Jesús L Megías

Jesús L Megías
University of Granada | UGR · Department of Experimental Psychology and Physiology of Behaviour

Professor; Ph.D.

About

68
Publications
25,663
Reads
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1,296
Citations
Citations since 2017
29 Research Items
741 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120140
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120140
Introduction
Jesús L Megías currently works at the Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Granada. Jesús does research in Gender-based Violence, Myths on sexual aggression and IPVAW and Sexism.

Publications

Publications (68)
Article
The authors present a revised version of the Acceptance of Modern Myths About Sexual Aggression scale (AMMSA-21) in four languages (English, German, Polish and Spanish) and examine its reliability and validity (total N = 1,459). AMMSA-21 addresses themes emerging in recent public discourse (e.g., beliefs about false accusations) and contents simila...
Article
Piropos, a form of stranger harassment typical in Spain, consist of appearance-related comments that unknown men direct at women in public spaces, such as on the street. There is some controversy within Spanish society as to whether piropos should be rejected or accepted––at least a certain type of them. In this research, we analyzed how young Span...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a serious public health issue with wide-ranging consequences for both the mother and the unborn child. Thus, interventions are needed to address this issue. OBJECTIVE The aim of the STOP study is to implement digital screening for IPV within antenatal care and provide video counselling...
Article
Full-text available
Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects thousands of women around the world and is prevalent in the Global South. Unequal social structures perpetuate hierarchies and maintain women’s vulnerability to violence. Difficulties women face in accessing education, economic resources, and employment diminish their power in intimate relationships, increasi...
Article
Full-text available
Background Pregnancy is a period of particular vulnerability to experience intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW). eHealth strategies have been implemented to identify women exposed to IPVAW and to combat the abuse and empower them, but there is a lack of evidence on the use of these strategies among pregnant women. This work aims to ident...
Article
Full-text available
Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a serious health problem that affects pregnancy more frequently than other obstetric complications usually evaluated in antenatal visits. We aimed to estimate the accuracy of the Women Abuse Screening Tool-Short (WAST-Short) and the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS) for the detection of IPV du...
Article
In two studies, we analyzed the differences in the appreciation (i.e., funniness and aversiveness) and interpretation (i.e., criticism of sexism and woman and man disparagement) of subversive humor against sexism compared to sexist humor. In Study 1 (n = 202), we used a confirmatory factor analysis to verify the independence of subversive humor and...
Article
Full-text available
Men as advantaged group members can be involved in actions against inequality. But how do women experience men’s confrontation of sexism? We examine how women perceive men’s egalitarian versus paternalistic confrontation of sexism. We hypothesized that women would be more likely to report empowerment and well-being (i.e., more happiness and less an...
Article
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The national and European economic crisis has caused significant changes in the National Health System in Spain, among others a considerable deterioration in the working conditions of nursing professionals. The aim of this study was to analyse whether the economic crisis situation influenced the burnout and engagement of Spanish nursing professiona...
Article
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Violence against women (VAW) is currently one of the main problems in El Salvador, which leads the ranking of femicides in the world. We conducted the first national survey on VAW in El Salvador following the World Health Organization (WHO) methodology, to determine the impact of violence on women’s mental health ( N = 1,274). Women who had experie...
Article
Full-text available
Subversive humor has historically been considered a way of protesting, raising awareness, and seeking change. However, to date, no known empirical research has explored the consequences of exposure to humor that criticizes, confronts, and questions sexism (i.e., subversive humor against sexism or feminist humor). In the present research, we conduct...
Article
Two studies addressed effects of the labels ‘victim’, ‘battered woman’ and ‘survivor’ on the perception of women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Spanish undergraduates provided free associations (Study 1; N = 54) and completed semantic differentials (Study 2; N = 142) regarding the labels. Results showed that the term ‘survivo...
Article
Full-text available
In the present research we explored how women are perceived as a function of their reactions to a harassing situation (piropo). Piropos, which are very common in Spain, are appearance-related comments directed by men to unknown women on the street. In Study 1, participants read hypothetical vignettes where a woman reacted positively, negatively, or...
Article
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The role of men in fighting gender inequality is a controversial issue. Literature has shown that advantaged group members can promote social change but also perpetuate status quo. We conducted three studies to examine two motivational processes that may lead men to confront sexism: an egalitarian path and a paternalistic one. Studies 1–3 revealed...
Article
Moral Foundations Theory (MFT) proposes five intuition‐based moral concerns: Care and Fairness ("individualizing foundations") as well as Loyalty, Authority, and Sanctity ("binding foundations"). In studies carried out in Italy, Spain, and Germany, the authors examined how these concerns are associated with the acceptance of modern myths about sexu...
Article
Exposure to sexist humor creates a context in which some men feel comfortable expressing aggressive tendencies toward women (i.e., self-reported rape proclivity). This is in part because this type of humor makes it easier for men who have antagonistic attitudes toward women to express their prejudice without fear of social reprisal. Besides, previo...
Article
Full-text available
Intimate partner violence against women (IPV) and sexual harassment are both widespread. Research on their causes and attitudinal correlates has rarely examined implicit, automatic cognitive associations related to the partner (in IPV aggressors) or to women (in sexual harassment offenders). The aim of the present research was to study these implic...
Article
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Through its many faces, humor may perpetuate inequalities and intergroup differences (disparagement humor) or, on the contrary, it may question such inequalities and differences and try to subvert hierarchies and social asymmetries (subversive humor). This research focuses on the kind of subversive humor that questions and confronts sexist ideology...
Article
The study of coping strategies has provided valuable insights about the process of helping cancer patients adapt to their disease. However, new approaches must be explored to increase the knowledge of this adjustment. In this study, we will analyze the relationship between patients’ psychological well-being and quality of life and less well-studied...
Article
Intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) is investigated mostly at the individual level, which ignores the role of macrosocial variables and possible interactions between them. We explored how two ideological gender-related macrosocial factors (traditional gender role beliefs and attitudes toward gender equality) and one structural gender-re...
Article
Full-text available
Violence against women is currently one of the major problems in El Salvador. However, the country lacks existing data to address this issue. The recent coming into effect of the Ley Especial Integral para una Vida Libre de Violencia para las Mujeres (LEIV) [Comprehensive Law for a Life Free of Violence Against Women] urgently calls for the dimensi...
Article
According to objectification theory, women’s habitual exposure to sexually objectifying situations can lead them to internalize a third-person perspective of themselves in physical terms, leading women to adopt an observer’s viewpoint of themselves as a body or collection of body parts that is valued principally for use or consumption by others (i....
Article
The measures available for assessing the acceptance of myths about intimate partner violence against women (AMIVAW) are characterized either by a lack of sufficient psychometric support or by being based on unclear theoretical propositions. In this article, we present a 15-item self-report scale: the AMIVAW Scale. We examined the reliability and va...
Article
Two studies analyzed the influence of victim behavior, drink type, and observer rape myth acceptance (RMA) on attributions of blame to victims of sexual assault. In Study 1, people higher in RMA blamed the victim more when she accepted rather than rejected the aggressor’s invitation to buy her a drink. In Study 2, we analyzed if the effects depende...
Article
We studied how the sex of the aggressor and their motivations for attacking influence the social perception of intimate partner violence, as well as the sex of the observer and their sexist ideology. University students read a scenario in which both members of a heterosexual couple harmed each other owing to controlling or reactive motivations. Aft...
Article
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Self-objectification happens when people internalize a view of themselves as an object or collection of body parts. Two studies were conducted to validate the Spanish version of the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (OBCS). This scale assesses self-objectification through three components: body surveillance, body shame and appearance control bel...
Article
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Background: The high levels of indebtedness and deficit of Spain's autonomous communities as a consequence of the national and European economic crisis have caused radical changes in the Spanish National Health Service. At the present time, the economic crisis is seriously affecting nurses in several European countries, and especially in Spain. O...
Article
Three experiments examined the effect of sexist humor on men’s self-reported rape proclivity (RP). Pilot study demonstrated that people differentiate the five rape scenarios of Bohner et al.’s. RP Scale based on the degree of physical violence perpetrated against the victim. Experiment 1 demonstrated that men higher in hostile sexism report greater...
Article
Sexual assault affects a large proportion of women in the world. Although most rapes are committed by one man, the act itself may be influenced by many (e.g., the peer group). Hostile sexism (HS) has repeatedly been associated with men's rape proclivity, but the influence exerted by the HS of the peer group on rape proclivity has not been investiga...
Poster
Full-text available
Spanish students were exposed to reggaeton music videos, electronic music videos or no music videos. Later they completed explicit and implicit measures of mysogynous attitudes, victim blaming, and acceptance of sexual aggression myths (AMMSA). Results showed that exposure to reggaeton influenced conscious and non-conscious gender-related cognition...
Book
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La violencia hacia las mujeres es uno de los problemas más graves actualmente en El Salvador. Según la FESAL (2008) más de la mitad de las mujeres han sufrido algún tipo de violencia por parte de sus parejas. El Salvador encabezó en 2011 las cifras mundiales de feminicidio con 647 asesinatos de mujeres. En la última década la violencia contra las m...
Article
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Exposure to some magazines aimed at young male readers-lads' mags-has recently been associated with behaviors and attitudes that are derogatory toward women, including sexual violence. In the present study, a group of Spanish adult men was exposed to the covers of a lads' mag while a second group was exposed to the covers of a neutral magazine. Res...
Article
In this chapter, we provide an overview of the main internal and external factors proposed by social and evolutionary psychologists to explain the development of prejudice and stereotypes from childhood. We focus particularly on gender prejudice and empirical evidence obtained from studies conducted in Spain. Gender relations differ from other inte...
Article
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The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of romantic relationships on adolescents’ sexism. We primed some of the participants with their past and/or present relationship experiences before assessing their sexism. A sample of 130 adolescents (67 boys and 63 girls) from Spanish high schools participated in the study. Half of them were asked...
Article
Psychological violence against women in intimate relations is one of the most widespread and hidden ways of limiting their human rights. Nowadays different ideologies, including sexism and feminism, can contribute to (dis)regard this phenomenon. This study focuses on the relationship between ambivalent sexism (in its hostile and benevolent dimensio...
Article
Full-text available
We present an intervention to reduce gender prejudice in future professionals of social sciences in three samples from Argentina (N = 28), Spain (N = 83) and El Salvador (N = 67), with slight differences across countries. The program was based on scientific research on sexism and gender-based power aimed at: a) increasing awareness of gender inequa...
Article
This study aimed to analyze the influence of victim-related and observer-related factors in victim blaming of battered women. Two hundred and forty six college students participated. They were asked to read a scenario describing a hypothetical case of physical violence perpetrated by a man against his partner. Depending on the experimental conditio...
Article
Sexual assault perpetrated by acquaintances in social/dating situations (such as parties, bars or sporadic encounters) is frequent among college students. With only a few exceptions, studies on this topic have been carried out using quantitative methodologies. Yet such work cannot capture the complexities of young people's perceptions of sexual ass...
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of heterosexual intimate relationship experiences has been described as central to the development of ambivalent sexist attitudes during adolescence. The quality of these relationships might be largely determined by the perceived attractiveness and expectancies about potential partners also in ideological terms. In a questionnaire stu...
Article
This article describes three studies in which we explored the influence of the sexist ideology attributed to the perpetrator on women's responses to hypothetical acts of sexual assault perpetrated by male intimate partners. In Study 1 (n = 83), college women read three sexual assault scenarios in the context of an intimate relationship. The male pa...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Studies conducted in several countries have documented that women with disabilities are more vulnerable to experience gender-based violence than women without disabilities. Method: A total of 96 women, 45 with visual disabilities and 51 with physical disabilities, were interviewed to determine the prevalence of violence and its possi...
Article
Full-text available
The main aim of this preliminary study was to explore if Power and Gender model by Pratto and Walker (2004) constitutes an adequate theoretical tool for the analysis of dyadic power and violence against women in couples. According to this model, power differences between genders are built upon four bases: resources control, social obligations, sexi...
Article
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A questionnaire study addressed the intergenerational transmission of benevolent sexist beliefs (BS) from mothers to adolescent daughters and influences of BS on daughters’ traditional goals, academic goals (i.e., getting an academic degree), and academic performance. In addition, the role of mothers’ educational level and job status as predictors...
Article
Two studies investigated the effects of information related to rape myths on Spanish college students' perceptions of sexual assault. In Study 1, 92 participants read a vignette about a nonconsensual sexual encounter and rated whether it was a sexual assault and how much the woman was to blame. In the scenario, the man either used physical force or...
Article
Full-text available
Two studies were conducted with college students to validate the Spanish-language version of the "Acceptance of Modern Myths about Sexual Aggression" scale (AMMSA) (Gerger, Kley, Bohner & Siebler, 2007). This scale assesses modern myths about sexual aggression in a subtle way. In Study 1, 305 students completed the Spanish AMMSA and other scales wi...
Article
This study tested the effects on social perceptions of sexual marital rights and duties of ambivalent sexist ideology and information about the benevolent sexist ideology of a husband, portrayed in a hypothetical marital vignette. In addition, the perception of whether hypothetical forced sex between husband and wife is considered rape was explored...
Chapter
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The present work describes a gender training program for future professionals in Psychology based on scientific research on sexism and power. The training course was held in a Salvadorean University and aimed at: a) increasing awareness of gender inequalities in everyday life; b) reducing ambivalent sexist beliefs; c) providing participants with us...
Article
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RESUMEN El objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar las relaciones entre las atribucio-nes causales de la pobreza, las concep-ciones implícitas sobre el desarrollo y las valoraciones de la eficacia de diferentes estrategias de erradicación de la pobreza. Se pidió a 165 estudiantes de la Univer-sidad de Granada que rellenasen volunta-ria y anónim...
Article
The aim of this study is to explore the effect of exposure to sexist humor about women on men's self-reported rape proclivity. Earlier studies have shown that exposure to this type of humor increases rape proclivity and that funniness responses to jokes are a key element to consider. However, the role of aversiveness responses has not been studied....
Article
Full-text available
This study analyzed the strategy of college men who give alcohol to girls to facilitate their acceptance when pursuing sexual relationships. It also studied the role of attitudes towards sexual assaults (rape myths) in the social perception of this practice; finally, this research examined how the fact that, in some cases, college women accept taki...
Article
Full-text available
Normative ratings on valence, arousal, subjetive familiarity, and its relation with threat, depression and anger of 238 nouns in university students. We present normative data of the assessment by university students of nouns on scales of valence, arousal, word frequency or subjective familiarity, and its relation with threat, depression and anger....
Article
Two hypothetical scenario studies examined how situational, perpetrator, and observer factors affect blame towards rape victims. In Study 1, Spanish high school students (N = 206) read about a rape committed by a boyfriend or husband who was described as benevolently sexist or not. Study 2 (N = 201 British college students) replicated and extended...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we attempt to show the most significant aspects in the literature on sexual assaults in college students. Specifically, this review focuses on the role of alcohol and the myths or beliefs about rape, as some of these factors produce great negative impact on victims, decreasing their motivation to report incidents, and increasing self-...
Article
According to most post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) theories, memory mechanisms are involved in its development and maintenance. However, the specific memory characteristics responsible for this disorder are still not well known. In the present study, 210 participants having reported at least one traumatic experience were assigned to a PTSD or...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we explored the emotional modulation of the Attentional Blink effect. In a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation procedure, a word (Target 1), either positive, negative or neutral, was followed by the word "WATER" (Target 2) in one half of the trials. The task included two conditions. In one of them, participants only had to detect the wo...
Article
Full-text available
This study assessed the role of rape myth acceptance (RMA) and situational factors in the perception of three different rape scenarios (date rape, marital rape, and stranger rape). One hundred and eighty-two psychology undergraduates were asked to emit four judgements about each rape situation: victim responsibility, perpetrator responsibility, int...
Article
This study assessed the role of rape myth acceptance (RMA) and situational factors in the perception of three different rape scenarios (date rape, marital rape, and stranger rape). One hundred and eighty-two psychology undergraduates were asked to emit four judgements about each rape situation: victim responsibility, perpetrator responsibility, int...
Article
Full-text available
The main aim of this research was to study the cognitive architecture underlying causal/covariation learning by investigating the frequency of judgement effect. Previous research has shown that decreasing the number of trials between opportunities to make a judgement in a covariation learning task led to a higher score after an a or d type of trial...
Article
The main aim of the present work was to study whether the effect of diazepam upon successive negative contrast in one-way avoidance learning-induced by shifting rats from a large reward (30s spent in the safe compartment) to a small reward (1s)-is mediated by the action of this drug on the benzodiazepine (BZ) receptor. Therefore, we studied the inf...
Article
The effect of administration of diazepam on successive negative contrast in one-way avoidance learning was examined in rats. Contrast was induced by shifting rats from a large reward, 30 s spent in the safe compartment, to a small reward, 1 s spent in the safe compartment. IP administration of 2 mg/kg diazepam eliminated this negative contrast. Mor...
Article
Full-text available
In three experiments, successive negative contrast was examined in one-way avoidance learning. Reward magnitude in first (pre-shift) and second (post-shift) phases was manipulated by time spent in the safe compartment. Experiment 1 demonstrated that when time in the danger compartment was held constant, a group shifted from a large reward--30 sec s...
Article
Anxiety is a complex, central emotional state which shares common characteristics with fear Neurobiological and psychobiological investigations have identified, during the last decades, several brain structures and circuits closely related to the above-mentioned central state. Of special importance are the limbic system (including the septohippocam...

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