Jerome Hahn Kim

Jerome Hahn Kim
International Vaccine Institute

MD

About

789
Publications
121,921
Reads
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22,008
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 2015 - present
International Vaccine Institute
Position
  • Director General
Description
  • IVI is an organization dedicated to the discovery, development and delivery of safe, effective and affordable vaccines for global health.
September 2012 - present
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Position
  • Professor (Full)
August 2012 - March 2015
USAMMDA
Position
  • Project Manager
Education
September 1980 - May 1984
Yale University
Field of study
  • Medicine
September 1977 - May 1980
University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
Field of study
  • Biology and History

Publications

Publications (789)
Article
Full-text available
Vaccination with typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCV) is a major part of typhoid prevention. However, little is known about long-term immune persistence following vaccination with TCVs. In this phase-2, randomized double-blind trial (NCT03527355), 285 children aged 6–23 months were randomized to one of three groups: (1) the group that received a first...
Article
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Objective To investigate the association between existing household water quality, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices and severe cholera risk in a dense urban slum where cholera is highly endemic. Design, setting and participants We assembled a large prospective cohort within a cluster randomised trial evaluating the effectiveness of oral cho...
Article
Background Typhoid fever is a common disease in developing countries especially in the Indian subcontinent and Africa. The available typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCV) have been found to be highly immunogenic in infants and children less than 2 years of age. Many countries are planning to adopt TCV in their routine EPI programs around 9 months of age...
Article
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The rapid development of COVID-19 vaccines and their deployment in less than a year is an unprecedented scientific, medical, and public health achievement. This rapid development leveraged knowledge from decades of HIV/AIDS research and advances. However, the search for an HIV vaccine that would contribute to a durable end to the HIV pandemic remai...
Article
Full-text available
Trial Design Phase 3, randomized, controlled, multicenter, equivalence trial. Methods Recruitment of participants occurred between 04Februray2020 and 15July2020 at four centers in the Philippines: University of the East – Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center Inc., Quezon City; University of Philippines Manila – National Institute of Health, Erm...
Article
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Background: Understanding the public health value of a vaccine at an early stage of development helps in valuing and prioritizing the investment needed. Here we present the potential cost-effectiveness of an upcoming 12 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV 12) in the case study country, Thailand. Methods: The cost-effectiveness analysis in...
Article
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Background Typhoid fever contributes to approximately 135,000 deaths annually. Achievable improvements in household water-hygiene-sanitation (WASH) combined with vaccination using typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs) may be an effective preventive strategy. However, little is known about how improved WASH and vaccination interact to lower the risk of...
Article
Full-text available
Modest improvements in household water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and typhoid vaccination can reduce typhoid risk in endemic settings. However, empiric evaluation of their combined impact is lacking. A total of 62,756 persons residing in 80 clusters in a Kolkata slum were allocated randomly 1:1 to either the typhoid Vi polysaccharide (ViPS) va...
Article
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Define the clinical presentation of acute human immunodeficiency virus infection (AHI) among men and women from 2 continents to create a clinical scoring algorithm. Comparison of incident sign and symptom between those with and without AHI. At-risk human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative men and women in Thailand, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda un...
Article
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Non-human primates (NHPs) remain the most relevant challenge model for the evaluation of HIV vaccine candidates; however, discrepancies with clinical trial results have emphasized the need to further refine the NHP model. Furthermore, classical evaluation of vaccine candidates is based on endpoints measured systemically. We assessed the mucosal res...
Article
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The availability and use of vaccines for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in low and middle-income countries (L/MICs) lags far behind more affluent countries, and vaccines currently used in L/MICs are predominantly of lower efficacy. As vaccines continue to be rolled out in L/MICs, successful control of COVID-19 by vaccines requires monitori...
Article
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Background Typhoid fever is an endemic disease in many low-income and middle-income countries. The 2018 WHO position paper recommends that countries should consider typhoid vaccination in high-risk groups and for outbreak control. To address the typhoid vaccine supply and demand gap, a typhoid Vi polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid (Vi-DT) conjugate v...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The development of an effective vaccine to protect against HIV is a longstanding global health need complicated by challenges inherent to HIV biology and to the execution of vaccine efficacy testing in the context of evolving biomedical prevention interventions. This review describes lessons learnt from previous efficacy trials, highli...
Article
Background Two mRNA vaccines developed by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna are being roll-out. Despite the high volume of emerging evidence regarding adverse events (AEs) associated with the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, the previous studies have thus far been largely based on the comparison between vaccinated and unvaccinated control, possibly standing out t...
Article
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Peter Figueroa and co-authors advocate for equity in the worldwide provision of COVID-19 vaccines.
Article
COVID-19 vaccination programmes are ongoing worldwide. Neutralizing antibodies are thought to be key for host protection against COVID-19; however, strategies that focus only on neutralizing antibodies may not be sufficient to cope with the pandemic in the longer term owing to the decay of antibody titres and the emergence of antibody-escape varian...
Article
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A Lancet Commission for COVID-19 task force is shaping recommendations to achieve vaccine and therapeutics access, justice, and equity. This includes ensuring safety and effectiveness harmonized through robust systems of global pharmacovigilance and surveillance. Global production requires expanding support for development, manufacture, testing, an...
Article
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Background: Vaccine herd protection assessed in a cluster-randomized trial (CRT) may be masked by disease transmission into the cluster from outside. However, herd effects can be unmasked using a 'fried-egg' approach whereby the analysis, restricted to the innermost households of clusters, 'yolk', creates an insulating 'egg-white' periphery. This...
Article
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Schistosomiasis remains a neglected tropical disease of major public health concern with high levels of morbidity in various parts of the world. Although considerable efforts in implementing mass drug administration programs utilizing praziquantel have been deployed, schistosomiasis is still not contained. A vaccine may therefore be an essential pa...
Article
Background: Group A Streptococcus (Strep A) causes a broad spectrum of disease manifestations, ranging from benign symptoms including throat or skin infections, to fatal illness such as rheumatic heart disease, or chronic renal failure. Currently, there is no vaccine available against Strep A infections. Despite the high burden of Strep A-associate...
Article
Vaccines developed in high-income countries have been enormously successful in reducing the global burden of infectious diseases, saving perhaps 2.5 million lives per year, but even for successful cases, like the rotavirus vaccine, global implementation may take a decade or more. For unincentivized vaccines, the delays are even more profound, as bo...
Preprint
Full-text available
A productive HIV-1 infection is often established by a single transmitted/founder (T/F) virus, which then evolves into a complex mixture of variants during the lifetime of infection. An effective vaccine should have sufficient breadth to block the entry of diverse T/F involved in different infections. Although the variable V1V2 domain of HIV-1 enve...
Article
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The scale of the HIV-1 epidemic underscores the need for a vaccine. The multitude of circulating HIV-1 strains together with HIV-1’s high evolvability hint that HIV-1 could adapt to a future vaccine. Here we wanted to investigate the effect of vaccination on the evolution of the virus post-breakthrough infection. We analyzed 2,635 HIV-1 env sequenc...
Article
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Background Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) is a growing health-concern in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. iNTS is associated with fatal diseases such as HIV and malaria. Despite high case fatality rates, the disease has not been given much attention. The limited number of population-based surveillance studies hampers accurate estimation...
Article
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Background Killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) are widely used for prevention of cholera in developing countries. However, few studies have evaluated the protection conferred by internationally recommended OCVs for durations beyond 2 years of follow-up. Methods In this study, we followed up the participants of a cluster-randomised contr...
Article
The advanced-phase HIV prevention vaccine trials done in South Africa (HVTN 702) and in Thailand (RV144), which both investigated canarypox vectors and adjuvanted gp120 proteins, gave rise to different results. The South African trial did not find vaccine efficacy, whereas the Thai trial had modest, but statistically significant, success with the m...
Article
Full-text available
The race to develop safe and effective SARS-COV-2 vaccines has moved with unprecedented speed. There are now multiple vaccines that have received emergency use authorization from the United States Food and Drug Administration and a host of candidates positioned for approval worldwide. Attention has now turned to allocation, distribution and verific...
Article
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Examination of the vaccine strategies and technical platforms used for the COVID-19 pandemic in the context of those used for previous emerging and reemerging infectious diseases and pandemics may offer some mutually beneficial lessons. The unprecedented scale and rapidity of dissemination of recent emerging infectious diseases pose new challenges...
Article
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[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1009101.].
Article
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Several global efforts are underway to develop COVID-19 vaccines, and interim analyses from phase 3 clinical testing have been announced by nine organisations: Pfizer, the Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moderna, AstraZeneca, Sinopharm Group, Sinovac Biotech, Johnson & Johnson, Novavax, and CanSino Biologics. The US pr...
Article
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While large datasets of HIV-1 sequences are increasingly being generated, many studies rely on a single gene or fragment of the genome and few comparative studies across genes have been done. We performed genome-based and gene-specific Bayesian phylogenetic analyses to investigate how certain factors impact estimates of the infection dates in an ac...
Article
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Clinical trials are complicated, time-consuming and costly. From the initial screening, informed consent and recruitment of the participants’ to study completion, the sponsor must undertake a wide array of complex and closely monitored operations, complying with international standards for human subject research and local requirements. Conducting t...
Article
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After the recent announcement of COVID-19 vaccine efficacy in clinical trials by several manufacturers for protection against severe disease, a comprehensive post-efficacy strategy for the next steps to ensure vaccination of the global population is now required. These considerations should include how to manufacture billions of doses of high-quali...
Chapter
Substantial morbidity and mortality due to group A Streptococcus (GAS) diseases persist worldwide, yet development of safe and effective vaccines has been impeded by scientific, regulatory, and commercial obstacles. Most deaths from GAS occur in low- and middle-income countries, most due to rheumatic heart disease (RHD). New cases of RHD are now ra...
Article
The race to develop safe and effective SARS-COV-2 vaccines has moved with unprecedented speed. There are now multiple promising candidates seeking emergency use authorization from the United States Food and Drug Administration and a host of candidates positioned for approval worldwide. Attention has now turned to allocation, distribution and verifi...
Article
Full-text available
The RV144 vaccine efficacy clinical trial showed a reduction in HIV-1 infections by 31%. Vaccine efficacy was associated with stronger binding antibody responses to the HIV Envelope (Env) V1V2 region, with decreased efficacy as responses wane. High levels of Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) together with low plasma levels of Env-specific I...
Article
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Over the past 9 mo, with 34 million infections and 1 million deaths, the COVID-19 pandemic has levied a grisly toll. Some countries, through political will and social organization, have successfully reduced the number of infections and deaths, but the global scale of loss reflects the difficulty of translating these approaches in other countries. A...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Sustained investment in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has lagged in resource-poor settings; incremental WASH improvements may, nonetheless, prevent diseases such as typhoid in disease-endemic populations. Methods: Using prospective data from a large cohort in urban Kolkata, India, we evaluated whether baseline WASH variables p...
Article
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In 2018, the government of the Republic of Korea (ROK), South Korean life science companies, and a group of international funders led by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched a new and innovative funding agency to support neglected-disease research and development (R&D). The new venture is known as the Research Investment for Global Health T...
Article
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Background Typhoid causes significant mortality among young children in resource-limited settings. Conjugate typhoid vaccines could significantly reduce typhoid-related child deaths, but only one WHO-prequalified typhoid conjugate vaccine exists for young children. To address this gap, we investigated the safety, immunogenicity and dose-scheduling...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The world is currently fighting a COVID-19 pandemic, perhaps the most disruptive infectious disease outbreak since the 1918 Spanish influenza. Governments have taken drastic measures to curb the spread of SARS-CoV-2, and the development of safe and efficacious vaccine candidates is being accelerated. The possibility of vaccine-mediated...
Article
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We evaluated the protection conferred by a first documented visit for clinical care of typhoid fever against recurrent typhoid fever prompting a visit. This study takes advantage of multi-year follow-up of a population with endemic typhoid participating in a cluster-randomized control trial of Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine in Kolkata,...
Article
Full-text available
Control of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi (S. typhi), the agent of typhoid fever, continues to be a challenge in many low- and middle-income countries. The major transmission route of S. typhi is fecal-oral, through contaminated food and water; thus, the ultimate measures for typhoid fever prevention and control include the provision of safe wat...
Article
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Background Dengue is prevalent in as many as 128 countries with more than 100 million clinical episodes reported annually and four billion people estimated to be at risk. While dengue fever is systematically diagnosed in large parts of Asia and South America, the disease burden in Africa is less well investigated. This report describes two consecut...
Article
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Objective and Design: A randomized, open-label pilot study in individuals treated with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) since acute HIV infection (AHI) with a regimen including a histone deacetylase inhibitor to induce HIV from latency and control HIV replication during subsequent treatment interruption (TI). Methods Fifteen participants who initiate...
Article
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Blood cultures (BCs) detect an estimated 50% of typhoid fever cases. There is need for validated clinical criteria to define cases that are BC negative, both to help direct empiric antibiotic treatment and to better evaluate the magnitude of protection conferred by typhoid vaccines. To derive and validate a clinical rule for defining BC-negative ty...
Article
The RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial results showed moderate reduction in viral infections among vaccinees as well as induction of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and vaccine-specific IgG and IgG3 responses directed at variable loop regions 1 and 2 of the HIV envelope protein. However, with the recent failure of the HVTN 702 clinical trial, compr...
Article
Full-text available
The timing and location of the establishment of the viral reservoir during acute HIV infection remain unclear. Using longitudinal blood and tissue samples obtained from HIV-infected individuals at the earliest stage of infection, we demonstrate that frequencies of infected cells reach maximal values in gut-associated lymphoid tissue and lymph nodes...
Article
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Most HIV-1 infected individuals do not know their infection dates. Precise infection timing is crucial information for studies that document transmission networks or drug levels at infection. To improve infection timing, we used the prospective RV217 cohort where the window when plasma viremia becomes detectable is narrow: the last negative visit o...
Article
Background: The RV144 phase 3 vaccine trial in Thailand demonstrated that ALVAC-HIV (vCP1521) and AIDSVAX B/E administration over 6 months resulted in a 31% efficacy in preventing HIV acquisition. In this trial, we assessed the immunological effect of an additional vaccine boost to the RV144 regimen at varying intervals between the priming vaccine...
Article
Full-text available
Background Cholera remains a major public health threat in low-and middle-income countries. WHO has recently launched a global initiative to End Preventable Cholera by 2030. Key to the success of this initiative will be elimination of cholera transmission in cholera “hotspots” with regularly recurrent disease, via improved surveillance to define ho...
Article
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In the RV144 HIV-1 phase III trial, vaccine efficacy directly correlated with the magnitude of the variable region 2-specific (V2-specific) IgG antibody response, and in the presence of low plasma IgA levels, with the magnitude of plasma antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Reenrollment of RV144 vaccinees in the RV305 trial offered the opportu...
Article
Typhoid fever is caused by fecal–oral transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). It has been a deadly companion to mankind for centuries, affecting 10.9 million persons and resulting in an estimated 116,800 deaths per year.¹ Although vaccines against typhoid have been available for more than a century and have been shown to be pr...