Jeremy M Wolfe

Jeremy M Wolfe
Harvard Medical School | HMS

PhD

About

573
Publications
78,798
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27,249
Citations
Introduction
Additional affiliations
January 1992 - present
Brigham and Women's Hospital

Publications

Publications (573)
Article
Full-text available
Using an online, medical image labeling app, 803 individuals rated images of skin lesions as either "melanoma" (skin cancer) or "nevus" (a skin mole). Each block consisted of 80 images. Blocks could have high (50%) or low (20%) target prevalence and could provide full, accurate feedback or no feedback. As in prior work, with feedback, decision crit...
Article
In hybrid foraging, observers search for multiple instances of multiple target types. Children regularly perform such tasks (e.g., collecting LEGO pieces or looking for different teammates within a game). Quitting rules (When do you leave the search?) are important in foraging (e.g., I found enough LEGOs or teammates). However, the development of q...
Article
In hybrid foraging, observers search for multiple exemplars of multiple targets (e.g. look for yellow and purple perler-beads in the handicrafts box). Adults can perform hybrid searches for, literally, hundreds of different target objects. How does this ability to handle memory load develop during childhood? We compared performance under different...
Article
Stereoscopic depth has a mixed record as a guiding attribute in visual attention. Visual search can be efficient if the target lies at a unique depth; whereas automatic segmentation of search arrays into different depth planes does not appear to be pre-attentive. These prior findings describe bottom-up, stimulus-driven depth guidance. Here, we ask...
Article
Previous work has shown that, in many visual search and detection tasks, observers frequently miss rare but important targets, like weapons in bags or abnormalities in radiological images. These prior studies of the low-prevalence effect (LPE) use static stimuli and typically permitted observers to search at will. In contrast, many real-world tasks...
Article
Humans routinely miss important information that is ‘right in front of our eyes’, from overlooking typos in a paper to failing to see a cyclist in an intersection. Recent studies on these ‘Looked But Failed To See’ (LBFTS) errors point to a common mechanism underlying these failures, whether the missed item was an unexpected gorilla, the clearly de...
Article
Purpose: Automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) presents three-dimensional (3D) representations of the breast in the form of stacks of coronal and transverse plane images. ABUS is especially useful for the assessment of dense breasts. Here, we present the first eye tracking data showing how radiologists search and evaluate ABUS cases. Approach: Twelve...
Poster
Full-text available
Visual search models have long suggested that search is facilitated by a "priority" or "activation" map, guiding attention towards items having Target (T) features and away from items having Distractor (D) features 1,2. In this MEG study, we use Rapid Invisible Frequency Tagging (RIFT) in a classic visual search paradigm, to understand the neuronal...
Article
In visual search tasks, responses to targets on one trial can influence responses on the next trial. Most typically, target repetition speeds response while switching to a different target slows response. Such "priming" effects have sometimes been given very significant roles in theories of search (e.g., Theeuwes, Philosophical Transactions of the...
Article
Many eye tracking studies of visual search have focused on the role of the number of fixations and the nature of scan paths. Less attention has been paid to fixation durations and to how those durations are affected by stimulus features. Previous studies have shown that fixation durations can be as important as the number of fixations in explaining...
Article
Full-text available
During visual search, attention is guided by specific features, including shape. Our understanding of shape guidance is limited to specific attributes (closures and line terminations) that do not fully explain the richness of preattentive shape processing. We used a novel genetic algorithm method to explore shape space and to stimulate hypotheses a...
Article
During a visual search for a target among distractors, observers do not fixate every location in the search array. Rather processing is thought to occur within a Functional Visual Field (FVF) surrounding each fixation. We argue that there are three questions that can be asked at each fixation and that these imply three different senses of the FVF....
Article
Medical image interpretation is central to detecting, diagnosing, and staging cancer and many other disorders. At a time when medical imaging is being transformed by digital technologies and artificial intelligence, understanding the basic perceptual and cognitive processes underlying medical image interpretation is vital for increasing diagnostici...
Article
Full-text available
Expert radiologists can discern normal from abnormal mammograms with above-chance accuracy after brief (e.g. 500 ms) exposure. They can even predict cancer risk viewing currently normal images (priors) from women who will later develop cancer. This involves a rapid, global, non-selective process called “gist extraction”. It is not yet known whether...
Article
Visual search is a ubiquitous and often challenging daily task, exemplified by looking for the car keys at home or a friend in a crowd. An intriguing property of some classical search tasks is an asymmetry such that finding a target A among distractors B can be easier than finding B among A. To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for asymmetry in...
Article
Full-text available
Visual search is a fundamental element of human behavior and is predominantly studied in a laboratory setting using static displays. However, real-life search is often an extended process taking place in dynamic environments. We have designed a dynamic-search task in order to incorporate the temporal dimension into visual search. Using this task, w...
Article
Full-text available
The information captured by the gist signal, which refers to radiologists’ first impression arising from an initial global image processing, is poorly understood. We examined whether the gist signal can provide complementary information to data captured by radiologists (experiment 1), or computer algorithms (experiment 2) based on detailed mammogra...
Article
Full-text available
The prevalence and reward-value of targets have an influence on visual search. The strength of the effect of an item’s reward-value on attentional selection varies substantially between individuals and is potentially sensitive to aging. We investigated individual and age differences in a hybrid foraging task, in which the prevalence and value of mu...
Article
Purpose: Radiologists sometimes fail to report clearly visible, clinically significant findings. Eye tracking can provide insight into the causes of such errors. Approach: We tracked eye movements of 17 radiologists, searching for masses in 80 mammograms (60 with masses). Results: Errors were classified using the Kundel et al. (1978) taxonomy: sear...
Article
How does the prevalence of a target influence how it is perceived and categorized? A substantial body of work, mostly in visual search, shows that a higher proportion of targets are missed when prevalence is low. This classic low prevalence effect (LPE) involves a shift to a more conservative decision criterion that makes it less likely that observ...
Preprint
Visual search is a ubiquitous and often challenging daily task, exemplified by looking for the car keys at home or a friend in a crowd. An intriguing property of some classical search tasks is an asymmetry such that finding a target A among distractors B can be easier than finding B among A. To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for asymmetry in...
Article
Full-text available
Sequence learning effects in simple perceptual and motor tasks are largely unaffected by normal aging. However, less is known about sequence learning in more complex cognitive tasks that involve attention and memory processes and how this changes with age. In this study, we examined whether incidental and intentional sequence learning would facilit...
Article
Memories are encoded in a manner that depends on our knowledge and expectations (“schemas”). Consistent with this, expertise tends to improve memory: Experts have elaborated schemas in their domains of expertise, allowing them to efficiently represent information in this domain (e.g., chess experts have enhanced memory for realistic chess layouts)....
Article
Visual search is critical to daily life and to socially important tasks — from cancer screening to airport security. New research shows how a technological advancement can interact with the human visual system to improve search for one type of target while making matters worse for another. Part of the problem is that we are surprisingly bad at know...
Article
This paper describes Guided Search 6.0 (GS6), a revised model of visual search. When we encounter a scene, we can see something everywhere. However, we cannot recognize more than a few items at a time. Attention is used to select items so that their features can be "bound" into recognizable objects. Attention is "guided" so that items can be proces...
Article
Full-text available
When radiologists search for a specific target (e.g., lung cancer), they are also asked to report any other clinically significant "incidental findings" (e.g., pneumonia). These incidental findings are missed at an undesirably high rate. In an effort to understand and reduce these errors, Wolfe et al. (Cognitive Research: Principles and Implication...
Article
In visual search tasks, observers look for targets among distractors. In the lab, this often takes the form of multiple searches for a simple shape that may or may not be present among other items scattered at random on a computer screen (e.g., Find a red T among other letters that are either black or red.). In the real world, observers may search...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge of target features can guide attention in many conjunction searches in a top-down manner. For example, in search of a red vertical line among blue vertical and red horizontal lines, observers can guide attention toward all red items and all vertical items. In typical conjunction searches, distractors often form perceptually vivid, categor...
Article
Humans are quick to notice if an object is unstable. Does that assessment require attention or can instability serve as a preattentive feature that can guide the deployment of attention? This paper describes a series of visual search experiments, designed to address this question. Experiment 1 shows that less stable images among more stable images...
Article
Full-text available
It is well known that priming, probably by the contents of working memory, can influence subsequent visual task performance. How ubiquitous is this effect? Can incidental exposure to visual stimuli influence the deployment of attention when there is no explicit visual task? Results of two experiments show that a preceding stimulus can influence fre...
Article
Full-text available
Many real-world visual tasks involve searching for multiple instances of a target (e.g., picking ripe berries). What strategies do observers use when collecting items in this type of search? Do they wait to finish collecting the current item before starting to look for the next target, or do they search ahead for future targets? We utilized behavio...
Article
Full-text available
Most studies of visual search across the life span have focused on classic feature and conjunction searches in which observers search for a fixed, simple shape target among relatively homogeneous distractors over a block of multiple trials. In the present study, we examine a more realistic task in which participants (4 to 25 years-old) look for ima...
Preprint
Many real-world visual tasks involve searching for multiple instances of a target (e.g., picking ripe berries). What strategies do observers use when collecting items in this type of search? Do they wait to finish collecting the current item before starting to look for the next target, or do they search ahead for future targets? We utilized behavio...
Article
Evans et al. (2016) showed that radiologists can classify the mammograms as normal or abnormal at above-chance levels after a 250-ms exposure. Our study documents a similar gist signal in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) images. DBT is a relatively new technology that creates a three-dimensional image set of slices through the volume of the breas...
Preprint
Full-text available
Radiologists can classify a mammogram as normal or abnormal at better than chance levels after less than a second's exposure to the images. In this work, we combine these radiologists' gist inputs into pre-trained machine learning models to validate that integrating gist with a CNN model can achieve an AUC (area under the curve) statistically signi...
Preprint
Memory capacity depends on prior knowledge, both in working memory and in long-term memory. For example, radiologists have improved long-term memory for medical images compared to novices. Furthermore, people tend to remember abnormal or surprising items best. This is often claimed to arise primarily because such items attract additional attention...
Article
Searching for a “Q” among “O”s is easier than the opposite search (Treisman & Gormican in Psychological Review, 95, 15–48, 1988). In many cases, such “search asymmetries” occur because it is easier to search when a target is defined by the presence of a feature (i.e., the line terminator defining the tail of the “Q”), rather than by its absence. Tr...
Article
In hybrid foraging tasks, observers search visual displays, so called patches, for multiple instances of any of several types of targets with the goal of collecting targets as quickly as possible. Here, targets were photorealistic objects. Younger and older adults collected targets by mouse clicks. They could move to the next patch whenever they de...
Article
The color code of "Traffic Light Labels" (TLL) on food items indicates the amount (e.g., green = low) of fat, saturates, sugar and salt it contains. Consider two ways to select among food items (e.g., two cereal bars) based on their TLLs. You might choose between the two items or you might reject one of the two. Furthermore, differences between cho...
Article
Full-text available
The eye movements of experts, reading medical images, have been studied for many years. Unlike topics such as face perception, medical image perception research needs to cope with substantial, qualitative changes in the stimuli under study due to dramatic advances in medical imaging technology. For example, little is known about how radiologists se...
Article
Objectives: After a 500 ms presentation, experts can distinguish abnormal mammograms at above chance levels even when only the breast contralateral to the lesion is shown. Here, we show that this signal of abnormality is detectable 3 years before localized signs of cancer become visible. Methods: In 4 prospective studies, 59 expert observers fro...
Article
How do you know if you saw that? Electrophysiological correlates of searching through memory Trafton Drew1, Lauren H. Williams1, Jeremy M. Wolfe2, Iris Wiegand2,3 1 University of Utah 2 Brigham & Women’s Hospital 3 Max Planck UCL Centre for Computational Psychiatry and Ageing Research People are remarkably adept at recognizing thousands of previou...
Article
The knowledge of target features can be used to guide attention in many conjunction searches in a top-down manner. For example, in search for a red vertical line among blue vertical and red horizontal lines, observers can guide attention toward all red items and all vertical items. Items with both features would gain greater activation. It could be...
Article
Full-text available
We tested younger and older observers’ attention and long-term memory functions in a “hybrid search” task, in which observers look through visual displays for instances of any of several types of targets held in memory. Apart from a general slowing, search efficiency did not change with age. In both age groups, reaction times increased linearly wit...
Article
The identity of the next thing you will attend to is under the control of several factors. One of these is your prior attentional history. New research shows that this ‘selection history’ comes in more than one distinct form.
Article
The classic animation experiment by Heider and Simmel (1944) revealed that humans have a strong tendency to impose narrative even on displays showing interactions between simple geometric shapes. In their most famous animation with three simple shapes, observers almost inevitably interpreted them as rational agents with intentions, desires, and bel...
Article
Full-text available
In Hybrid Foraging tasks, observers search for multiple instances of several types of target. Collecting all the dirty laundry and kitchenware out of a child’s room would be a real-world example. How are such foraging episodes structured? A series of four experiments shows that selection of one item from the display makes it more likely that the ne...
Article
The concept of a preattentive feature has been central to vision and attention research for about half a century. A preattentive feature is a feature that guides attention in visual search and that cannot be decomposed into simpler features. While that definition seems straightforward, there is no simple diagnostic test that infallibly identifies a...
Article
Keeping track of multiple moving items is a fundamental perceptual skill. Nevertheless, our capacity in tasks such as multiple object tracking (MOT) [1, 2], multiple identity tracking (MIT) [3, 4], or change detection [5] is very low-typically just two to four items. In standard tracking tasks, observers monitor M out of N items as they move about...
Article
In visual search tasks, observers can guide their attention towards items in the visual field that share features with the target item. In this series of studies, we examined the time course of guidance toward a subset of items that have the same color as the target item. Landolt Cs were placed on 16 colored disks. Fifteen distractor Cs had gaps fa...