Jeremy W. Crampton

Jeremy W. Crampton
Newcastle University | NCL · School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape

Geography

About

107
Publications
56,522
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3,896
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Introduction
I joined the department of Geography at the University of Kentucky in 2011 where I am now Professor. I usually describe my interests as being at the intersection of critical approaches to mapping, Foucault, and geosurveillance and privacy. I'm also interested in Big Data and our algorithmic society, and the politics of affective Big Data.
Additional affiliations
July 2016 - present
University of Kentucky
Position
  • Professor
August 2011 - June 2016
University of Kentucky
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
August 2004 - June 2011
Georgia State University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (107)
Article
Full-text available
Spatial Big Data—be this natively geocoded content, geographical metadata, or data that itself refers to spaces and places—has become a pervasive presence in the spaces and practices of everyday life. Beyond preoccupations with “the geotag” and with mapping geocoded social media content, this special theme explores what it means to encounter and ex...
Article
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http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2500221 This paper is a case study of complications of Big Data. The case study draws from the US intelligence community (IC), but the issues are applicable on a wide scale to Big Data. There are two ways Big Data are making a big impact: a reconceptualization of (geo)privacy, and “algorithmic sec...
Article
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A troubling new political economy of geographical intelligence has emerged in the United States over the last two decades. The contours of this new political economy are difficult to identify due to official policies keeping much relevant information secret. The U.S. intelligence community increasingly relies on private corporations, working as contr...
Article
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This paper provides a brief introduction to critical cartography. We define critical cartography as a one-two punch of new mapping practices and theoretical critique. Critical cartography challenges academic cartography by linking geographic knowledge with power, and thus is political. Although contemporary critical cartography rose to prominence i...
Article
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At 11.35 am PDT on 18 September 2007 at Vandenberg Air Force base in California, DigitalGlobe’s new WorldView-1 satellite launched into orbit. The satellite is capable of collecting imagery over as much as three-quarters of a million square kilometers a day in resolution as fi ne as 0.5 m. A second satellite will be launched in 2008, capable of phot...
Article
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The spread of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in the most devastating global public health crisis in over a century. At present, over 7 million people from around the world have contracted the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), leading to more than 400,000 deaths globally. The global health crisis unleashed by the COVID-19 pandemi...
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In this article, we explore the nature, value, and challenges of dialogue both within and outside the academy. After considering the possibilities and limits to dialogue, we divide our analysis into three sections, first discussing dialogue as a form of embodied action, next examining dialogue as a means of enacting a critically affirmative politic...
Article
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The contributions to this forum have highlighted how the limits to scholarly dialogue are multiple and have had serious consequences for the ways in which knowledges are produced and debated in the academy, the media, and wider society. In this rejoinder to the commentaries on our article, ‘The Possibilities and Limits to Dialogue’, we embrace the...
Chapter
This article provides an introduction and overview of the societal impacts and ethics of GIS. The article is divided into three main parts. First, we provide a brief history of how ethics have been implemented and understood following World War II, and more specifically in GIS and digital mapping. We then examine ethics in two case studies: predict...
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This paper takes up the increasingly popular topic of drones – including unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS), remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), and a vast panoply of commercial drones and copters – to argue that our analysis should lie not so much on drones as objects, but as assemblages of the vertical. Drones, I a...
Chapter
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This is a working paper (really an early draft of part of a chapter).
Conference Paper
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Today, with the advent of spatial Big Data, we have an inverted situation. Instead of "who can tell me where I am," the condition now is "where can tell me who I am." Your geography drives your identity. This identity is constantly being formed by the spatial data you shed as you move or dwell in place, as you intersect and and interact with others...
Article
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During the Association of American Geographers meeting of 2014, we interviewed John Pickles to document his memories of J.B. Harley (1932–1991) and the time period of the early to mid-1990s when the subfield of GIS and Society took form, including the November 1993 meeting at Friday Harbor and the publication of the edited collection Ground Truth (...
Article
Drawing upon the personal reflections of geographical educators in Brazil, Canada, the UK, and the US, this Forum provides a state-of-the-discipline review of teaching in the history of geography; identifies the practical and pedagogical challenges associated with that teaching; and offers suggestions and provocations as to future innovation. The F...
Article
This paper takes up the increasingly popular topic of drones — including Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), small unmanned aerial Systems (sUAS), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) and a vast panoply of commercial drones and copters — to argue that our analysis should lie not so much on drones as objects, but as assemblages of the vertical. Drones, I ar...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Since September 11, 2001 the US has spent an estimated $7.6 trillion on homeland security, the military prosecution of foreign wars, and intelligence operations. Despite the significance of this huge sum, which is effectively directed at securing its territory, we have no sure way of answering the questions: “are we safer?” and “Can we sustain this...
Chapter
In this chapter we shall ask what it is that maps have a capacity to do.We shall see that the answer is a political one, understanding politics here to be the issue of deciding what is a problem and of deciding how to solve it. (Some authors call this ‘problematizing’ but I shall avoid that rather ugly word here.) In doing so, maps (and their creat...
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Full-text available
Article
During the AAG meetings of 2014, we interviewed John Pickles to document his memories of J.B. Harley (1932-1991) and the time period of the early-to-mid 1990s when the subfield of GIS and Society took form, including the November 1993 meetings at Friday Harbor and publication of the edited collection Ground Truth (Pickles 1995). What follows is a j...
Article
This paper is a case study of complications of Big Data. The case study draws from the US intelligence community (IC), but the issues are applicable on a wide scale to Big Data. There are two ways Big Data are making a big impact: a reconceptualization of (geo)privacy, and "algorithmic security." Geoprivacy is revealed as a geopolitical assemblage...
Article
Full-text available
In this response, the members of a professional development graduate seminar at the University of Ken-tucky reflect on key implications and questions which arose from our reading of the Kitchin et al. (2013) paper. We found the paper very relevant to our situation as potential entrants to the academic labor market, and to practices of knowledge pro...
Article
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This article presents an overview and initial results of a geoweb analysis designed to provide the foundation for a continued discussion of the potential impacts of ‘big data’ for the practice of critical human geography. While Haklay's (2012) observation that social media content is generated by a small number of ‘outliers’ is correct, we explore...
Article
The primary goal of this chapter is to sketch out in what way maps are political. It addresses the "cartographic revolution" that comprises much more than Wired magazine might expect in its focus on the technical aspects of Google Earth. That cartographic revolution incorporates yet extends beyond the changing technical nature of map production, to...
Chapter
This chapter offers a brief contextualization of the key terms space, territory, and geography. It examines some of Foucault's most well-known and overt engagements with geography including the heterotopia and spatial partitioning. The chapter explores how Foucault went beyond these concepts to more richly worked geographical analyses in three area...
Chapter
Foucault’s engagement with space, territory and geography occurs throughout his work and in many different registers. Some components of this engagement are well known, such as his early remarks on heterotopias (other spaces) and the panopticon, while others such as the concern with territory are less often recognized. In some cases material from F...
Article
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Writing in these pages over a decade ago, I suggested that there are " risks of security " (Crampton, 2002). What I meant by that was that security was not necessarily an unalloyed good, despite its prevalence in the aftermath of September 11, 2001. The title was a bit of a pun, of course, since security is by definition the management of risk. The...
Article
This paper presents an overview and initial results of geoweb analysis performed by our group as the foundation for a continued discussion of the potential impacts of "big" geodata for the practice of critical human geography. While Haklay’s (2012a) observation that social media content is generated by a tiny fraction of participants ("outliers") i...
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The unfurling of violent rhetoric and the show of force that has lead to the arrest, imprisonment, and impending extradition of WikiLeaks founder, Julian Assange, serve as an exemplary moment in demonstrating state-sanctioned violence. Since the cables began leaking in November 2010, the violent reaction to WikiLeaks evidenced by numerous political...
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Michel Foucault's work is rich with implications and insights concerning spatiality, and has inspired many geographers and social scientists to develop these ideas in their own research. This book, the first to engage Foucault's geographies in detail from a wide range of perspectives, is framed around his discussions with the French geography journ...
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IntroductionThe Article's InfluenceLegaciesFurther ReadingReferences
Article
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Two themes dominate this year’s report: calculation and territory. Both of these are larger issues than cartography itself, but cartography has been increasingly drawn into their ambit such that we might tentatively identify cartographic calculations of territory. Ranging across a wide set of problems including colonial, political and racial mappin...
Book
Mapping: A Critical Introduction to Cartography and GIS is an introduction to the critical issues surrounding mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) across a wide range of disciplines for the non-specialist reader. Examines the key influences Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and cartography have on the study of geography and other rel...
Chapter
IntroductionCritical Cartography and GIS: Some Basic Principles and Examples
Chapter
Introduction: The Story of the WhereThe Google Experience and the First MashupFree and Open Source Software (FOSS)Political ApplicationsProfessionals Versus the Amateurs: De-professionalization or Re-professionalization?“The Democratization of Cartography”Conclusion: Can Peasants Map?
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Science Fiction?Tensions in the Web: GIS vs. the GeowebSize Does Matter!Cybergeographies: The Work of Martin DodgeThe Digital Divide
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IntroductionChanging Conceptions of RaceRace-Based MappingThe Reinscription of Race?Some Remaining Questions for Geography and Race
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Fear of a BlackBerry PlanetForms and History of GeosurveillanceThe PanopticonSurveillance, Risk and the “Avalanche of Numbers”Geosurveillant Technologies and the Biopolitics of Fear“Map or Be Mapped”: Counter-Mapping, Spaces of Resistance, and the Ethics of Forgetting
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The Need for CritiqueThe Third Way?A Note on Terminology
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Psychogeography and Art-MachinesRecovering ArtConclusion
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Countable InformationArthur Robinson and the OSSFrom OSS to a Scientific Discipline of CartographyAnother Kind of Binary MappingThe Map Communication Model (MCM)The “Mangle” of Geographic Knowledge and Science
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The Necessity of QuestioningBeyond the Cartographic Anxiety – Thinking Out Space
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Undisciplining MappingWhat Is a Map? Why We Can't Define It and Why It Doesn't MatterThe Production of Space
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Truth and Power: Cartography as a Social PracticeThe Peters Map Controversy: Situated Knowledges and the Politics of TruthPreadamismJames Gall, Minister of the Church of ScotlandJames Gall, PreadamiteThe Peters MapHarley in Person
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The Political Economy of GovernmentFrom l'état, c'est moi to l'état, c'est l'étatThematic Maps and Governmentality: Introducing the Calculating Surveillant StateSummary
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The GIS WarsA Short History of the GIS WarsWhat Have We Learned: After CritiqueAfter Critique? Extending Possibilities for GIScience
Article
This report examines the ways in which mapping is performative, participatory and political. Performativity has received increasing attention from scholars, and cartography is no exception. Interest has shifted from the map as object to mapping as practice. Performativity is a cultural, social and political activity; maps as protest and commentary....
Chapter
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In 1938 two new terms entered the literature. Both were modern neologisms derived from Greek etymologies, and both were coined to describe geographic distributions. Both were proposed by senior and well-respected figures within their fields and both terms are still in popular usage today. Yet these terms indicate very different modes of thought con...
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Avi Bar-Zeev is a co-founder of Keyhole (http://www.keyholecorp.com/) - maker of EarthViewer, which later became Google Earth (http:// earth.google.com) - and an early employee of Intrinsic Graphics and a number of interesting start-ups. He developed technologies for Second Life, including the procedural 3D object rendering code. Early in his caree...
Chapter
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This chapter examines the role of geographic information technologies (GIT) in the production of the politics of fear. While technologies such as mapping and GIS appear to offer a fix or solution to problems of terrorism, crime, or disaster, they can contribute to the use of fear for political exploitation. What sustains this politics of fear? This...
Article
In this essay, I examine the changing dynamics of how maps and information are interlinked. I argue that for most of its history, mapping has been the practice of powerful elites-the sovereign map.1 Nation-states, governments, the wealthy, and the powerful all dominated the production of maps, and knowledge of the world emanated from the elites for...
Article
Biopolitical use of geosurveillance can create and sustain a politics of fear. Although the majority of surveillance literature focuses on individuals, in this article I focus on groups and populations, drawing on Michel Foucault's analysis of biopolitics. After discussing the forms and history of geosurveillance I argue that three particularly imp...
Article
Following the armistice of the First World War, the allied powers met in Paris in 1919 to establish a new political map for Europe and the former German colonies. This reterritorialization drew its rationale from cartographic calculations of borders and populations that depended on a process of assessing citizenship, racial identity and territory....
Article
As inherently spatial beings, our sense of space in cyberspace challenges all that is familiar in terms of our ability to define, organize, govern, and map social places. In The Political Mapping of Cyberspace, Jeremy Crampton shows that cyberspace is not the virtual reality we think it to be, but instead a rich geography of political practices and...
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This paper takes up the challenge of "reconstructing GIS" by examining GIS and governmental rationality. As an aspect of government, mapping is a vital source of geographic knowledge that informs political decision-making. Of particular importance to geographic governance and management are population distributions such as health, wealth, education...
Chapter
The digital divide is the gap between those who can effectively use informa¬tion and communication tools, such as the Internet, and those who cannot (Benton Foundation 2003). The drive for digital equity is inspired by the need to close this gap and to improve access for those who are “digitally divorced” or excluded.
Article
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This paper examines the prevalence of geosurveillance and cartographic rationality today by situating it in the age-old practice of governmental surveillance. I approach this question in a broadly Foucauldian historical framework. Foucault outlined a historical transition between a strictly disciplinary society that surveys and disciplines individu...
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This paper introduces and discusses types of interactivity that can be used in digital mapping environments. The interactivity types are placed in the framework of geographic visualization (GVis) in order to extend the GVis emphasis on exploratory, interactive and private functions of spatial displays. After defining interactivity in general, four...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the context in which mapping is practiced and thought about. I shall make several points. First, our present context is historical and arose from identifiable events that help shape the way mapping takes place today. But every context allows some possibilities and closes off others. Second, our curren...
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces and discusses types of interactivity that can be used in digital mapping environments. The interactivity types are placed in the framework of geographic visualization (GVis) in order to extend the GVis emphasis on exploratory, interactive and private functions of spatial displays. After defining interactivity in general, four...
Article
Full-text available
Two developments in cartography mark an epistemic break with the assumption that maps are unproblematic communication devices. These are 1) investigations of maps as practices of power-knowledge; and 2) 'geographic visualization' (GVis) which uses the map's power to explore, analyze and visualize spatial datasets to understand patterns better. Thes...
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User interfaces for geospatial information are the tools by which users interact with and explore that information. The provision of appropriate interface tools for exploiting the potential of contemporary geospatial visualization products is essential if they are to be used efficiently and effectively. This paper addresses issues and challenges in...
Article
My intent in this paper is to answer two questions: what were the principal events in the development of distributed mapping, and how should a narrative of its development be written? Distributed mapping is a mode of cartography arising from the convergence of the World Wide Web, GIS, and digital cartography. It marks a significant break with tradi...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the emerging area of maps and online mapping capabilities via the World Wide Web. As several other contributors to this book point out (for example, Krygier, Taylor) the most important aspect of contemporary cartography is not the technology per se, but rather how it impacts what kinds of questions and answers we come up with...
Article
This paper describes the rationale and structure of an innovative distributed learning environment in geography. In response to declining resources available to local academic units or departments and low availability of instructors, a regional geography class on Africa was delivered in a 'distributed' manner. Three Northern Virginia universities w...
Article
This paper begins by first giving a critique of the conflict in Bosnia from a geographical and cartographic perspective; and in particular how plans to address and solve the crisis have revolved around the cartographic delineation of territory. This is in effect a process of ‘bordering’ on Bosnia. What are the consequences of using maps to partitio...
Article
This paper provides an overview of recent developments on the World Wide Web from a cartographer's perspective. The first section briefly describes how the Web came to be and discusses the conceptual models that control the Web's functionality. The second section of the paper is an overview of a variety of cartographic Web resources (ranging from f...
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There has so far been little discussion of the ethics of geographic information systems (GIS), yet they are complex and driven by conflicting goals. This paper argues for an ethical analysis of GIS which goes beyond “intemalist” judgements of good behavior and adherence to accuracy standards to a contextualized “extemalist” one. Only when spatial t...
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This paper documents a famous cartographic controversy played out in the cartographic literature for more than 15 yr. In 1974, a German historian, Arno Peters, introduced what he called The Peters Projection to the cartographic community. It was immediately and roundly condemned as being a copy of one by James Gall, a nineteenth-century evangelist....
Article
Taylor (1991) raises many timely issues and contributes to an ongoing debate about cartography's future developments in response to exciting new technologies. In reply, I place Taylor's comments in a wider context, to understand that technological developments are not simply neutral tools for cartographers to use, but arise because of understandabl...

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