Jessica L Hamilton

Jessica L Hamilton
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey | Rutgers · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

80
Publications
51,853
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,049
Citations

Publications

Publications (80)
Article
Full-text available
Although cognitive vulnerabilities to depression have received considerable empirical support, little research has evaluated the differential development of cognitive vulnerabilities in adolescent girls and boys. The current study examined the role of stressful life events, as well as sex differences in reactivity and exposure to stress, in the dev...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescence marks the emergence of sex differences in internalizing symptoms and disorders, with girls at increased risk for depression and anxiety during the pubertal transition. However, the mechanisms through which puberty confers risk for internalizing psychopathology for girls, but not boys, remain unclear. We examined two pubertal indicators...
Article
It is common for psychology studies to rely solely on linear correlation (r) or similar statistics and not include other measures of association (such as relative risk, which examines differences in the number of people affected). For example, the association between smoking and lung cancer (r = 0.06) could be dismissed as “small” if only linear r...
Article
Background: Identifying proximal risk factors for suicidal ideation that are modifiable and relevant for adolescents and young adults is critical for suicide prevention. This study used an intensive monitoring approach to examine whether objectively- and subjectively- measured sleep characteristics predict next-day suicidal ideation occurrence and...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescents’ daily lives have been disrupted during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic. It remains unclear how changes in adolescents’ daily physical and social behaviours affect their sleep. The present study examined the daily and average effects of physical activity and social media use (i.e., video chatting, texting, and social ne...
Article
Study Objectives The objectives of this study were to examine the relationships between sleep regularity and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), including lifetime NSSI history and daily NSSI urges. Methods Undergraduate students (N=119; 18-26 years), approximately half of whom endorsed a lifetime history of repetitive NSSI, completed a 10-day actigra...
Article
While research identifies a growing list of risk factors for anxiety and depression, it is equally important to identify potential protective factors that may prevent or reduce vulnerability to developing internalizing psychopathology. We hypothesized that forms of perseverative thinking, such as rumination and worry, act as mechanisms linking nega...
Article
Social media has rapidly transformed the ways in which adolescents socialize and interact with the world, which has contributed to ongoing public debate about whether social media is helping or harming adolescents. The COVID-19 pandemic has magnified both the challenges and opportunities of adolescents’ social-media use, which necessitates revisiti...
Article
Objective To examine the relationship between social media use and suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents in the first 30 days of an intensive outpatient program (IOP) for depression and suicidality. Method Participants included 100 adolescents who enrolled in an IOP for depression and suicidality and completed baseline measures of soci...
Article
Screen media use is associated with mental health problems among adolescents. However, few studies have examined screen media use using contemporaneous time diaries (rather than retrospective reports), compared associations across specific screen media activities or by gender, or examined associations with self-harm behaviors. Participants were 13-...
Chapter
The current chapter provides a review of the current theoretical and empirical literature on the development of cognitive vulnerability to depression in youth. First, cognitive formulations of risk for depression are introduced, with a particular focus on the developmental antecedents of cognitive vulnerability. The potential role of childhood emot...
Article
Social media (SM) use has increasingly changed how adolescents interact with their peers, yet it remains unclear how peer interactions on social media differ from in-person peer interactions. The current study evaluated whether the context (social media or in-person) of adolescent girls’ worst and best peer interactions influenced their emotional r...
Article
Study objectives: Stigmatized youth experience poorer sleep than those who have not experienced stigma. However, no studies have examined the sleep of gender minority adolescents (GMAs). Examining sleep disparities between GMAs and non-gender minority adolescents (non-GMAs) is critical, since poor sleep is associated with mental health outcomes ex...
Article
Full-text available
The current review provides a quantitative synthesis of the empirical literature on sleep disturbance as a risk factor for suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs). A systematic search of PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and the references of prior reviews resulted in 41 eligible studies included in this meta-analysis. Sleep disturbance, including insomnia, prospe...
Article
Despite the high prevalence of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and resultant physical scarring, few studies have explored the occurrence and psychological implications of concealing NSSI scars. This study examines NSSI scar concealment from the self and others, as well as the cognitive, affective, and self-injury-related correlates of these concealm...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Social media (SM) use has been increasingly recognized as a potential contributor to poor sleep. Few studies have examined SM use and sleep using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), compared different types of media use (SM, television, gaming), or examined whether youth at high and low familial risk for depression are differentiall...
Preprint
Full-text available
Despite criticisms dating back to the 1950s, and minimal progress reducing mental health burdens, the dominant training model in clinical psychology has not changed. We argue that for clinical psychologists to reduce mental health burdens, they (collectively) need to devote a much larger proportion of their professional efforts to a broader range o...
Article
Introduction Sleep problems are germane to the majority of adolescents, but stigmatized youth may experience poorer sleep than those who have not experienced stigma. However, no prior studies have examined sleep among transgender adolescents (TGAs). Investigating these sleep disparities is critical, since low sleep duration and poor sleep quality a...
Article
Introduction Studies consistently demonstrate a link between subjective sleep disturbances and the continuum of suicidality, although this evidence primarily comes from retrospective, cross-sectional studies using limited items to assess sleep. Longitudinal assessment of well-defined and measured sleep/wake behaviors with high-risk individuals are...
Article
Introduction Social media use is a risk factor for poor sleep among adolescents. It remains unclear whether social media use before bed impacts later sleep timing or whether youth turn to social media because of sleep problems, which impacts sleep timing. No study to date has examined this relationship using prospective designs and objective sleep...
Article
Inflexibility of the autonomic nervous system is relevant to depression vulnerability, but the downstream behavioral consequences of autonomic inflexibility are not well understood. Rumination, a perseverative thinking style that characterizes depression, is one candidate phenotype relevant to autonomic inflexibility. Undergraduates (N = 134) compl...
Preprint
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the health, safety, and daily lives of all individuals. Adolescents may be uniquely sensitive to this abrupt disruption in their lives due to the biological and psychological changes that occur during this developmental period. Social media has rapidly transformed the ways in which adolescents socialize and intera...
Chapter
Today’s youth are growing up in a rapidly advancing technological society. The involvement of technology in youth’s lives may impact their mental health in potentially both positive and negative ways, but these impacts may be modifiable when viewed in context. In this chapter, we provide an overview of—(1) how technology, particularly social techno...
Article
Full-text available
Living in high crime areas and rumination each have been identified as risk factors for depression among youth, yet it is unclear how crime and rumination may synergistically increase the risk of adolescent depression. Adolescents (N = 309; 51% female, Mage= 12.9, SD = 0.61) completed self-report measures of rumination, depressive symptoms, and pro...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Youth who have a parent with recurrent depression are at high risk for mental health problems. There is a need to identify transdiagnostic and clinically actionable mechanisms that explain higher rates of psychopathology among high-risk youth. The present study sought to examine whether offspring of depressed parents exhibit greater par...
Article
Sleep disturbance and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) are well-known to be independently associated with depression. Yet, it remains unclear how sleep disturbance and impaired physiological regulation (indexed by RSA) may synergistically contribute to depression risk. The current study examined the relationship between sleep disturbance (duratio...
Article
Introduction Parental depression is a robust risk factor for youth psychopathology. The pathways through which familial depression confers risk for offspring remain unclear. Sleep disturbance is a transdiagnostic risk factor for psychopathology. No previous study has examined whether youth at high and low risk for depression exhibit distinct sleep...
Article
Full-text available
Child maltreatment and sleep disturbances are particularly prevalent among individuals with a history of depression. However, the precise relation between child maltreatment and sleep within this population is unclear. The present study evaluated childhood maltreatment and trauma as a predictor of sleep duration and insomnia symptoms among young ad...
Article
Full-text available
Whether cognitive vulnerability to depression exists along a continuum of severity or as a qualitatively discrete phenomenological entity has direct bearing on theoretical formulations of risk for depression and clinical risk assessment. This question is of particular relevance to adolescence, given that cognitive vulnerability appears to coalesce...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Text message interventions hold promise for adolescents and young adults (AYA) with chronic health conditions, including childhood cancer survivors. However, engagement is often suboptimal. Limited research has studied mHealth intervention outcomes beyond efficacy. Understanding responsivity to different types of text messages (i.e., whe...
Article
Background and Objectives: Existing models of social anxiety scarcely account for interpersonal stress generation. These models also seldom include interpersonal factors that compound the effects of social anxiety. Given recent findings that two forms of interpersonal distress, perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, intensify social a...
Article
Introduction Adolescence increases risk of insufficient sleep, which impairs autonomic function. Although girls report shorter sleep duration than boys, gender differences in the effects of sleep loss on the physiological stress response are not well understood. We examined the moderating role of gender in the effects of sleep restriction on the ph...
Article
Full-text available
Abnormalities in parasympathetic nervous system activity have been linked to depression, but less is known about processes underlying this relationship. The present study evaluated resting and stress-reactive respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) to a laboratory stressor as predictors of daily interpersonal stress generation and depressive symptoms, w...
Article
Full-text available
The hopelessness theory of depression is a prominent account of depression that posits that individuals with a negative inferential style are more likely to become hopeless when they experience negative life events (NLEs), and that hopelessness is a proximal cause of depression. There is strong evidence supporting the role of a negative inferential...
Article
The ability of the autonomic nervous system to flexibly adapt to environmental changes is thought to indicate efficient use of self-regulatory resources. Deficits in autonomic reactivity appear to characterize current depression; however, whether autonomic reactivity confers vulnerability to future depression when individuals encounter environmenta...
Article
The ability of the parasympathetic nervous system to flexibly adapt to changes in environmental context is thought to serve as a physiological indicator of self-regulatory capacity, and deficits in parasympathetic flexibility appear to characterize affective disorders such as depression. However, whether parasympathetic flexibility (vagal withdrawa...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examined the psychometric properties of the impact of non-suicidal self-injury scale (INS), a scale developed to assess the social, behavioral, and emotional consequences of engaging in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). University students (N=128) who endorsed a history of NSSI were administered the INS, as well as measures of hypo...
Article
Positive and negative trait affect and emotion regulatory strategies have received considerable attention in the literature as predictors of psychopathology. However, it remains unclear whether individuals’ trait affect is associated with responses to state positive affect (positive rumination and dampening) or negative affect (ruminative brooding)...
Article
Full-text available
Although research consistently suggests that adolescents in single-mother families are at increased risk for depression, the mechanisms that explain this relationship are unclear. In a community sample of adolescents (N = 368; ages 12-16; 50 % female; 50 % White) and their mothers (42 % single), adolescents completed measures of depressive symptoms...
Article
Few studies have investigated suicide risk characteristics associated with interrupted suicide attempts (ISAs) and aborted suicide attempts (ASAs). The present study aimed to empirically examine whether assessing a history of ISAs and ASAs is valuable when quantifying risk for future suicidal behavior, given the relative lack of literature in this...
Article
Background: Major depressive disorder often is characterized by a lack of cognitive and emotional flexibility, resulting in an impaired ability to adapt to situational demands. Adolescence is an important period of risk for the first onset of depression, yet relatively little is known about whether aspects of inflexibility, such as rumination and...
Article
Children raised in single-mother families are at increased risk for psychopathology, but the mechanisms that help explain this relationship are understudied. In a community sample of diverse adolescents (N = 385, 52 % female, 48 % Caucasian) and their mothers, we hypothesized that single mothers would be more likely than cohabitating mothers to eng...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescence is a developmental period associated with heightened risk for both the onset and escalation of suicidal ideation (SI). Given that SI is a potent predictor of suicidal behavior, it is important to develop models of vulnerability for and protection against SI, particularly among young adolescents. This study examined the relative impact o...
Article
Full-text available
Background. Suicide risk is challenging to quantify due to reliance on self-report, which is limited by individuals’ lack of insight and the desire to conceal such intentions. Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is one of the most robust predictors of suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempts (SA). Although NSSI often leads to permanent scarring, whi...
Article
Bipolar Disorder (BD) is associated with impairment in a number of areas including poor work functioning, often despite the remission of mood symptoms. The present study aimed to examine the role of sleep disturbance and cognitive functioning in occupational impairment in BD. Twenty-four euthymic BD participants and 24 healthy control participants...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined whether emotional abuse and neglect differentially predicted decreases in emotional clarity, and whether emotional clarity, in turn, predicted increases in depressive symptoms. Participants included 204 early adolescents (52% African American; 54% female; M age = 12.85 years) who completed four assessments with measures o...
Article
Full-text available
Social anxiety and depressive symptoms dramatically increase and frequently co-occur during adolescence. Although research indicates that general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment predict symptoms of social anxiety and depression, it remains unclear how these stressors contribute to the sequential deve...
Article
Deficits in emotional clarity, the understanding and awareness of one's own emotions and the ability to label them appropriately, are associated with increased depressive symptoms. Surprisingly, few studies have examined factors associated with reduction in emotional clarity for adolescents, such as depressed mood and ruminative response styles. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Although the majority of research in the field has focused on childhood stressors as a risk factor for psychopathology, a burgeoning body of literature has focused on the possible steeling effect of moderate types of stressful events. The current study investigated the effects of proximal life stressors on prospective changes in depressive symptoms...
Article
Full-text available
Peer victimization is a significant risk factor for a range of negative outcomes during adolescence, including depression and anxiety. Recent research has evaluated individual characteristics that heighten the risk of experiencing peer victimization. However, the role of emotional clarity, or the ability to understand one's emotions, in being the t...
Article
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is highly prevalent among late adolescents and predicts the onset of suicidal ideation and behavior. Although research has established an association between the behavioral approach system (BAS) and NSSI, less research has explored mechanisms underlying this relationship. The authors examined negative and positive emo...
Article
Full-text available
The depression–distortion hypothesis posits that depressed mothers report child characteristics in a negatively-biased manner, motivating research on discrepant reporting between depressed mothers and their children. However, the literature has predominately focused on report discrepancies of youth psychopathological and behavioral outcomes, with l...
Article
Full-text available
In contrast with traditional models of risk for suicidal ideation that combine multiple vulnerability components into one composite measure, weakest link perspectives posit that individuals are as vulnerable as their most vulnerable component (or “weakest link”). Such a perspective has been applied to depression, but has not been evaluated with res...
Article
Full-text available
Research consistently has linked hopelessness to a range of negative outcomes, including depression, during adolescence. Although interpersonal stressors such as familial and peer emotional victimization have been found to contribute to hopelessness, less research has examined whether adolescents with a greater tendency to think about and plan for...
Article
Full-text available
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a serious public health concern and remains poorly understood. This study sought to identify both cognitive and affective vulnerabilities to NSSI and examine their interaction in the prediction of NSSI. A series of regressions indicated that low levels of positive affect (PA) moderated the relationships between se...
Article
Full-text available
This study prospectively examined pubertal timing and peer victimization as interactive predictors of depressive symptoms in a racially diverse community sample of adolescents. We also expanded on past research by assessing body esteem as a mechanism by which pubertal timing and peer victimization confer risk for depression. In all, 218 adolescents...
Article
Although research implicates pubertal processes in the emergence of the sex difference in depression during adolescence, few studies have examined how cognitive and affective vulnerabilities influence the effect of pubertal timing on depressive symptoms. The current study prospectively examined whether early pubertal timing predicted increases in d...
Article
Full-text available
During adolescence, rates of depression dramatically increase and girls become twice as likely as boys to develop depression. Research suggests that overgeneral autobiographical memory and rumination are vulnerability factors for depressive symptoms in adolescence that may be triggered by stressful life events. The current longitudinal study includ...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past 20 years, there has been considerable interest in the role of cognitive factors in the stress generation process. Generally, these studies find that depressed individuals, or individuals at cognitive risk for depression, are more likely to experience stressful life events that are in part influenced by their own characteristics and be...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescence is marked by increases in stressful life events. Although research has demonstrated that depressed individuals generate stress, few studies investigate the generation of emotional victimization. The current study examined the effects of rumination and internalizing symptoms on experiences of peer victimization and familial emotional abu...
Article
Full-text available
Early pubertal timing has been found to confer risk for the occurrence of interpersonal stressful events during adolescence. However, pre-existing vulnerabilities may exacerbate the effects of early pubertal timing on the occurrence of stressors. Thus, the current study prospectively examined whether cognitive vulnerabilities amplified the effects...
Article
Full-text available
The stress-reactivity extension of the response styles theory of depression suggests that individuals who ruminate (or fail to engage in distraction or problem solving) in response to dysphoric mood are likely to experience higher levels of depression following stress. However, previous studies have not addressed (a) the specificity of these vulner...
Article
Full-text available
Although individuals with depression have been found to experience a higher rate of stress in their lives, it remains unclear to what extent other personal characteristics may contribute to stress generation. The current study extended past research by examining the effects of two theoretically and empirically supported cognitive vulnerabilities to...
Article
Full-text available
Extensive comorbidity between depression and anxiety has driven research to identify unique and shared risk factors. This study prospectively examined the specificity of three interpersonal stressors (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and relationally oriented peer victimization) as predictors of depressive versus anxiety symptoms in a racially d...