Jeremy Safran

Jeremy Safran
The New School · Department of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

207
Publications
175,801
Reads
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9,665
Citations
Citations since 2016
27 Research Items
4015 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
Additional affiliations
July 1993 - present
The New School
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • University
September 1990 - July 1993
Adelphi University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (207)
Book
Full-text available
Questo libro, dedicato alla memoria di Lewis Aron e di Jeremy Safran, esplora il tema dell’enactment in relazione ai confini in psicoanalisi, con riferimento ad una serie di punti di vista che inquadrano aree cruciali per la clinica. Nell’introduzione Galit Atlas scrive che l’enactment è diventato un termine ampiamente utilizzato nella psicoanalisi...
Article
Relatively little research focuses on the impact of therapeutic, relational skills training for untrained helpers. The current study was a randomized control trial which tested a novel, research-informed training protocol that integrated elements of alliance-focused training (AFT) and facilitative interpersonal skills (FIS) in a sample of college u...
Article
Research on standard methods of therapist training has found mixed evidence to as to whether standard training methods are effective. This study investigated the impact of a novel, research-informed training protocol that integrated elements of alliance-focused training (AFT) and facilitative interpersonal skills (FIS). Beyond traditional training...
Chapter
A rupture is a deterioration in the therapeutic alliance, manifested by a disagreement between the patient and therapist on treatment goals, a lack of collaboration on therapeutic tasks, or a strain in their emotional bond. This chapter presents the most frequently used measures of alliance ruptures and clinical examples to illustrate their repair....
Book
Full-text available
The book is dedicated to Jeremy Safran and Lewis Aron, whose recent loss drove the editors as well as the publisher to gather these contributions about enactment, a topic to whom Safran and Aron devoted many papers of theirs. As Safran wrote, though problematic and source of confusion among different psychoanalytic approaches, the epistemological s...
Article
Full-text available
Decades of work by Jeremy Safran and his colleagues have established that ruptures in the therapeutic alliance are not necessarily obstacles to the treatment, and that the process of repairing these events has the potential to deepen the therapeutic relationship and promote change. The field of alliance rupture research has largely focused on thera...
Article
Grounded in a view of the therapeutic alliance as a process of intersubjective negotiation between patient and therapist, this study examines therapist reflective functioning (RF) as a predictor of process and outcome of psychotherapy in 43 cases of brief relational therapy. Psychotherapy process was measured with the Working Alliance Inventory, Se...
Article
Objective: Our aim was to examine the reliability and validity of the Rupture Resolution Rating System (3RS), an observer-based measure of alliance ruptures and resolution processes. Method: We used the 3RS to rate early sessions from 42 cases of cognitive behavior therapy. We compared the 3RS to a simplified version of the Structural Analysis o...
Article
The aim of the current study was to design and evaluate a therapist version of the Alliance Negotiation Scale (ANS). The ANS was created in order to operationalize the construct of dyadic negotiation in psychotherapy and to augment existing conceptualizations of the working alliance. The ANS has existed only as a client self‐report form since its i...
Article
Full-text available
The working alliance is one of the most consistent predictors of outcome. Yet, little empirical knowledge exists on how therapists can use this association to maximize the outcome of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for individual clients. The present study aimed to examine pre-treatment client interpersonal characteristics that determine what fu...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we test the reliability and validity of two novel ways of assessing mentalizing in the therapy context: the Reflective Functioning scale (RF) applied to code psychotherapy transcripts (In-session RF), and the Exploring scale of the Patient Attachment Coding System (PACS), which measures in-session autonomy and is linked with secur...
Article
Objective: It has been demonstrated that patient perspective on alliance can predict subsequent treatment outcome as reported by the therapist, but not the other way around. This study aimed to investigate the circumstances in which therapists can provide estimations of alliance capable of predicting patient perceptions of subsequent session outcom...
Article
Objective: In order to improve success rates in psychotherapy, an alliance-focused training (AFT) protocol was developed and evaluated with regard to patient-therapist interpersonal behavior in a 30-session protocol of cognitive-behavioral therapy for outpatients comorbid with Axis I and II conditions conducted in a medical center setting. Method:...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we examine how the different attachment patterns enable or hinder the resolution of ruptures in the therapeutic alliance. We try to show that secure and insecure patients alike may experience ruptures in the therapeutic alliance, but that their abilities to participate in resolving such ruptures differ markedly. Recent findings...
Article
This study investigates the utility and psychometric properties of a new measure of psychotherapy process, the Alliance Negotiation Scale (ANS; Doran, Safran, Waizmann, Bolger, & Muran, 2012). The ANS was designed to operationalize the theoretical construct of negotiation (Safran & Muran, 2000), and to extend our current understanding of the workin...
Poster
Full-text available
Small, R. B., Muran, J. C., Safran, J. D., & Eubanks, C. (2016, June). The impact of Alliance-Focused Training on therapist self-expression, emotional involvement, and alliance perspective. Poster presented at the 47th International Annual Meeting of the Society for Psychotherapy Research, Jerusalem, Israel.
Article
Full-text available
In this article I review some of the ways in which the themes of authenticity, spontaneity and improvisation have become important values in the writing of many contemporary psychoanalysts. I examine the emergence of this trend in the context of historical and cultural changes in the construction of the self, and the fragmentation of traditional be...
Article
Objective: This study examines the validity of the Alliance Negotiation Scale (ANS) in a psychotherapy research program. Analyses were designed to evaluate the relationship between the ANS and psychotherapy process and outcome variables. Method: Data were collected in a metropolitan psychotherapy research program. Participants completed 30 sessi...
Article
Objective: Better alliance is known to predict better psychotherapy outcomes, but the interdependent and interactive effects of both therapist- and patient-reported alliance levels have yet to be systematically investigated. Method: Using actor-partner interdependence model analysis the authors estimated actor, partner, and 2 types of interactiv...
Article
Psychoanalytic authors have traditionally been skeptical of nomothetic studies, in which group averages obscure the uniqueness of individual cases. Several relational psychoanalytic authors have expressed more pronounced skepticism, affirming, for example, that given the uniqueness of each therapist-patient dyad, systematic empirical research is pa...
Conference Paper
Introduction: There is today a growing interest in the role of Reflective Functioning (RF) in relation to psychotherapy process and outcome. Unfortunately, the RF scale was developed to assess mentalization in the context of the AAI, and little research has been done in relation to studying its correlates within psychotherapy sessions. To fill this...
Chapter
Full-text available
The conceptual and empirical literature on alliance ruptures and their resolution is a developing one that is receiving increasing attention, especially as clinicians and researchers continue to face the challenges of treatment resistance and failure across all treatment orientations. Alliance ruptures have been defined as negative patient communic...
Article
Full-text available
There is a vital dialectic between agency and surrender in life and in the analytic process. Without an ability to will, one cannot choose one's actions; one becomes a passive victim of circumstances rather than an agent who can influence one's own destiny. On the other hand, an exaggerated sense of agency fails to take into account the limits of o...
Article
Self-reflective processes are important, especially in understanding the emotional attitudes which drive our actions and behaviors. Emotions give us quick, firsthand information (tacit process) on the nature of our attitudes toward life events as well as the style with which we evaluate our goals with respect to the external world. The ability to r...
Article
Full-text available
The existing measures to assess Therapeutic Alliance tend to focus on the degree of agreement or collaboration between patient and therapist regarding tasks and goals during therapeutic process. However, both theoretical studies and empirical research, suggest that also the way in which the dyad negotiates disagreements about goals and tasks is a f...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In two National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded studies, our program has developed alliance-focused treatment and training (AFT) protocols and has demonstrated their beneficial effect on treatment resistance and interpersonal process in psychotherapy. AFT is founded on relational principles derived from research on cognitive, affective, an...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The 3RS is an observer-based measure of alliance ruptures and resolution strategies. The 3RS yields ratings for the frequency and significance of withdrawal and confrontation ruptures, as well as the therapist’s use of strategies to resolve these ruptures.
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: This study evaluated the development of the therapeutic alliance and the emergence of alliance ruptures, in a sample of patients with different diagnosis and different therapeutic outcome. Design: We examined the longitudinal data of 38 therapeutic dyads receiving cognitive-behavioural therapy, including dropouts as well as successful a...
Article
In this commentary I review some of the key points that Elliot Jurist (2014) makes in his essay on Hans Loewald's perspective on the superego and emphasize those which are most intriguing to me. I also elaborate on a dimension of Loewald's perspective that Jurist pays less attention to. I suggest that a key contribution of Loewald's writing about t...
Article
Alliance-focused training (AFT) aims to increase therapists' ability to recognize, tolerate, and negotiate alliance ruptures by increasing the therapeutic skills of self-awareness, affect regulation, and interpersonal sensitivity. In AFT, therapists are encouraged to draw on these skills when metacommunicating about ruptures with patients. In this...
Article
Full-text available
Alliance ruptures, impasses, and transference-countertransference enactments are inevitable in therapy. A growing body of evidence suggests that repairing ruptures in the alliance is related to positive outcome (Safran, Muran, & Eubanks-Carter, 2011). Our research program has led to the development of training methods to enhance therapists' abiliti...
Article
In this article, we provide an overview of our research program on therapeutic impasses and alliance ruptures. Beginning in the mid-1980s at the University of Toronto, and continuing in New York at Beth Israel Medical Center since the early 1990s, we have focused our efforts on trying to illuminate the processes associated with resolving ruptures i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Literature on psychotherapy outcome suggests that 35% to 40% of patients in randomized control trials do not improve over the course of therapy, and 5% to 10% actually deteriorate. This phenomenon is not bound to a specific approach to treatment, but rather seems to occur across all types of evidence-based therapies. So far, literature on deteriora...
Article
Objective: In this article we present preliminary findings from a research program designed to investigate the value of alliance-focused training (AFT), a supervision approach designed to enhance therapists' ability to work constructively with negative therapeutic process. Method: In the context of a multiple baseline design, all therapists bega...
Article
Full-text available
There is currently little empirical evidence regarding how patients' attachment patterns manifest in individual psychotherapy. This study compared the in-session discourse of patients classified secure, dismissing, and preoccupied on the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Rather than focusing on content or form alone, this study analyzed how patient...
Article
Full-text available
In this brief discussion I highlight some dimensions of Angus and Kagan's (2013); Olivera, Braun, Gomez Penedo, and Roussos (2013); and Jock, Bolger, Olivera, and Roussos (2013) articles that are of particular interest to me. Reading their articles has served as a catalyst for me to reflect at a more general level on the state of the art of qualita...
Article
Abstract This study examined the relationship of pre-treatment personality disorder diagnosis to the quality of early therapeutic alliance in 145 patients randomly assigned to either cognitive behavioral therapy or brief relational therapy. The pre-treatment diagnosis was established by DSM-IV (SCID) and Wisconsin Personality Inventory. Quality of...
Article
Full-text available
Ken Frank's compelling and eloquently argued essay is a valuable clarion call for action at time when psychoanalysis is in a state of crisis. In my commentary I argue that it is important for us to extend the boundaries of our understanding of the nature of this crisis, and attempt to delineate some of the broader concerns that are important for us...
Article
This online resource for mental health practitioners presents a variety of information required in daily practice in one easy-to-use resource. Covering the entire spectrum of practice issues–from diagnostic codes, practice guidelines, treatment principles, and report checklists, to insight and advice from today's most respected clinicians–this peer...
Article
Full-text available
This study compared two methods of detecting ruptures in therapy sessions, a procedure based on a self-report measure, the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI), and an observational Rupture Resolution Rating System (3RS). We anticipated that the 3RS would detect more ruptures than the WAI. We examined the longitudinal data of 38 patient-therapist dyads...
Article
Full-text available
Irwin Z. Hoffman's (2009) “Doublethinking our way to ‘scientific’ legitimacy” is an important and thought-provoking paper that tends to evoke passionate and polarized responses. Important threads running throughout his paper include the pitting of objectivist against constructivist perspectives and a concern that the objectivist epistemology underl...
Chapter
It is a great pleasure to have the opportunity to read and comment on the chapters in this section. Some of the chapters provide superb summaries and updates on innovative psychoanalytic research programs. Others provide comprehensive reviews of the research on the psychoanalytic treatment of specific disorders. Together, they constitute an immense...
Article
Psychotherapy research has shown that the quality of the therapeutic alliance is the most robust predictor of treatment success. The authors provide a systematic framework for negotiating ruptures and strains in the therapeutic alliance and transforming them into therapeutic breakthroughs. Cutting-edge developments in psychoanalysis and other modal...
Article
Full-text available
Provides a reanalysis of data provided by G. Silberschatz et al (1986), who developed a method to assess the compatibility between an interpretation and a patient's psychology, and demonstrated that this factor—plan compatibility—may contribute to an interpretation's effect. In their reassessing of the data the authors demonstrate that raters can r...
Article
Full-text available
Current measures of the working alliance tend to emphasize the degree of agreement or collaboration between patient and therapist about therapeutic tasks and goals. There are, however, both theoretical and empirical grounds to suggest that the degree to which patient and therapist are able to constructively negotiate disagreements about tasks and g...
Article
Full-text available
Provides an interview wit Morris Eagle that was from New York via Skype at his home in Los Angeles. This interview focuses on Eagle's most recent book From Classical to Contemporary Psychoanalysis (see record 2010-09133-000), and his book Recent Developments in Psychoanalysis (see record 1987-98252-000), published in 1984. Specifically focuses on t...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated the association between therapist dispositional mindfulness and therapist self-affiliation, the therapeutic alliance, and treatment outcome. Total therapist mindfulness was associated with therapist self-affiliation, r=.413, p<.05. Therapist mindfulness was positively correlated with therapist ratings of the working a...
Chapter
Full-text available
After 5 years of conceptualizing, investigating, and writing about corrective experiences (CEs), we (the authors of this chapter) met to talk about what we learned. In this chapter, we summarize our joint understanding of (a) the definition of CEs; (b) the contexts in which CEs occur; (c) client, therapist, and external factors that facilitate CEs;...
Article
Full-text available
The present survey evaluated the impact of empirical research findings on the clinical practice of a sample of psychotherapists who are also actively engaged in the consumption, critical evaluation and production of psychotherapy research. On one hand, we found that even this sample of researcher-clinicians perceive empirical research to be less he...
Article
Full-text available
We explored therapists' and clients' experiences of alliance rupture events for the first 15 sessions of each of eight cases; therapists were each paired with one client who had a personality disorder. All sessions were videotaped and rated with the Rupture Resolution Rating System. Approximately 1 week after a rupture, clients and therapists were...
Chapter
Full-text available
First published in 2002, the landmark Psychotherapy Relationships That Work broke new ground by focusing renewed and corrective attention on the substantial research behind the crucial (but often overlooked) client-therapist relationship. This thoroughly revised edition brings a decade of additional research to the same task. In addition to updatin...
Article
In this article, we review the existing empirical research on the topic of therapeutic alliance ruptures in psychotherapy. Ruptures in the therapeutic alliance are defined as episodes of tension or breakdown in the collaborative relationship between patient and therapist. Two meta-analyses were conducted. The first reviewed studies examining the re...
Article
The concept of emotional intelligence (EI) describes a set of emotional skills that may comprise efficacious therapist variables. The present study is the first to investigate EI among psychotherapists. Based on conceptual overlaps between the EI model and psychotherapy models, as well as a review of empirical evidence from both literatures, we mak...
Chapter
Modern interpersonal psychology is now at a point where recent advances need to be organized so that researchers, practitioners, and students can understand what is new, different, and state-of-the art. This field-defining volume examines the history of interpersonal psychology and explores influential theories of normal-abnormal behaviors, widely-...
Chapter
Full-text available
This state-of-the-art book presents research-based practice guidelines that clinicians of any orientation can use to optimize the therapeutic alliance. Leading proponents of the major psychotherapeutic approaches explain just what a good alliance is, how to create it, and how to recognize and repair alliance ruptures. Applications in individual, gr...