Jeroen De Kooning

Jeroen De Kooning
Ghent University | UGhent · Department of Electrical Energy, Systems and Automation

Professor

About

88
Publications
17,506
Reads
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2,043
Citations
Citations since 2016
45 Research Items
1631 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
Introduction
I'm an engineer with a PhD in electromechanical engineering, with a specialty in electrical power engineering. My research focusses on modelling, optimization and control of mechatronic systems, drivetrains and industrial machines in an Industry 4.0 context, with a particular interest in digital twins.
Additional affiliations
September 2010 - present
Ghent University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • At Ghent University, I teach courses on machine drives, power-electronics, mechatronics, wind energy, photo-voltaic systems, power systems, measurement techniques and transmission line modelling.
Education
September 2010 - November 2015
Ghent University
Field of study
  • PhD in Electromechanical Engineering
September 2008 - July 2010
Ghent University
Field of study
  • Electromechanical Engineering, Electrical Power Engineering
September 2005 - July 2008
Ghent University
Field of study
  • Electromechanical Engineering

Publications

Publications (88)
Conference Paper
Electricity markets around the world are opening up to a greater contribution from wind power producers (WPPs). In this regard, WPPs are incentivised to participate in both energy and reserve market floors while being responsible for real-time deviations from their submitted bids. Therefore, despite uncertainties in wind speed and system frequency,...
Article
The demand-side contribution to grid frequency regulation is becoming increasingly important due to the growing penetration of renewable energy in the power system. Among energy-intensive industrial loads, chemical plants have a high potential to offer grid balancing services due to their existing control infrastructure and storage capabilities. Ho...
Article
Following the urgency of climate change issues, investments in renewable energy sources and electrification of the transportation sector have enormously increased to facilitate the transition to a more sustainable future. However, as renewable resources like wind parks are replacing conventional power plants, new balancing solutions are required to...
Article
Full-text available
The participation of wind farms in providing ancillary services is an asset for the power system and one way to maintain a strong grid with the increasing penetration of renewable energy sources. Research has shown this to be feasible for wind farms by using efficient prediction and sophisticated control systems. In some parts of the world, strict...
Article
This article presents an application of neural network-based Model Predictive Control (MPC) to improve the wind turbine control system's performance in providing ancillary services to the grid. A closed-loop Hammerstein structure is used to approximate the behavior of a 5MW floating offshore wind turbine with a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generato...
Article
Full-text available
To counteract a potential reduction in grid stability caused by a rapidly growing share of intermittent renewable energy sources within our electrical grids, large scale deployment of energy storage will become indispensable. Pumped hydro storage is widely regarded as the most cost-effective option for this. However, its application is traditionall...
Article
Full-text available
The Industry 4.0 concept of a Digital Twin will bring many advantages for wind energy conversion systems, e.g., in condition monitoring, predictive maintenance and the optimisation of control or design parameters. A virtual replica is at the heart of a digital twin. To construct a virtual replica, appropriate modelling techniques must be selected f...
Article
The intermittent nature of wind speed imposes a nonlinear behavior on the dynamics of the wind turbine. Consequently, relying on one linear controller tuned to a single specific operating point cannot guarantee a feasible performance in the whole operating region despite providing a fast solution. Besides, wind speed variations cause oscillations i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the rise of renewable energy production in the pan-European grid, the need for flexible energy storage is experiencing a rapid increase. Pumped hydropower storage has proven viability due to its long lifespan and cost-effectiveness. The ALPHEUS project will implement pumped hydropower storage for flat topographies to augment grid stability in...
Conference Paper
Variable speed small to medium wind turbines need to cope with the intermittent nature of wind speed at lower altitudes. This imposes challenges on optimally tracking the maximum power point (MPP) during partial load and makes the wind turbine dynamics highly nonlinear. As a result, using one linear controller around a specific operating point may...
Article
Wind turbines are one of the most rapid growing and promising technologies for renewable power generation today. However, the share of wind energy in the global energy mix is almost entirely attributed to large turbines. Despite their unique merits, small wind turbines remain a marginal phenomenon, as they lack the technological maturity of their l...
Article
Full-text available
Renewable Energy Sources (RES) have drawn significant attention in the past years to make the transition towards low carbon emissions. On the one hand, the intermittent nature of RES, resulting in variable power generation, hinders their high-level penetration in the power system. On the other hand, RES can aid not only to supply much more eco-frie...
Preprint
Among renewable energy sources, wind energy is one of the most promising ones. However, small and medium wind turbines need to cope with the natural intermittent nature of wind speed at lower altitudes. This imposes challenges on optimally tracking the Maximum Power Point (MPP) of the turbine. Up to now, various MPPT techniques have been proposed....
Conference Paper
With the continuous evolution of the power system towards a more renewable energy based system, a natural and gradual transition will be to provide ancillary services by using renewable production units. Research has shown this to be feasible for wind farms by using efficient prediction and sophisticated control systems. In some parts of the world,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In light of the latest technological achievements in wind farm control, wind power producers (WPPs) are motivated to participate in the joint day-ahead energy and reserve market (JERM) so as to obtain additional revenue by offering ancillary services. However, their expected profit is potentially affected by fast fluctuations of the available win...
Conference Paper
Among renewable energy sources, wind energy is one of the most promising ones. However, small and medium wind turbines need to cope with the natural intermittent nature of wind speed at lower altitudes. This imposes challenges on optimally tracking the Maximum Power Point (MPP) of the turbine. Up to now, various MPPT techniques have been proposed....
Article
Full-text available
Distributed generation (DG) allows the production of renewable energy where it is consumed, avoiding transport losses. It is envisioned that future DG units will become more intelligent, not just injecting power into the grid but also actively improving the power quality by means of active power filtering techniques. In this manner, voltage and cur...
Article
This paper presents an optimisation model to assess the techno-economic feasibility of a hydrogen refuelling station, which purchases power from the electricity market, supplies the mobility sector with hydrogen, and participates in the ancillary service market. The problem is formed as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming model to investigate the...
Article
Full-text available
As the share of renewable energy sources increases, the grid frequency becomes more unstable. Therefore, grid balancing services will become more important in the future. Dedicated devices can be installed close to the point where offshore wind farms are connected to the transmission grid on land. There, they can be used to attenuate power variatio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The pan-European power grid is experiencing an increasing penetration of Variable Renewable Energy (VRE). The fluctuating and non-dispatchable nature of VRE hinders them in providing the Ancillary Service (AS) needed for the reliability and stability of the grid. Today’s grid is reliant on synchronous generators. In case of sudden frequency deviati...
Article
Full-text available
The increased penetration of renewable energy sources in the electrical grid raises the need for more power system flexibility. One of the high potential groups to provide such flexibility is the industry. Incentives to do so are provided by variable pricing and remuneration of supplied ancillary services. The operational flexibility of a chlor-alk...
Article
Full-text available
With the increasing shares of intermittent renewable sources in the grid, it becomes increasingly essential to quantify the requirements of the power systems flexibility. In this article, an adjusted weight flexibility metric (AWFM) is developed to quantify the available flexibility within individual generators as well as within the overall system....
Article
Full-text available
This article investigates the impact of the pitch-to-stall and pitch-to-feather control concepts on horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) with different blade designs. Pitch-to-feather control is widely used to limit the power output of wind turbines in high wind speed conditions. However, stall control has not been taken forward in the industry be...
Conference Paper
In a decarbonised economy, hydrogen could be a promising energy carrier, mainly for the transportation sector. Using hydrogen-filled vehicles can decrease air pollution and greenhouse gas emission. One of the requirements for the implementation of hydrogen as a fuel for the transportation sector is a focus on the optimal design of hydrogen refuelli...
Conference Paper
The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of pitch and active speed stall control, and their impact on the structural loads of small and medium wind turbines (SMWTs). Large wind turbines use blade pitching to limit the power at high wind speeds. For SMWTs, the cost and complexity of a blade pitching system are not justified, so...
Conference Paper
This study investigates the performance of ‘Group Method of Data Handling’ type neural network algorithm in short-term time series prediction of the renewable energy and grid-balancing variables, such as the Net Regulation Volume (NRV) and System Imbalance (SI). The proposed method is compared with a Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP) neural network whic...
Conference Paper
This paper proposes a data-driven system identification strategy resulting in robust approximation models with minimal prediction-error for a wind turbine drivetrain. Based on this approximation model, a predictive controller is designed and tested on a variable wind profile. Nonlinear models of a 10 kW and a 1.5 MW variable-pitch wind turbine are...
Conference Paper
As the share of renewable energy sources increases, the grid frequency becomes more unstable. Therefore, grid balancing services will become more important in the future. Dedicated devices can be installed close to the point where off-shore wind farms are connected to the transmission grid on land. There, it can be used to attenuate power variation...
Conference Paper
Increasing RES penetration in the electricity grid increases the electricity market price volatility. This mechanism could be economically exploited by electrifying the heat demand in industry. An electrode boiler could assist the existing gas-fired boiler in steam production, decreasing the overall CO2 intensity of the produced steam. In this work...
Conference Paper
As the Third Energy Package Directive dictates that all European Transmission System Operators (TSOs) should incentivise the final energy consumers in participating in the reserve and balancing markets, Elia, the TSO in Belgium, has recently made some changes to its ancillary services regulation. Focussing on the tertiary reserve, new products have...
Article
Full-text available
The shift from fossil fuel to more renewable electricity generation will require the broader implementation of Demand Side Response (DSR) into the grid. Utility processes in industry are suited for this, having a large thermal time constant or buffer, and large electricity consumption. A widespread utility system in industry is an induced draft eva...
Poster
The GREENPORTS project aims to develop a comprehensive model of the power system based primarily on both onshore and offshore wind energy and hydrogen produced by proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis, assuming an ability of the electrolyser to provide balancing services to the power grid. The results will be implemented in a pilot case...
Article
Full-text available
Wind energy is an important renewable source with a stochastic nature. To capture this energy, variable speed generators are installed in wind towers and different maximum power point (MPP) tracking (MPPT) strategies have been developed in literature to maximise the output power. However, in gusty weather, wind turbines fail to track the optimum op...
Conference Paper
Wind energy is an important renewable source with a stochas-tic nature. To capture this energy, variable speed generators are installed in wind towers and different Maximum Power Point (MPP) Tracking (MPPT) strategies have been developed in literature to maximize the output power. However, in gusty weather, wind turbines fail to track the optimum o...
Poster
Full-text available
Investigating the electrical flexibility in chemical industry, both on technological, economical and legal level.
Conference Paper
The need for balancing services in the European electricity grid is increasing. The reason is twofold: renewable energy sources (RES) are still in up rise, meanwhile the classical power plants - commonly used to provide balancing - are economical pushed out of the market. This means less available balancing resources but increasing balancing need a...
Article
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSMs) are popular due to their high efficiency and favorable dynamic properties. In practice, these machines often have a back-emf waveform which deviates from a theoretically ideal sinusoid or trapezoid. In the past, current waveform shaping techniques were developed for these machines to calculate non-conve...
Conference Paper
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSMs) are popular due to their high efficiency and favorable dynamic properties. In practice, these machines often have a back-emf waveform which deviates from an theoretically ideal sinusoid or trapezoid. In the past, current waveform shaping techniques were developed for these machines to calculate non-conv...
Conference Paper
Due to an increasing amount of wind turbines in the power system, which have a volatile power output, the need for flexibility increases. This flexibility can be obtained by ancillary services. Therefore, the provision of ancillary services with wind turbines is gaining interest. As they currently do not participate in the frequency control, this m...
Article
In several countries, the wind power penetration increased tremendously in recent years. To ensure the proper functioning of the power system, some grid operators already require the capability to provide inertial response or primary control with wind turbines. This paper discusses the emulated inertial response with wind turbines by means of the s...
Article
The energy yield of wind turbines is to a large extent determined by the performance of the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm. Conventionally, they are programmed to maximize the turbines power coefficient. However, due to losses in the generator and converter, the true optimal operating point of the system shifts. This effect is often...
Conference Paper
With increasing levels of distributed generation (DG) units in the power system, smart control systems have to be developed to obtain a reliable operation of the system. It is likely that this 'smart grid' will emerge from several small smart grids called microgrids. These microgrids are able to provide a coordinated integration of DG units in the...
Article
Distributed generation (DG) units usually do not participate in the grid voltage control and inject power regardless of the grid voltage. Only when the grid voltage level surpasses a certain threshold, these units shut down to avoid any damage. In this paper, a method is presented to control the grid voltage with both active and reactive power with...
Article
Because of their small scale and large share of intermittent power sources, islanded microgrids require additional means of flexibility, such as dedicated storage. For controlling the loads and distributed generation (DG) units in an islanded microgrid, the voltage-based droop (VBD) control has been developed. This controller determines the switchi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Small wind turbines have difficulties to start rotating at low wind speeds due to their relatively large rotor inertia and small starting torque. In case a permanent magnet generator is used, the rotor magnets will cause an additional cogging torque which makes starting even more difficult. By using the generator as motor from the moment a wind gus...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Currently, distributed generation (DG) units usually do not participate in the primary grid voltage control and inject power regardless. Only when the grid voltage level surpasses a certain threshold, these units shut down to avoid any overvoltage problems. In this paper, a method is developed to control the grid voltage by wind turbines. This way,...
Conference Paper
In several countries, the wind power penetration increased tremendously in recent years. As the current wind turbines do not participate in inertial response nor primary control, this may compromise the proper functioning of the power system. This paper discusses the emulated inertial response with wind turbines. In literature, several strategies t...
Article
Wind turbines are an important source of renewable energy. Although the amount of wind turbine installations has known a considerable increase in recent years, technological improvements are still needed to increase their efficiency. An important subject is the presence of vibrations. For instance, ripples can be present in the torque and shaft spe...
Article
The increasing share of distributed generation (DG) units in electrical power systems has a significant impact on the operation of the distribution networks, which are increasingly being confronted with congestion and voltage problems. This demands a coordinated approach for integrating DG in the network, allowing the DG units to actively contribut...
Article
Full-text available
For islanded microgrids, droop-based control concepts have been developed both in single and three-phase variants. The three-phase controllers often assume a balanced network; hence, unbalance sharing and/or mitigation remains a challenging issue. Therefore, in this paper, unbalance is considered in a three-phase islanded microgrid in which the dis...
Conference Paper
Wind turbines are one of the main sources of renewable energy worldwide. Although large wind turbines in the MW range are popular, small wind turbines of several kW can also have a valuable contribution since they can be installed in a more decentralized manner. However, the energy yield of these small wind turbines still needs improvement. The per...
Conference Paper
In order to enable an easy participation of microgrids in the electricity markets, the smart transformer (ST) concept has been developed. The ST controls the power exchange between a microgrid and the utility network by only controlling its microgrid side voltage, instead of the conventional arrangement where new set points are communicated to all...
Conference Paper
A smart transformer enables to control the power exchange between a microgrid and the utility network by controlling the voltage at the microgrid side within certain limits. The distributed generation units in the microgrid are equipped with a voltage-based droop control strategy. This controller reacts on the voltage change, making the smart trans...
Conference Paper
In several countries, the wind power penetration increased tremendously in the last years. As the current wind turbines do not participate in frequency control nor reserve provision, this may compromise the proper functioning of the primary control and the provision of power reserves. If no actions are taken, increasing levels of wind penetration m...
Conference Paper
In this paper, a method for online estimation of the tip speed ratio (TSR) of small wind turbines is presented, in order to evaluate the MPPT performance. Unlike obvious methods, for which an encoder or resolver is needed, the presented method only requires measurements of the wind speed and the generator current. Firstly, the accuracy of the prese...
Article
Microgrids are able to provide a coordinated integration of the increasing share of distributed generation (DG) units in the network. The primary control of the DG units is generally performed by droop-based control algorithms that avoid communication. The voltage-based droop (VBD) control is developed for islanded low-voltage microgrids with a hig...
Conference Paper
Microgrids provide a coordinated integration of distributed generation units in the electrical power system. By operating in islanded mode, they can increase the reliability of the system or electrify remote areas. For the power sharing and voltage control in low-voltage microgrids, active power/grid voltage droop control is highly suitable. In ord...
Conference Paper
Grid-connected small and medium wind turbines are a promising technology to further increase the share of renewable energy sources. Although their impact on the environment is proven to be advantageous, the cost effectiveness still needs to increase. In this paper, the impact of the passive diode rectifier on the Joule losses in the generator is in...
Article
Permanent magnet synchronous machines are frequently used in industry because of their high efficiency and favourable dynamic properties. Mechanical limitations and design considerations cause several harmonics in the flux and back-emf of these machines. The back-emf harmonics can be measured on the machine terminals if no stator current is present...
Article
To achieve the environmental goals set by many governments, an increasing amount of renewable energy, often delivered by distributed-generation (DG) units, is injected into the electrical power system. Despite the many advantages of DG, this can lead to voltage problems, especially in times of a high local generation and a low local load. The tradi...
Article
For the islanded operation of a microgrid, several control strategies have been