to alternative feed formulations containing high levels of vegetable ingredients has been suggested to ensure sustainable growth of aquaculture. The present study aimed to identify molecular pathways that could underlie phenotypic differences in flesh n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty...
Data
Figure S1. Relationship between total lipid level and n-3 LC-PUFA content.
Data
Table S2. Genes similarly regulated in pair-wise comparisons of families containing H and L n-3 LC-PUFA flesh contents, at each one of the total lipid levels.
Data
Table S1. Gene Ontology terms showing significant enrichment in the list of features affected by the 'total lipid' factor.
Data
Figure S2. Distribution of IPN resistance scores in relation to flesh lipid phenotypes.
Article
Lipid class, fatty acid and POP levels were measured in migrating Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABT) tissues caught off the Barbate coast, Spain. Tissue lipids were largely characterized by triacylglycerol, reflecting large energy reserves accumulated prior to reproductive migration. Fatty acid compositions of muscle, liver and adipose exhibited similar p...
Article
Prostaglandin levels in different tissues and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) gene expression were compared between wild and cultured Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) broodstock in which a significantly different fatty acid profile, particularly lower tissue levels of arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) and higher levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n...
Article
A complete reproductive failure to spawn viable eggs from G1 cultured Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) broodstock compared to successful spawning from wild caught captive broodstock has been described previously. The aim of the present study was to compare the proximate and fatty acid composition of recently caught mature wild versus mature G1...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of Se inclusion in high-DHA and vitamin E microdiets (5 g DHA/100 g dry weight and 300 mg vitamin E/100 g dry weight; 5 g DHA/100 g dry weight and 300 mg vitamin E/100 g dry weight supplemented with Se) in comparison with a control diet (1 g DHA/100 g dry weight and 150 mg vitamin E/100...
Article
The benefits of consuming a diet rich in seafood are now well respected and are based not only on the high levels of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) but also due to the range of beneficial macro and micronutrients present in fish. Atlantic salmon culture is now established globally and is a major source of high-quality oil...
Article
For aquaculture of marine species to continue to expand, dietary fish oil (FO) must be replaced with more sustainable vegetable oil (VO) alternatives. Most VO are rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and few are rich in n-3 PUFA but Camelina oil (CO) is unique in that, besides high 18:3n-3 and n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio, it also contains substant...
Article
The environmental consequences of replacing fish meal and fish oil with plant-based sources in salmonid feeds were investigated using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Two scenarios of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farming were compared. The first scenario used a Standard Diet (STD) with high levels of fish meal a...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigates the effects of genotype on responses to alternative feeds in Atlantic salmon. Microarray analysis of the liver transcriptome of two family groups, lean or fat, fed a diet containing either a fish oil (FO) or a vegetable oil (VO) blend indicated that pathways of cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism might be different...
Article
Recently, we reported that growth of Atlantic salmon was reduced as dietary fishmeal (FM) was lowered from 25% to 5% in dual-substituted feeds compared to a control diet, formulated to represent the current upper levels of substitution of FM and fish oil. In the present study, the effects of different alternative protein blends and binders on growt...
Article
Full-text available
It is well accepted that n-3 long-chain PUFA intake is positively associated with a range of health benefits. However, while benefits have been clearly shown, especially for CVD, the mechanisms for prevention/benefit are less understood. Analysis of plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids (PL) have been used to measure the status of the highly unsatur...
Article
Full-text available
Expansion of aquaculture is seriously limited by reductions in fish oil (FO) supply for aquafeeds. Terrestrial alternatives such as vegetable oils (VO) have been investigated and recently a strategy combining genetic selection with changes in diet formulations has been proposed to meet growing demands for aquaculture products. This study investigat...
Article
Three legumes [field peas (P), chickpeas (CP) and faba beans (B)] at two inclusion levels [170 g kg(-1) (L) and 350 g kg(-1) (H)] were evaluated in a 13-week experiment with triplicate groups of 92.6 +/- 5.0 g gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). A control diet included wheat meal, fishmeal (FM) and a mixture of plant ingredients as protein source...
Article
Although the use of fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) has been extensive in Atlantic salmon culture, there is a growing need for less reliance on these commodities. Moreover, it is crucial for the aquafeed industry to optimise the use of dietary protein and to improve the protein utilisation in salmon diets. The interactive effects of the dietary pr...
Article
The physiological response to stressors in fish, including hormonal profiles and associated tissue responsiveness, is less documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate feeding gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) with diets containing linseed oil (LO) and soybean oil (SO) as substitutes to fish oil (FO) and their effect on fatty acid profile of...
Article
Full-text available
The mode of action of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in regulating gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) head kidney (HK) cortisol production was studied through in vitro trials using a dynamic superfusion system. Fish were previously fed with different diets containing several inclusion levels of linseed oil (LO) or soyabean oil (SO) for 26 we...
Article
The present study aimed to ascertain the different fatty acid (FA) descriptors linking dietary and muscle FA composition in one-year-old gilthead sea bream. For that purpose, our own published data along with additional data from the present study were compiled and analysed. High linear correlations (r2 = 0.90, P < 0.001) between dietary and muscle...
Article
Full-text available
A factorial, two-way, experimental design was used for this 10-week nutritional trial, aiming to elucidate the interactive effects of decreasing dietary protein:lipid level and substitution of fish oil (FO) with rapeseed oil (RO) on tissue fatty acid (FA) composition and metabolism of large Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) reared at high water temp...
Article
The present study compared the effects of diets formulated with reduced fishmeal (FM) content and either 100% fish oil (FO) or 100% of a vegetable oil (VO) blend in post-smolts of three family groups of Atlantic salmon. Two groups were selected as being either “Lean” or “Fat” based on estimated breeding values (EBV) for flesh adiposity of their par...
Article
The effects of high levels of replacement of dietary fish meal (FM) by mixtures of plant protein (PP) sources on growth performance, lipid composition, protein and lipid digestibility and fatty acid profile were investigated in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Experimental diets containing 35% protein and 28% lipid were formulated with a low level of...
Article
The external coloration of fish is a key driver in consumer buying decisions and is typically altered during sexual maturation in salmonids. Farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) exhibiting distinct phenotypes from the typical silver and nuptial coloration were described in terms of sexual development, flesh quality, and skin pigment profiles. R...