Jérôme Fort

Jérôme Fort
French National Centre for Scientific Research | CNRS · Institut écologie et environnement (INEE)

PhD

About

98
Publications
30,985
Reads
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2,003
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 2013 - present
La Rochelle Université
Position
  • PostDoc Position
May 2010 - June 2013
Aarhus University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
September 2006 - December 2010
French National Centre for Scientific Research
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (98)
Article
Full-text available
Since the last Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) effort to review biological effects of mercury (Hg) on Arctic biota in 2011 and 2018, there has been a considerable number of new Arctic bird studies. This review article provides contemporary Hg exposure and potential health risk for 36 Arctic seabird and shorebird species, represent...
Article
Full-text available
Seasonal variability is one of the main drivers of seasonal movements like migration. The literature has suggested that bird migration is often driven by poor environmental conditions during one season and permits avoidance of resource shortage or harsh weather by tracking the more favourable conditions. We tested at the global scale, and focusing...
Article
Full-text available
Migration patterns in birds vary in space and time. Spatial patterns include chain, leapfrog and telescopic migration. Temporal patterns such as migration duration, number, and duration of stopovers may vary according to breeding latitude, sex, and season. This study aimed to verify these patterns in a long‐distance migrant, the Eurasian curlew Num...
Article
Accelerometry has been widely used to estimate energy expenditure in a broad array of terrestrial and aquatic species. However, a recent reappraisal of the method showed that relationships between dynamic body acceleration (DBA) and energy expenditure weaken as the proportion of non-mechanical costs increase. Aquatic air breathing species often exe...
Poster
Pollutant trends are changing in the Arctic due to the sea ice shrinking, which causes a new threat to biota in this area. Some Arctic birds are closely linked with sea ice cover and have suffered significant global population loss. Therefore, they represent key organisms for understanding current impacts on the Arctic ecosystem. The present study...
Presentation
The monitoring of pollutant trends in areas of high ecological relevance, such as the Arctic that is assumed to be a pristine environment, is an increasingly important issue. Areas with lower direct inputs of pollutants than populated areas are subjected to the transport of pollutants through atmospheric and ocean circulation. Emerging pollutants,...
Article
Temporal trend analysis of (total) mercury (THg) concentrations in Arctic biota were assessed as part of the 2021 Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) Mercury Assessment. A mixed model including an evaluation of non-linear trends was applied to 110 time series of THg concentrations from Arctic and Subarctic biota. Temporal trends were...
Preprint
The Green Edge project was designed to investigate the onset, life and fate of a phytoplankton spring bloom (PSB) in the Arctic Ocean. The lengthening of the ice-free period and the warming of seawater, amongst other factors, have induced major changes in arctic ocean biology over the last decades. Because the PSB is at the base of the Arctic Ocean...
Article
Full-text available
Mercury contamination is a major threat to the global environment, and is still increasing in some regions despite international regulations. The methylated form of mercury is hazardous to biota, yet its sublethal effects are difficult to detect in wildlife. Body condition can vary in response to stressors, but previous studies have shown mixed eff...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding environmental factors underlying animal foraging distribution is of major importance in defining priority conservation actions. During their wintering stage, most shorebirds depend on intertidal areas, as foraging grounds, and on supratidal areas, as high tide roosts. The accessibility of foraging areas and food resources is thus limi...
Article
Wildlife are exposed to multiple stressors across life history stages, the effects of which can be amplified as human activity surges globally. In Arctic regions, increasing air and ocean temperatures, more severe weather systems, and exposure to environmental contaminants all represent stressors occurring simultaneously. While Arctic vertebrates,...
Article
Full-text available
Segregation by sex can allow partitioning of resources in time, space, or both. Little, however, is known about causes of sexual segregation, especially in species with little to no sexual size dimorphism. Female and male thick-billed murres (a seabird, Uria lomvia) use habitat differently at subpolar latitude, and they temporally and spatially seg...
Article
Full-text available
Precise timing of migration is crucial for animals targeting seasonal resources at locations encountered across their annual cycle. Upon departure, long-distance migrants need to anticipate unknown environmental conditions at their arrival site, and they do so with their internal annual clock. Here, we tested the hypothesis that long-distance migra...
Article
Full-text available
Each winter, the North Atlantic Ocean is the stage for numerous cyclones, the most severe ones leading to seabird mass-mortality events called ‘‘winter wrecks.’’ During these, thousands of emaciated seabird carcasses are washed ashore along European and North American coasts. Winter cyclones can therefore shape seabird population dynamics by affect...
Article
Migratory seabirds are exposed to various pollutants throughout their annual cycle. Among them, mercury (Hg) is of particular concern given large impacts on animals’ health. Recent studies suggest that winter is a critical period for seabirds when contamination by Hg can be higher than other times of year. However, individuals within and between sp...
Article
Full-text available
The factors underlying gene flow and genomic population structure in vagile seabirds are notoriously difficult to understand due to their complex ecology with diverse dispersal barriers and extensive periods at sea. Yet, such understanding is vital for conservation management of seabirds that are globally declining at alarming rates. Here, we eluci...
Article
Human industrialization has resulted in rapid climate change, leading to wide-scale environmental shifts. These shifts can modify food web dynamics by altering the abundance and distribution of primary producers (ice algae and phytoplankton), as well as animals at higher trophic levels. Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neuro-endocrine disrupting compound...
Article
Full-text available
The conservation of migratory marine species, including pelagic seabirds, is challenging because their movements span vast distances frequently beyond national jurisdictions. Here, we aim to identify important aggregations of seabirds in the North Atlantic to inform ongoing regional conservation efforts. Using tracking, phenology, and population da...
Preprint
Migration is often thought to be driven by poor environmental conditions during one season and to permit avoidance of harsh weather or resource shortage and tracking of more favourable conditions. Here, we tested this hypothesis in seabirds at the global scale by quantifying niche occupancy during the breeding and non-breeding periods over multiple...
Article
Full-text available
Habitat selection is an important process in birds that influences individual survival and fitness, and ultimately shapes population dynamics. As a consequence, strong selective pressures apply to favor strategies allowing individuals to choose high-quality habitat for foraging while reducing predation risk and competition. In long-distance migrato...
Article
Mercury (Hg), one of the elements most toxic to biota, accumulates within organisms throughout their lifespan and biomagnifies along trophic chain. Due to their key role in marine systems, cephalopods constitute a major vector of Hg in predators. Further, they grow rapidly and display complex behaviours, which can be altered by neurotoxic Hg. This...
Article
Full-text available
Due to the interconnectedness of aquatic ecosystems through the highly effective marine and atmospheric transport routes, all aquatic ecosystems are potentially vulnerable to pollution. Whilst links between pollution and increased mortality of wild animals have now been firmly established, the next steps should be to focus on specific physiological...
Article
Full-text available
Most shorebirds depend on coastal habitats for much of their life cycle. The quality and diversity of feeding areas during the wintering period directly condition their winter survival, subsequent migration, and breeding success. During their wintering in France, shorebirds use intertidal areas for feeding, both in daylight and at night, depending...
Article
Full-text available
https://arctox.cnrs.fr/en/home/ Mercury (Hg) is a natural trace element found in high concentrations in top predators, including Arctic seabirds. Most current knowledge about Hg concentrations in Arctic seabirds relates to exposure during the summer breeding period when researchers can easily access seabirds at colonies. However, the few studies f...
Article
Full-text available
A wide range of species, including marine mammals, seabirds, birds of prey, fish and bivalves, were investigated for potential population health risks resulting from contemporary (post 2000) mercury (Hg) exposure, using novel risk thresholds based on literature and de novo contamination data. The main geographic focus is on the Baltic Sea, while da...
Article
Full-text available
We explored the implications of reaching the Paris Agreement Objective of limiting global warming to <2°C for the future winter distribution of the North Atlantic seabird community. We predicted and quantified current and future winter habitats of five North Atlantic Ocean seabird species (Alle alle, Fratercula arctica, Uria aalge, Uria lomvia and...
Presentation
Mercury (Hg) is a very toxic metal and its impact on Human health and wildlife is a major concern. On the global scale, the amount of Hg released in the environment has steadily increased since the Industrial Revolution. From both natural and human sources, Hg disperses all over the globe and deposits even in remote areas such as polar oceans. Beca...
Article
Full-text available
Seabirds are one of the most threatened of all bird groups, with a marked community-wide decline across the last decades. Yet, some seabird species are more resilient than others, and it is essential to study under which conditions even these highly resilient organisms are affected by global changes. Here, we report such a case in northern gannets...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the drivers and effects of exposure to contaminants such as mercury (Hg) and organochlorine compounds (OCs) in Antarctic wildlife is still limited. Yet, Hg and OCs have known physiological and fitness effects in animals, with consequences on their populations. Here we measured total Hg (a proxy of methyl-Hg) in blood cells and feather...
Article
Full-text available
Sharing the same wintering grounds by avian populations breeding in various areas may synchronize fluctuations in vital rates, which could increase the risk of extinction. Here, by combining multi-colony tracking with long-term capture-recapture data, we studied the winter distribution and annual survival of the most numerous Arctic seabird, the li...
Article
Full-text available
The factors underlying gene flow and genomic population structure in vagile seabirds are notoriously difficult to understand due to their complex ecology with diverse dispersal barriers and extensive periods at sea. Yet, such understanding is vital for conservation management of seabirds that are globally declining at alarming rates. Here, we eluci...
Article
Full-text available
The Arctic is entering a new ecological state, with alarming consequences for humanity. Animal-borne sensors offer a window into these changes. Although substantial animal tracking data from the Arctic and subarctic exist, most are difficult to discover and access. Here, we present the new Arctic Animal Movement Archive (AAMA), a growing collection...
Article
Full-text available
The Arctic is entering a new ecological state, with alarming consequences for humanity. Animal-borne sensors offer a window into these changes. Although substantial animal tracking data from the Arctic and subarctic exist, most are difficult to discover and access. Here, we present the new Arctic Animal Movement Archive (AAMA), a growing collection...
Article
Despite the limited direct anthropogenic mercury (Hg) inputs in the circumpolar Arctic, elevated concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg) are accumulated in Arctic marine biota. However, the MeHg production and bioaccumulation pathways in these ecosystems have not been completely unraveled. We measured Hg concentrations and stable isotope ratios of H...
Article
Although mercury (Hg) occurs naturally, human activity is currently the greatest source of release and the ocean receives Hg inputs by rivers and atmospheric deposition. Seabirds including chicks serve as valuable bioindicators of Hg contamination, reflecting local contamination around the colony. This study investigates the ecological drivers (tro...
Article
Full-text available
Studies of model animals like mice and rats have led to great advances in our understanding of the process of tumorigenesis, but this line of study has less to offer for understanding the mechanisms of cancer resistance. Increasing the diversity of non‐model species from the perspective of molecular mechanisms of natural cancer resistance can lead...
Article
Full-text available
Establishing appropriate conservation management objectives and actions for seabirds requires timely detection of changes in their populations. However, obtaining regular accurate measures of seabird population size and trends can be difficult due to logistical and financial constraints in accessing remote breeding sites. The Short-tailed Shearwate...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report describes the results from fieldwork carried out on breeding seabirds in Northeast Greenland as part of the Northeast Greenland Environmental Study Program. Results of GPS-tracking of Sabine’s gulls and ivory gulls are described, as well as surveys of thick-billed murre colonies and a variety of studies on little auks.
Article
Full-text available
Climate models predict that by 2050 the Arctic Ocean will be sea ice free each summer. Removing this barrier between the Atlantic and the Pacific will modify a wide range of ecological processes, including bird migration. Using published information, we identified 29 arctic-breeding seabird species, which currently migrate in the North Atlantic and...
Article
Full-text available
In the Arctic, sea-ice plays a central role in the functioning of marine food webs and its rapid shrinking has large effects on the biota. It is thus crucial to assess the importance of sea-ice and ice-derived resources to Arctic marine species. Here, we used a multi-biomarker approach combining Highly Branched Isoprenoids (HBIs) with δ13C and δ15N...
Article
Seabirds have been widely used to monitor marine debris by the analysis of plastic ingestion. With the aim of obtaining the first data on ingestion of plastics by different seabird species in the Bay of Biscay and evaluating their suitability as biomonitors of plastic pollution in this area, a total of 159 seabirds of fifteen species were analyzed....
Article
Mercury (Hg), because of its deleterious effects on wildlife and its high concentrations in polar regions, has been widely studied in the Arctic. This provided important information regarding food web contamination, spatial and temporal trends of Hg in ecosystems or risk assessments for wildlife and Humans. Among the Arctic biota, seabirds have bee...
Article
Fisheries modify ecosystem balance by harvesting through marine food webs and producing large amounts of discards subsidizing scavengers. Among them, seabirds are the most conspicuous and have been benefiting from anthropogenic food sources generated by fisheries. However, this modified feeding behaviour also exposes them to threats, such as accide...
Article
Individual competitiveness conditions access to resources when they are limited. Immature individuals that are less skilled than adults have to adapt their foraging strategies to survive. Among strategies to reduce competition, spatial segregation has been widely demonstrated. However, the use of spatial segregation by immatures to limit intra‐spec...
Article
Full-text available
Ongoing global changes apply drastic environmental forcing onto Arctic marine ecosystems, particularly through ocean warming, sea-ice shrinkage and enhanced pollution. To test impacts on arctic marine ecological functioning, we used a 12-year integrative study of little auks (Alle alle), the most abundant seabird in the Atlantic Arctic. We monitore...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Climate change is altering marine ecosystems worldwide and is most pronounced in the Arctic. Economic development is increasing leading to more disturbances and pressures on Arctic wildlife. Identifying areas that support higher levels of predator abundance and biodiversity is important for the implementation of targeted conservation measures a...
Article
Full-text available
Little auks (Alle alle) are one of the most numerous seabird species in the world that feed primarily on copepods in arctic waters. Their high daily energy requirements leave them vulnerable to current changes in the arctic plankton community, where a smaller, less profitable copepod species (Calanus finmarchicus) becomes increasingly abundant. Lit...
Article
Full-text available
Spatio‐temporally stable prey distributions coupled with individual foraging site fidelity are predicted to favour individual resource specialisation. Conversely, predators coping with dynamic prey distributions should diversify their individual diet and/or shift foraging areas to increase net intake. We studied individual specialisation in Scopoli...
Article
Full-text available
Reproductive timing in many taxa plays a key role in determining breeding productivity ¹, and is often sensitive to climatic conditions ² . Current climate change may alter the timing of breeding at different rates across trophic levels, potentially resulting in temporal mismatch between the resource requirements of predators and their prey ³ . Thi...
Presentation
With ongoing changes in Arctic sea ice, it is crucial to better understand how much sea-ice is important for the entire marine ecosystem through the resources it provides. Highly Branched Isoprenoids (HBI) constitute a powerful tool for tracing the carbon flow from primary producers to higher trophic levels, by distinguishing sea-ice algae and phyt...
Article
Full-text available
There is an urgent need for a better understanding of animal migratory ecology under the influence of climate change. Most current analyses require long-term monitoring of populations on the move, and shorter-term approaches are needed. Here, we analysed the ecological drivers of seabird migration within the framework of the energyscape concept, wh...
Data
Results of the sensitivity analysis in Niche Mapper for the daily energy requirements of little auks in winter
Data
Winter locations of four birds for which 2 (or 3) consecutive years were recorded.
Poster
Full-text available
In polar ecosystems, sea ice plays a central and structural role for many adapted species, including ice associated diatoms that ensure a substantial production of organic matter. Together with the phytoplankton, they constitute the basis of the polar food web, impacting all trophic levels from zooplankton up to marine mammals and seabirds. In the...
Article
Mercury (Hg) is a pervasive contaminant reaching Antarctic environments through atmospheric transport and deposition. Seabirds as meso to top predators can accumulate high quantities of Hg through diet. Reproduction is one of the most sensitive endpoints of Hg toxicity in marine birds. Yet, few studies have explored Hg exposure and effects in Antar...
Poster
Full-text available
Microplastics (MPs) have been reported in every ocean. Despite Arctic remoteness from major sources of plastics, several Arctic seabirds are contaminated, and recent studies suggest that Arctic sea-ice is a sink for MPs. Nonetheless, existing information for this area remains scarce. The aims of our study were (1) to quantify MPs in little auk (All...