Jeremy D.W. Clifton

Jeremy D.W. Clifton
University of Pennsylvania | UP · Department of Psychology

PhD
I study primal world beliefs, wellbeing, and measurement.

About

25
Publications
36,540
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109
Citations
Introduction
I study primal world beliefs and a bit of wellbeing and measurement.

Publications

Publications (25)
Article
Full-text available
Beck’s insight—that beliefs about one’s self, future, and environment shape behavior—transformed depression treatment. Yet environment beliefs remain relatively understudied. We introduce a set of environment beliefs— primal world beliefs or primals —that concern the world’s overall character (e.g., the world is interesting, the world is dangerous...
Article
Full-text available
Scale builders strive to maximize dual priorities: validity and reliability. While the literature is full of tips for increasing one, the other, or both simultaneously, how to navigate tensions between them is less clear. Confusion shrouds the nature, prevalence, and practical implications of trade-offs between validity and reliability-formerly cal...
Article
Full-text available
How we perceive our surrounding world impacts how we live in and react to it. In this study, we propose LaBel (Latent Beliefs Model), an alternative to topic modeling that uncovers latent semantic dimensions from transformer-based embeddings and enables their representation as generated phrases rather than word lists. We use LaBel to explore the ma...
Article
Full-text available
Primal world beliefs (‘primals’) are beliefs about the world’s basic character, such as the world is dangerous. This article investigates probabilistic assumptions about the value of negative primals (e.g., seeing the world as dangerous keeps me safe). We first show such assumptions are common. For example, among 185 parents, 53% preferred dangerou...
Article
Full-text available
Primal world beliefs ("primals") are beliefs about the basic character of the world (e.g., "the world is an abundant place"). The first effort to empirically map primals identified over two dozen such beliefs. The four highest-order beliefs--the overall belief that the world is Good (vs. bad), followed by Good's three dimensions of Safe (vs. danger...
Method
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The purpose of this document is to equip researchers of any methodological background to confidently measure primals for research purposes using any of the three versions of the Primals Inventory: the 6-item Primals Inventory (PI-6) that measures overall Good world belief, the PI-18 that measures Good, Safe, Enticing, and Alive; and the PI-99 that...
Preprint
Full-text available
Primal world beliefs (‘primals’) are beliefs about the general character of the world as a whole (e.g., ‘the world is an abundant place’). The first effort to empirically map major primals identified over two dozen such beliefs. The four highest order beliefs––the overall belief that the world is Good (vs. bad), followed by Good’s three dimensions...
Preprint
Despite sophisticated scale-generic guidance for adapting/translating self-report scales and widespread adherence to guidance, low invariance remains a problem in cross-cultural clinical research. This may be due to scale-specific translation challenges, and original scale-creation papers provide little information about item-writing choices. It is...
Preprint
Full-text available
Primal world beliefs (‘primals’) are beliefs about the world’s basic character, such as the world is dangerous. This article investigates probabilistic assumptions about the value of negative primals. We first show that such assumptions are common. For example, among 185 parents, 53% preferred very dangerous to slightly dangerous world beliefs for...
Preprint
Researchers have begun to explore a category of beliefs called primals which concern the basic character of the world as a whole. After discussing primals' general significance, this chapter recommends the Primals Inventory (PI-99) to those seeking to measure them. The PI-99 was created by the first effort to empirically map all major primals indiv...
Thesis
Full-text available
If behavior is influenced by the perceived character of situations, many disciplines that study behavior may eventually need to take into account individual differences in the perceived character of the world. In the first effort to empirically map these perceptions, subjects varied on 26 dimensions, called primal world beliefs or primals, such as...
Article
Full-text available
Nonpharmacological approaches to chronic pain are being increasingly sought out by therapists and health-care providers. Cognitive approaches to reduce pain catastrophizing have shown some efficacy; however, interventions used to increase well-being have not been investigated. In this study, we examined a strengths-based approach to reduce chronic...
Article
Full-text available
Primal world beliefs–or primals–are a category of beliefs about the overall character of the world that inform individual differences in cognition, affect, and behavior. In a recent comprehensive effort, Clifton et al. (2019) cataloged 26 pervasive primals and developed the Primals Inventory (PI-99) to measure them. In this study (N = 592), we desc...
Article
Full-text available
Primal world beliefs are a recently-identified set of basic perceptions about the general character of reality (e.g. the world is boring) thought to have many psychological implications. This article explores implications relevant to wellbeing and positive intervention research. After summarizing the supposed general function of primal world belief...
Article
Full-text available
Do negative primal world beliefs reflect experiences such as trauma, crime, or low socio-economic status? Clifton and colleagues recently suggested that primals—defined as beliefs about the general character of the world as a whole, such as the belief that the world is safe (vs. dangerous) and abundant (vs. barren)—may shape many of the most-studie...
Article
Full-text available
Neighborhood decline and the resulting erosion of the urban housing stock in the U.S. are typically viewed as products of forces beyond the control of cities. Yet if urban neighborhoods have the characteristics of a commons, homeowners and landlords may adopt strategic behaviors that lead to a cycle of disinvestment in the housing stock, followed b...

Questions

Question (1)
Question
I've often used subjective wellbeing (life satisfaction plus positive affect minus negative affect) or the PERMA profiler, but I have issues with both of these, and they are quite lengthy.

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Projects

Project (1)
Project
Foster research on primal world beliefs, exploring connections to wellbeing-related and personality-related variables.