Jerry Belant

Jerry Belant
Michigan State University | MSU · Department of Fisheries and Wildlife

PhD

About

424
Publications
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7,303
Citations

Publications

Publications (424)
Book
Full-text available
This book focuses on the 232 species of the mammalian Order Carnivora with an average body mass < 21.5 kg. Small carnivores inhabit virtually all of the Earth's ecosystems, adopting terrestrial, semi-fossorial, (semi-)arboreal or (semi-)aquatic lifestyles. They occupy multiple trophic levels and therefore play important roles in the regulation of e...
Article
Full-text available
Using existing data can be a reliable and cost-effective way to predict species distributions, and particularly useful for recovering or expanding species. We developed a current gray wolf ( Canis lupus ) distribution model for the western Great Lakes region, USA, and evaluated the spatial transferability of single-state models to the region. This...
Article
Full-text available
Iran has lost two felid species (the Asiatic lion Panthera leo persica and Caspian tiger Panthera tigris virgata), and there are unsubstantiated estimates of only 550–850 free-ranging Persian leopards Panthera pardus saxicolor remaining in the country, further emphasizing the need for conservation of the Asiatic cheetah. Recovery of the Asiatic che...
Article
Full-text available
FULL ARTICLE AVAILABLE HERE: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320722002610?dgcid=author#f0030 Following federal protection in 1974, gray wolves (Canis lupus) partially recolonized former range in the western Great Lakes region, USA, yet remain absent from most of the eastern USA. Understanding potential for further recoloniza...
Article
Full-text available
Ungulates are key components of ecosystems due to their effects on lower trophic levels, role as prey, and value for recreational and subsistence harvests. Understanding factors that drive ungulate population dynamics can inform protection of important habitat and successful management of populations. To ascertain correlates of ungulate population...
Preprint
Full-text available
Quantifying animal movements is necessary for answering a wide array of research questions in ecology and conservation biology. Consequently, ecologists have made considerable efforts to identify the best way to estimate an animal's home range, and many methods of estimating home ranges have arisen over the past half century. Most of these methods...
Article
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The Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla) is a myrmecophagous, nocturnal mammal species that occurs in forests, agricultural lands, and grasslands. It is critically endangered due to illegal hunting and habitat loss. Characterizing the Chinese pangolin’s habitat and diet could improve our knowledge of the conditions necessary for species persistenc...
Preprint
Wolves (Canis lupus) can exert top-down pressure and shape ecological communities through selective predation of ungulates and beavers (Castor Canadensis). Considering their ability to shape communities through predation, understanding wolf foraging decisions is critical to predicting their ecosystem level effects. Specifically, if wolves are optim...
Preprint
Full-text available
Color variation is a frequent evolutionary substrate for camouflage in small mammals but the underlying genetics and evolutionary forces that drive color variation in natural populations of large mammals are mostly unexplained. The American black bear, Ursus americanus , exhibits a range of colors including the cinnamon morph which has a similar co...
Chapter
Small carnivores – here defined as members of the mammalian Order Carnivora with a body mass < 21.5 kg – occur worldwide, including in Oceania, following introductions. They are represented by 210 to 282 species, which corresponds to around 90% of terrestrial carnivores globally. Some species are endemic to one or two countries (sometimes only isla...
Preprint
Full-text available
Within optimal foraging theory animals should maximize their net energy gain while minimizing energetic costs. Energetic expenditure in wild animals is therefore key to measure proxies of fitness. Accelerometers are an effective tool to study animal movement-based energetics but retrieval of the device is usually required and often difficult. Measu...
Article
Full-text available
Although most prey have multiple predator species, few studies have quantified how prey respond to the temporal niches of multiple predators which pose different levels of danger. For example, intraspecific variation in diel activity allows white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to reduce fawn activity overlap with coyotes (Canis latrans) but f...
Article
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Proclaimed in 1907, Etosha National Park in northern Namibia is an iconic dryland system with a rich history of wildlife conservation and research. A recent research symposium on wildlife conservation in the Greater Etosha Landscape (GEL) highlighted increased concern of how intensification of global change will affect wildlife conservation based o...
Chapter
Successful species introductions are not homogeneously distributed over the globe, which points to the need to understand why some have succeeded, yet others failed. We summarized information on small carnivore introductions worldwide and assessed whether introduction outcomes (success or failure) supported one or more of the following hypotheses:...
Article
Full-text available
Managing wildlife populations in the face of global change requires regular data on the abundance and distribution of wild animals but acquiring these over appropriate spatial scales in a sustainable way has proven challenging. Here we present the data from Snapshot USA 2020, a second annual national mammal survey of the United States of America. T...
Article
Full-text available
Despite extensive range contractions, several large carnivore species have recently recolonized portions of their former range. Since the 1990s, American black bear reports have increased in Missouri, USA, corresponding with increasing abundance and distribution. As effective management benefits from sound information on wildlife demographics and s...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the types and magnitude of human-caused mortality is essential for maintaining viable large carnivore populations. We used a database of cause-specific mortality to examine how hunting regulations and landscape configurations influenced human-caused mortality of North American gray wolves (Canis lupus). Our dataset included 21 studies...
Article
Full-text available
For many avian species, spatial migration patterns remain largely undescribed, especially across hemispheric extents. Recent advancements in tracking technologies and high‐resolution species distribution models (i.e., eBird Status and Trends products) provide new insights into migratory bird movements and offer a promising opportunity for integrati...
Article
Full-text available
Macroecological studies that require habitat suitability data for many species often derive this information from expert opinion. However, expert‐based information is inherently subjective and thus prone to errors. The increasing availability of GPS tracking data offers opportunities to evaluate and supplement expert‐based information with detailed...
Article
Canis lupus (Gray Wolf or Wolf) have killed subordinate canids that scavenge on Wolf-killed prey, but little evidence is available for antagonistic behavior of Wolves toward other canids at interspecific den sites. We investigated clusters of locations from a global positioning system (GPS)-collared male Wolf, translocated to Isle Royale National P...
Article
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Accurate abundance estimates can contribute to effective management of large carni-vore populations. Lion Panthera leo and spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta populations are frequently estimated at night by eliciting their approach using broadcasted vocaliza-tions. Spotlights are typically used to observe these species on approach but can disturb animal...
Article
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Neonatal mortality is a primary determinant of ungulate population dynamics and occurs from multiple proximal causes, but few studies have compared relationships between risk factors and cause-specific mortality. We evaluated how landscape and physiological characteristics influenced white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn risk from predato...
Article
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Food availability resulting from anthropogenic land-use changes may have contributed to the recent increase of Cathartes aura (Turkey Vulture) and Coragyps atratus (Black Vulture) populations. We assessed anthropogenic contributions to diets of these species by analyzing 176 pellets collected from communal roosts in coastal South Carolina. To provi...
Article
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Species distribution models are key to spatially explicit conservation and management plans. Modeling distributions using data collected by the public has become increasingly popular; however, it is vital to evaluate their advantages and limitations. We investigated whether distribution models developed using opportunistic data (public reports) are...
Article
Full-text available
The parallel niche release hypothesis (PNR) indicates that reduced competition with dominant competitors results in greater density and niche breadth of subordinate competitors and which may support an adaptive advantage. We assessed support for the PNR by evaluating relationships between variation in niche breadth and intra‐ and interspecific dens...
Article
Full-text available
Managing wildlife populations in the face of global change requires regular data on the abundance and distribution of wild animals, but acquiring these over appropriate spatial scales in a sustainable way has proven challenging. Here we present the data from Snapshot USA 2020, a second annual national mammal survey of the locations across 103 array...
Article
Full-text available
Invasive species alter ecosystem structure and functioning, including impacts on native species, habitat alteration, and nutrient cycling. Among the 27 invasive plant species in Nepal, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) distribution is rapidly increasing in Lake Cluster of Pokhara Valley (LCPV) in the last several decades. We studied the effects...
Article
1. Obtaining unbiased estimates of wildlife distribution and abundance is an important objective in research and management. Occupancy and N‐mixture abundance models, which correct for imperfect detection, are commonly used for this purpose. Fitting these models in a Bayesian framework has advantages but doing so can be challenging and time‐consumi...
Article
Despite continued global declines in large carnivore abundance and distribution, some species are recovering. In North America, these recoveries can occur in large areas of suitable habitat in or near areas of human development, increasing the likelihood of human‐carnivore conflicts. Understanding the intersection among habitat suitability, connect...
Article
Full-text available
The gray wolf (Canis lupus) population of Isle Royale National Park suffered an extreme population decline where by 2017 only two wolves that were both half-siblings and a father-daughter pair remained with low probability of producing viable young. This precipitous decline was in part due to the negative fitness consequences associated with inbree...
Article
Managing game species can require balancing multiple social and conservation goals. For many game species, including white‐tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), harvest is the primary tool for management of population abundance. Hunter interest in harvesting older male deer has encouraged managers to find ways to protect younger deer and recruit th...
Article
Full-text available
The Human Influence Index (HII) quantifies anthropogenic landscape pressures by combining eight measures of human influence: human population density, built environments, crop lands, pasture lands, lights, roads, railways and navigable waterways. The comparative influence of the HII components on cause-specific mammal mortality remains unexplored....
Article
Full-text available
Most large carnivore populations are declining due to anthropogenic activities including direct persecution, prey depletion, habitat loss and degradation. protected areas (PAs) can help maintain viable large carnivore populations; however, anthropogenic activities occurring near and within PA borders or edges can reduce their effectiveness. We inve...
Article
Full-text available
Most large carnivore populations are declining due to anthropogenic activities including direct persecution, prey depletion, habitat loss and degradation. protected areas (PAs) can help maintain viable large carnivore populations; however, anthropogenic activities occurring near and within PA borders or edges can reduce their effectiveness. We inve...
Article
Full-text available
Melogale personata I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1831, Large-toothed Ferret Badger (Mustelidae), is distributed from Nepal to Vietnam with very few records. It historically is known by only one recent sighting record from an unspeci-fied area of Nepal. The IUCN species distribution map shows this species in the Okhaldhunga District. We confirm the pre...
Article
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More than 25% of species assessed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) are threatened with extinction. Understanding how environmental and biological processes have shaped genomic diversity may inform management practices. Using 68 extant avian species, we parsed the effects of habitat availability and life-history traits on...
Article
Full-text available
Within optimality theory, an animal’s home range can be considered a fitness-driven attempt to obtain resources for survival and reproduction while minimizing costs. We assessed whether brown bears (Ursus arctos) in two island populations maximized resource patches within home ranges (Resource Dispersion Hypothesis [RDH]) or occupied only areas nec...
Article
Full-text available
Coexistence between humans and large carnivores may depend on carnivore adaptations to use developed landscapes while reducing human encounters. Roads are a widespread form of human development that carnivores may perceive as efficient travel routes or centers of human activity and associated risk. We compared the spatio-temporal responses of carni...
Article
Trophic cascades reportedly structure ecological communities through indirect species interactions. Though the predator‐herbivore‐autotroph relationship has received much attention, mechanistic evidence supporting intraguild trophic cascades is rare. We established 348 remote camera sites (1 August–5 September 2019) across 7 study areas of varying...
Article
Full-text available
Large carnivore attacks on humans are a serious form of human-wildlife interaction which has increased globally in recent decades. When attacks occur, both humans and large car-nivores suffer, highlighting the need to characterize these conflicts toward mitigation of attacks. We investigated brown bear (Ursus arctos) and Persian leopard (Panthera p...
Article
Full-text available
Recent increases in turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) and black vulture (Coragyps atratus) populations in North America have been attributed in part to their success adapting to human-modified landscapes. However, the capacity for such landscapes to generate favorable roosting conditions for these species has not been thoroughly investigated. We asse...
Article
Combining carnivore movements with site visits to investigate predation events can inform investigators of carnivore diets, kill rates, and risk factors for prey. However, detecting remains of prey can be challenging when prey is small or when vegetation conceals prey. Conservation detection dogs (CDDs) have assisted with wildlife surveys to locate...
Article
Full-text available
Wildlife attacks on livestock near human settlements are increasing due to the proximity of humans to protected areas. These attacks are often severe due to depredations of livestock adversely affecting the livelihoods of people. The nature of carnivore depredations on livestock can differ based on the carnivore species, animal husbandry practices,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Within optimality theory, an animal’s home range can be considered a fitness-driven attempt to obtain resources for survival and reproduction while minimizing costs. We assessed whether brown bears ( Ursus arctos ) in two island populations maximized resource patches within home ranges (Resource Dispersion Hypothesis [RDH]) or occupied only areas n...
Article
Full-text available
Where two sympatric species compete for the same resource and one species is dominant, there is potential for the subordinate species to be affected through interference competition or energetic costs of avoiding predation. Fishers ( Pekania pennanti ) and American martens ( Martes americana ) often have high niche overlap, but fishers are consider...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Calves of black rhino trail behind their mothers predisposing them to risks of attack by stalking predators. A total of 272 respondents were randomly selected and interviewed from 8 villages located in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. Most of the interviewed wildlife rangers 87.5% had seen hyena attacking rhino calves and only 22.8% of the intervi...
Article
Full-text available
Human-caused mortality is the main cause of death for large carnivores worldwide and has had serious adverse effects on their populations. Detailed quantitative information on potential causes and patterns of mortalities are vital for development of effective conservation strategies. We investigated human-caused large carnivore mortalities across I...
Article
Cougars (Puma concolor) have lost substantial portions of their historical range yet increased sightings suggest potential for re-establishment in some regions; greater understanding of potential distribution and connectivity is necessary to make sound management and policy decisions. Specifically, the Great Lakes region of the USA will likely be a...
Article
Full-text available
With the accelerating pace of global change, it is imperative that we obtain rapid inventories of the status and distribution of wildlife for ecological inferences and conservation planning. To address this challenge, we launched the SNAPSHOT USA project, a collaborative survey of terrestrial wildlife populations using camera traps across the Unite...
Article
• Through realisation of ecological opportunities, populations and species can experience relaxed selection pressures, facilitating ecological release and leading to rapid speciation and morphological diversification. Behavioural plasticity in response to environmental change contributes to diversification by exposing individuals to novel condition...
Article
Full-text available
Conservation of large carnivores in protected areas with high human use or habitation is challenging due to ecological, political and socioeconomic factors. Understanding underlying patterns of human–carnivore interactions is vital for their conservation. We investigated patterns and costs of livestock depredations by common leopards Panthera pardu...
Article
Full-text available
Interference competition occurs when two species have similar resource requirements and one species is dominant and can suppress or exclude the subordinate species. Wolves (Canis lupus) and coyotes (C. latrans) are sympatric across much of their range in North America where white‐tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can be an important prey species...
Article
Background Hibernating American black bears have significantly different clotting parameters than their summer active counterparts, affording them protection against venous thromboembolism during prolonged periods of immobility. We sought to evaluate if significant differences exist between the expression of microRNAs in the plasma of hibernating b...
Article
Full-text available
The Arctic is entering a new ecological state, with alarming consequences for humanity. Animal-borne sensors offer a window into these changes. Although substantial animal tracking data from the Arctic and subarctic exist, most are difficult to discover and access. Here, we present the new Arctic Animal Movement Archive (AAMA), a growing collection...
Article
Full-text available
The Arctic is entering a new ecological state, with alarming consequences for humanity. Animal-borne sensors offer a window into these changes. Although substantial animal tracking data from the Arctic and subarctic exist, most are difficult to discover and access. Here, we present the new Arctic Animal Movement Archive (AAMA), a growing collection...
Data
Data used for AAMA Science article. https://datadryad.org/stash/dataset/doi:10.5061/dryad.k98sf7m4m
Article
Biodiversity loss is increasing globally due to many anthropogenic factors including invasive species. Among the invasive species, the giant African land snail which is World's worst invasive species is threatening the native species and become major pest for economy loss. Although the impact of snail is widespread in Nepal, we have little knowledg...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Wolf introduction on Isle Royale National Park and associated ecosystem studies.
Article
1. Degree of reproductive synchronization in prey is hypothesized as a predator defense strategy reducing prey risk via predator satiation or predator avoidance. Species with precocial young, especially those exposed to specialist predators, should be highly synchronous to satiate predators (predator satiation hypothesis), while prey with nonprecoc...
Article
1. Roads have numerous negative impacts for mammals, but may also serve as attractants due to altered vegetation or provisioning of resources. 2. We reviewed the use of roads and their associated features by mammals, in order to understand the ecological factors contributing to road use. 3. We documented 129 studies that recorded road use by 116 ma...
Article
en Understanding activity and habitat use are important for identifying mechanisms facilitating species co‐occurrence. We studied habitat use and activity patterns of caracals (Caracal caracal ) and servals (Leptailurus serval ), primarily nocturnal, mid‐sized felids that prey extensively on small mammals and co‐occur in portions of sub‐Saharan Afr...
Article
Full-text available
Ecological flexibility within animal populations can allow for variation in resource use and foraging decisions. We estimated brown bear (Ursus arctos) diet composition in Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, Alaska from 2013 to 2015 to evaluate how variation in foraging behavior influences body condition and size. We used stable carbon...