Jeremy Grimshaw

Jeremy Grimshaw
Ottawa Hospital Research Institute | OHRI · Clinical Epidemiology Program

MBChB, PhD

About

983
Publications
288,549
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147,398
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Publications

Publications (983)
Article
Full-text available
Healthcare professional (HCP) behaviours are actions performed by individuals and teams for varying and often complex patient needs. However, gaps exist between evidence-informed care behaviours and the care provided. Implementation science seeks to develop generalizable principles and approaches to investigate and address care gaps, supporting HCP...
Article
Full-text available
Background Preliminary evidence suggests that providing longer duration prescriptions at discharge may improve long-term adherence to secondary preventative cardiac medications among post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients. We implemented and assessed the effects of two hospital-based interventions—(1) standardized prolonged discharge prescription...
Article
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Background Low back pain (LBP) is a leading cause of disability and is among the top five reasons that patients visit their family doctors. Over-imaging for non-specific low back pain remains a problem in primary care. To inform a larger study to develop and evaluate a theory-based intervention to reduce inappropriate imaging, we completed an asses...
Article
Objectives Vaccinating healthcare workers (HCWs) against COVID-19 has been a public health priority since rollout began in late 2020. Promoting COVID-19 vaccination among HCWs would benefit from identifying modifiable behavioural determinants. We sought to identify and categorize studies looking at COVID-19 vaccination acceptance to identify modifi...
Preprint
Introduction Diabetic retinopathy screening (DRS) attendance in young adults is consistently below recommended levels. The aim of this study was to identify barriers and enablers of diabetic retinopathy screening (DRS) attendance amongst young adults (YA) in the UK living with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes. Research design and methods YAs...
Article
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Investigating the mechanisms of behavior change interventions provides a more fulsome understanding of how and why interventions work (or don’t work). We assessed mechanisms of two interventions (mailouts alone, and mailouts plus telephone support, informed by the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) and Habit Theory), designed to increase medicat...
Article
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Background The shortage of available organs for life-saving transplants persists worldwide. While a majority support donating their organs or tissue when they die, many have not registered their wish to do so. When registered, next of kin are much more likely to follow-through with the decision to donate. In many countries, most people visit their...
Article
Background Blood transfusion is a common but costly treatment. Repeated national audits in the UK suggest that up to one-fifth of transfusions are unnecessary when judged against recommendations for good clinical practice. Audit and feedback seeks to improve patient care and outcomes by comparing clinical care against explicit standards. It is wide...
Article
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Background: Inappropriate health care leads to negative patient experiences, poor health outcomes and inefficient use of resources. We aimed to conduct a systematic review of inappropriately used clinical practices in Canada. Methods: We searched multiple bibliometric databases and grey literature to identify inappropriately used clinical practi...
Article
Importance: Auditing and feedback are frequently used to improve patient care. However, it remains unclear how to optimize feedback effectiveness for the appropriate use of treatments such as blood transfusion, a common but costly procedure that is more often overused than underused. Objective: To evaluate 2 theoretically informed feedback inter...
Article
Full-text available
Importance: Auditing and feedback are frequently used to improve patient care. However, it remains unclear how to optimize feedback effectiveness for the appropriate use of treatments such as blood transfusion, a common but costly procedure that is more often overused than underused. Objective: To evaluate 2 theoretically informed feedback interven...
Article
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Abstract Rationale: Translating research evidence into clinical practice to improve care involves healthcare professionals adopting new behaviours and changing or stopping their existing behaviours. However, changing healthcare professional behaviour can be difficult, particularly when it involves changing repetitive, ingrained ways of providing ca...
Article
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Background Audit and feedback (A&F) that shows how health professionals compare to those of their peers, can be an effective intervention to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing among family physicians. However, the most impactful design approach to A&F to achieve this aim is uncertain. We will test three design modifications of antibiotic A&F...
Article
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Background Acute low back pain is a common condition, has high burden, and there are evidence-to-practice gaps in the chiropractic and physiotherapy setting for imaging and giving advice to stay active. The aim of this cluster randomised trial was to estimate the effects of a theory- and evidence-based implementation intervention to increase chirop...
Article
Objective We aimed to determine if offering a 12 dose once-weekly treatment (3HP) as an additional treatment option would result in an increase in the overall proportion of patients completing TB preventive treatment (TPT) above the baseline rate. Methods We analyzed outcomes in consecutive adults referred to a TB clinic from January 2010 to May 2...
Article
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Introduction Children with inherited metabolic diseases (IMDs) often have complex and intensive healthcare needs and their families face challenges in receiving high-quality, family centred health services. Improvement in care requires complex interventions involving multiple components and stakeholders, customised to specific care contexts. This s...
Article
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Objectives Interrupted Time Series (ITS) are a type of non-randomised design commonly used to evaluate public health policy interventions, and the impact of exposures, at the population level. Meta-analysis may be used to combine results from ITS across studies (in the context of systematic reviews) or across sites within the same study. We aimed t...
Article
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Introduction Engaging with patients about their lived experience of health and illness and their experience within the healthcare system can help inform the provision of care, health policies and health research. In the context of health research, however, operationalizing the levels of patient engagement is not straightforward. We suggest that a k...
Article
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Background: Audit and feedback entails systematic documentation of clinical performance based on explicit criteria or standards which is then fed back to professionals in a structured manner. There are potential significant returns on investment from partnerships between existing clinical audit programmes in coordinated programmes of research to t...
Article
Uvod: Preporučene smjernice za izvještavanje u sustavnim pregledima i metaanalizama (engl. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses, PRISMA) prvi su put objavljene 2009. godine kako bi autorima sustavnih pregleda omogućile transparentno izvještavanje o predmetu istraživanja, korištenim metodama i dobivenim rezultatima. Tij...
Article
Objective: Increasing deceased organ donation registration may increase the number of available organs for transplant to help save lives. This study aimed to identify which behaviour change techniques (BCTs; or 'active ingredients') are reported within randomized trials of interventions promoting deceased organ donation registration and of those,...
Article
Full-text available
Aim To identify barriers and enablers of diabetic eye screening (DES) attendance amongst young adults with diabetes living in the UK. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews with adults aged 18-34 years with diabetes. Participants were purposively sampled to aim for representation across gender, geographical locations, diabetes type, years...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Diabetic retinopathy screening (DRS) attendance in young adults is consistently below recommended levels. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of screening providers in the UK Diabetic Eye Screening Programme (DESP) to identify perceived barriers and enablers to DRS attendance in young adults and elicit views on the effectiven...
Article
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Background Audit and feedback is a common implementation strategy, but few studies describe its costs. ‘MyPractice’ is a province-wide audit and feedback initiative to improve prescribing in nursing homes. This study sought to estimate the costs of ‘MyPractice’ and assess whether the financial benefit of ‘MyPractice’ offsets those costs. Methods W...
Article
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Using evidence from other successful childhood vaccination programs and from behavioural science, we identify four broad evidence-based strategies for increasing COVID-19 vaccination uptake in children and youth: 1) School-based vaccination, 2) Healthcare provider recommendation, 3) Reminders and recall systems, and 4) Public health communication c...
Technical Report
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Research Questions: 1) From a behavioural science perspective, what are the barriers and enablers to COVID-19 vaccination confidence and uptake voiced and experienced by people experiencing homelessness and precarious housing in Canada? 2) What strategies can and have been used to address identified barriers to vaccine confidence and uptake among p...
Technical Report
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Research Questions: 1) From a behavioural science perspective, what are the barriers and enablers to COVID-19 vaccination confidence and uptake voiced and experienced by Black communities in Canada and worldwide? 2) What strategies can and have been used to address identified barriers to vaccine confidence and uptake in Black communities in Canada?
Article
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Introduction: Optimal glycaemic control is often a challenge in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Implementation of patient, clinician or organisation-targeted quality improvement (QI) strategies has been proven to be beneficial in terms of improving glycaemic outcomes in adults living with diabetes. This review aims to assess th...
Article
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Importance: Antibiotic overuse contributes to adverse drug effects, increased costs, and antimicrobial resistance. Objective: To evaluate peer-comparison audit and feedback to high-prescribing primary care physicians (PCPs) and assess the effect of targeted messaging on avoiding unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions and avoiding long-duration pre...
Article
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Background: Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) are trials in which intact groups such as hemodialysis centers or shifts are randomized to treatment or control arms. Pragmatic CRTs have been promoted as a promising trial design for nephrology research yet may also pose ethical challenges. While randomization occurs at the cluster level, the intervent...
Article
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Background The Interrupted Time Series (ITS) is a quasi-experimental design commonly used in public health to evaluate the impact of interventions or exposures. Multiple statistical methods are available to analyse data from ITS studies, but no empirical investigation has examined how the different methods compare when applied to real-world dataset...
Article
Background Incorporating cluster randomized trials (CRTs) into meta-analyses is challenging because appropriate standard errors of study estimates accounting for clustering are not always reported. Systematic reviews of CRTs often use a single constant external estimate of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to adjust study estimate standa...
Article
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Background: Context is recognized as important to successful knowledge translation (KT) in health settings. What is meant by context, however, is poorly understood. The purpose of the current study was to elicit tacit knowledge about what is perceived to constitute context by conducting interviews with a variety of health system stakeholders inter...
Article
Background: Funded health research is being published in journals that many regard as “predatory”, deceptive, and non-credible. We do not currently know whether funders provide guidance on how to select a journal in which to publish funded health research. Methods: We identified the largest 46 philanthropic, public, development assistance, public-p...
Article
Background: Funded health research is being published in journals that many regard as "predatory", deceptive, and non-credible. We do not currently know whether funders provide guidance on how to select a journal in which to publish funded health research. Methods: We identified the largest 46 philanthropic, public, development assistance, public-p...
Article
Full-text available
Background Quality improvement (QI) evaluations rarely consider how a successful intervention can be sustained long term, nor how to spread or scale to other locations. A survey of authors of randomized trials of diabetes QI interventions included in an ongoing systematic review found that 78% of trials reported improved quality of care, but 40% of...
Article
Full-text available
The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, published in 2009, was designed to help systematic reviewers transparently report why the review was done, what the authors did, and what they found. Over the past decade, advances in systematic review methodology and terminology have necessitated an update t...
Article
Full-text available
The methods and results of systematic reviews should be reported in sufficient detail to allow users to assess the trustworthiness and applicability of the review findings. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was developed to facilitate transparent and complete reporting of systematic reviews an...
Article
Full-text available
The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, published in 2009, was designed to help systematic reviewers transparently report why the review was done, what the authors did, and what they found. Over the past decade, advances in systematic review methodology and terminology have necessitated an update t...
Conference Paper
Introduction Audit and Feedback (A&F) involves measuring data about practice, comparing it with clinical guidelines, professional standards or peer performance, and then feeding back the data to individuals/groups of health professionals to encourage change in practice (if required). A 2012 Cochrane review (1) found A&F was effective in changing he...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Challenges include the logistics of delivering the vaccine to this mobile and diverse group and improving vaccine confidence in the remaining 20%. These challenges can be overcome by allaying safety concerns and highlighting personal benefits; tailoring messages to factors associated with lower intention (e.g. age, gender, ethnicity and work settin...
Article
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Background The Campbell Collaboration undertakes systematic reviews of the effects of social and economic policies (interventions) to help policymakers, practitioners, and the public to make well‐informed decisions about policy interventions. In 2010, the Cochrane Collaboration and the Campbell Collaboration developed a voluntary co‐registration po...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to evaluate adherence to guideline-recommended cardiac secondary prevention therapies by immigration and ethnicity. METHODS We conducted a retrospective sub-study of the Interventions Supporting Long-Term Adherence and Decreasing Cardiovascular Events (ISLAND) randomized control trial. A cohort of 1,642 p...
Article
The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, published in 2009, was designed to help systematic reviewers transparently report why the review was done, what the authors did, and what they found. Over the past decade, advances in systematic review methodology and terminology have necessitated an update t...
Article
Full-text available
The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, published in 2009, was designed to help systematic reviewers transparently report why the review was done, what the authors did, and what they found. Over the past decade, advances in systematic review methodology and terminology have necessitated an update t...
Article
Full-text available
Background Decreasing ineffective or harmful healthcare practices (de-implementation) may require different approaches than those used to promote uptake of effective practices (implementation). Few psychological theories differentiate between processes involved in decreasing, versus increasing, behaviour. However, it is unknown whether implementati...
Article
Background: Funded health research is being published in journals that many regard as “predatory”, deceptive, and non-credible. We do not currently know whether funders provide guidance on how to select a journal in which to publish funded health research. Methods: We identified the largest 46 philanthropic, public, development assistance, public-p...
Article
Full-text available
Implementation science is the study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of evidence based interventions into practice and policy to improve health. Despite the need for high quality evidence from implementation research, randomised trials of implementation strategies often have serious limitations. These limitations include high risks of bi...
Article
Full-text available
Background Audit and feedback (A&F) interventions are one of the most common approaches for implementing evidence-based practices. A key barrier to more effective A&F interventions is the lack of a theory-guided approach to the accumulation of evidence. Recent interviews with theory experts identified 313 theory-informed hypotheses, spread across 3...