Jeremy Paul Burton

Jeremy Paul Burton
The University of Western Ontario | UWO · Department of Microbiology and Immunology

PhD (Otago)

About

195
Publications
58,435
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
7,205
Citations
Introduction
Its all about the bugs (bacteria). Those that live in/on us and the ones which we come into contact with in the environment.
Additional affiliations
January 2013 - present
The University of Western Ontario
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
January 2013 - present
The University of Western Ontario
Position
  • Professor
January 2007 - September 2011
Blis Technologies
Blis Technologies
Position
  • Business Development Manager
Education
January 2006 - August 2009
University of Otago
Field of study
  • Business
January 2001 - January 2003
The University of Western Ontario
Field of study
  • Microbiology
January 1997 - September 2000
University of Otago
Field of study
  • Microbiology

Publications

Publications (195)
Article
Full-text available
Orthodontic patients are at a significant risk for oral diseases due to increased plaque accumulation and oral bacterial dysbiosis. We aimed to determine the efficacy of the commercially available Lorodent Probiotic Complex at reducing plaque accumulation and Streptococcus mutans bacterial levels in adolescent orthodontic patients. Sixty adolescent...
Article
Full-text available
Background Patients with MS have an altered gut microbiota compared to healthy individuals, as well as elevated small intestinal permeability, which may be contributing to the development and progression of the disease. Objective We sought to investigate if fecal microbiota transplantation was safe and tolerable in MS patients and if it could impr...
Article
The development of probiotics targeting non-intestinal body sites continues to generate interest amongst researchers, biotech companies and consumers alike. A key consideration for any bacterial strain to be developed into a probiotic is a robust assessment of its safety profile. Streptococcus salivarius strain M18 was originally isolated from a he...
Article
Full-text available
The presence of Bifidobacterium species in the maternal vaginal and fecal microbiota is arguably an evolutionary trait that allows these organisms to be primary colonizers of the newborn intestinal tract. Their ability to utilize human milk oligosaccharides fosters their establishment as core health-promoting organisms throughout life. A reduction...
Article
Objective: Kidney stones are a common medical condition that is increasing in prevalence worldwide. Approximately, ∼80% of urinary calculi are composed of calcium oxalate (CaOx). There is a growing interest toward identifying therapeutic compounds that can inhibit the formation of CaOx crystals. However, some chemicals (e.g., antibiotics and bacte...
Article
Full-text available
The conventional viewpoint of single-celled microbial metabolism fails to adequately depict energy flow at the systems level in host-adapted microbial communities. Emerging paradigms instead support that distinct microbiomes develop interconnected and interdependent electron transport chains that rely on cooperative production and sharing of bioene...
Article
Full-text available
Vaginal malodour is a sign of dysbiosis. The biogenic amines (BAs) cadaverine, putrescine and tyramine are known to be causative compounds. Recent reports suggest these compounds produced by pathogens might have a role beyond causing malodour; namely inhibiting the growth of lactobacilli bacteria that are crucial in the maintenance of vaginal homeo...
Article
Full-text available
16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from clinically uninfected hip and knee implant samples has revealed polymicrobial populations. However, previous studies assessed 16S rRNA gene sequencing as a technique for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infections, leaving the microbiota of presumed aseptic hip and knee implants largely unstudied....
Article
Full-text available
Lactobacillus crispatus is the dominant species in the vagina of many women. With the potential for strains of this species to be used as a probiotic to help prevent and treat dysbiosis, we investigated isolates from vaginal swabs with Lactobacillus-dominated and a dysbiotic microbiota. A comparative genome analysis led to the identification of met...
Article
Full-text available
The concerns over honey bee health and colony collapse have led to an increased interest in the potential for beneficial bacteria as an intervention. However, the efficacy of this approach is mostly unknown because the application of bacterial adjuncts to hives has not often proceeded by understanding the strains being applied or how they function....
Article
Full-text available
Ureteral stents are commonly used medical devices that harbor a unique and patient-specific microbial community. This protocol describes an optimized procedure for high-quality DNA extraction from both urine and ureteral stent samples for the purpose of downstream microbiota characterization by amplicon sequencing. Detailed instruction is provided...
Article
Full-text available
Background Periodontal disease represents a major health concern. The administration of beneficial microbes has been increasing in popularity over efforts to manipulate the microbes using antimicrobial agents. This study determined the ability of Streptococcus salivarius to inhibit IL-6 and IL-8 production by gingival fibroblasts when activated by...
Chapter
Cancers of the urinary system are likely to be influenced by both the urinary and gut microbiotas. While commensal organisms do not densely colonize the urinary system, those present still play a significant role in health and disease. Like other organs, there is always a potential for malignancy to occur when microorganisms cause chronic inflammat...
Article
Full-text available
This perspective looks at how social media has become even more critical since the pandemic and provides tips on how to market research outputs from a trainee viewpoint better.
Article
Full-text available
Pancreatic cancer has a high mortality rate, and its incidence is increasing worldwide. The almost universal poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer is partly due to symptoms presenting only at late stages and limited effective treatments. Recently, immune checkpoint blockade inhibitors have drastically improved patient survival in metastatic and advan...
Article
Full-text available
The popularity of using probiotics has surged, since they became widely accepted as safe and help improve general health. Inevitably, some of these products are used after expiration when microbial cell viability is below the recommended effective dose. Given that probiotics must be live microorganisms administered in adequate amounts, the aim of t...
Article
Full-text available
The administration of antibiotics while critical for treatment, can be accompanied by potentially severe complications. These include toxicities associated with the drugs themselves, the selection of resistant organisms and depletion of endogenous host microbiota. In addition, antibiotics may be associated with less well-recognized complications ar...
Article
The incidence of nephrolithiasis is increasing worldwide. Understanding how gut microbiome influences oxalate homeostasis has the potential to offer new strategies to prevent nephrolithiasis. The literature was reviewed to gather the evidence on the association between gut microbiome, hyperoxaluria and nephrolithiasis, and to identify the therapeut...
Article
Full-text available
Widespread antibiotic usage in apiculture contributes substantially to the global dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and has the potential to negatively influence bacterial symbionts of honey bees (Apis mellifera). Here, we show that routine antibiotic administration with oxytetracycline selectively increased tetB (efflux pump resistance gen...
Article
Full-text available
Abiraterone acetate (AA) is an inhibitor of androgen biosynthesis, though this cannot fully explain its efficacy against androgen-independent prostate cancer. Here, we demonstrate that androgen deprivation therapy depletes androgen-utilizing Corynebacterium spp. in pros-tate cancer patients and that oral AA further enriches for the health-associate...
Article
Full-text available
Ureteral stents are commonly used to prevent urinary obstruction but can become colonized by bacteria and encrusted, leading to clinical complications. Despite recent discovery and characterization of the healthy urinary microbiota, stent-associated bacteria and their impact on encrustation are largely underexplored. We profile the microbiota of pa...
Article
Full-text available
Kidney stone disease is a morbid condition that is increasing in prevalence, with few nonsurgical treatment options. The majority of stones are composed of calcium oxalate. Unlike humans, some microbes can break down oxalate, suggesting that microbial therapeutics may provide a novel treatment for kidney stone patients. This study demonstrated that...
Article
Introduction and Objective: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections are a major cause of patient morbidity and mortality. Despite many attempts to design biomaterials that might reduce the risk, none has had a profound impact on reducing the incidence of this most common nosocomial infection. Recent in vitro work, however, has shown promise fo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The popularity of using probiotics has surged, since they became widely accepted as safe and help improve general health. Inevitably, some of these products are used after expiration when microbial cell viability is below the recommended effective dose. Given that probiotics are live microorganisms administered in adequate amounts, the...
Article
Introduction: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an obesity-related disorder that is rapidly increasing in incidence and is considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The gut microbiome plays a role in metabolism and maintaining gut barrier integrity. Studies have found differences in the microbiota between NAFLD and...
Article
Full-text available
Background Checkpoint inhibitors have changed the outcomes for patients with advanced melanoma. However, many patients still show primary resistance to single-agent therapy. Recently, the role of the gut microbiome in influencing antitumor immunity has been established. Currently, various methods of modifying the gut microbiome of cancer patients a...
Article
Full-text available
Fermentation has been applied to a multitude of food types for preservation and product enhancing characteristics. Interest in the microbiome and healthy foods makes it important to understand the microbial processes involved in fermentation. This is particularly the case for products such as fermented cashew (Anacardium occidentale). We hereby des...
Article
Full-text available
Sublethal exposure to certain pesticides (e.g., neonicotinoid insecticides) is suspected to contribute to honey bee ( Apis mellifera ) population decline in North America. Neonicotinoids are known to interfere with immune pathways in the gut of insects, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We used a Drosophila melanogaster model to underst...
Article
Full-text available
American foulbrood (AFB) is a highly virulent disease afflicting honey bees (Apis mellifera). The causative organism, Paenibacillus larvae, attacks honey bee brood and renders entire hives dysfunctional during active disease states, but more commonly resides in hives asymptomatically as inactive spores that elude even vigilant beekeepers. The mecha...
Article
Full-text available
Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) and overactive bladder (OAB) can both potentially be influenced by commensal and urinary tract infection-associated bacteria. The sensing of bladder filling involves interplay between various components of the nervous system, eventually resulting in contraction of the detrusor muscle during micturition. This study...
Article
The high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) among women and children, in combination with a lack of antibiotic efficacy with regard to pathogen eradication and recurrence prevention, as well as the negative side effects associated with antibiotics, has led researchers to explore the role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as a primary...
Chapter
Recurrent kidney stone disease caused by calcium oxalate stone formation is a significant problem in clinical urology. While traditional surgical techniques are successful at removing stones once formed, there is no effective treatment that prevents the stones from recurring. As more studies suggest that these diseases can be driven by the hosts’ m...
Article
Introduction and Objective: Urinary catheters and stents are frequently prone to catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) through biofilm formation. Several strategies have been evaluated in search of a stent coating to reliably prevent adherence of bacteria and biofilm. Previous in vivo and in vitro research with methoxylated polyethyl...
Article
Full-text available
Objective In this consensus statement, an international panel of experts deliver their opinions on key questions regarding the contribution of the human microbiome to carcinogenesis. Design International experts in oncology and/or microbiome research were approached by personal communication to form a panel. A structured, iterative, methodology ba...
Article
Full-text available
There is evidence that the urinary microbiome influences the development of genitourinary malignancies, including bladder, kidney, and prostate cancers. Furthermore, the gastrointestinal microbiota may also influence genitourinary cancer development and/or treatment response via effects on drug metabolism and systemic immunity.
Preprint
Full-text available
Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI), the result of conditions such as overactive bladder (OAB), could potentially be influenced by both commensal and urinary tract infection-associated bacteria. The sensing of bladder filling involves interplay between various parts of the nervous system eventually resulting in contraction of the detrusor muscle dur...
Preprint
Nonrenal clearance pathways such as drug metabolism are decreased in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although the mechanism remains elusive, uremic toxin retention and an altered gut microbiota are suspected to influence cytochrome P450s (CYPs) contributing to the unpredictable pharmacokinetics in patients with CKD. We characterized dysbiosis and ure...
Article
Full-text available
Heavy metals are highly toxic elements that contaminate the global food supply and affect human and wildlife health. Purification technologies are often too expensive or not practically applicable for large-scale implementation, especially in impoverished nations where heavy metal contamination is widespread. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (LGR-1) wa...
Article
Full-text available
Precision medicine now needs to also consider the microbiome in oncology treatment. Ingested substances, whether they are a carcinogenic or therapeutic agent, will likely come into contact with the microbiota. Even those delivered extra-intestinally can be influenced beyond xenobiotic metabolism by biochemical factors associated with the microbiota...
Article
Aim: Enterococcus faecalis is one of the most common causes of recurrent urinary tract infection (RUTI), yet enterococcal pathogenesis is poorly understood. Our aims were to identify the prevalence of enterococci in RUTI patients and characterize the enterococcal response to nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Materials & methods:...
Article
Full-text available
Kidney stone disease involves the aggregation of stone-forming salts consequent to solute supersaturation in urine. The development of novel therapeutic agents for this predominantly metabolic and biochemical disorder have been hampered by the lack of a practical pre-clinical model amenable to drug screening. Here, Drosophila melanogaster, an emerg...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Inflatable penile prosthetic (IPP) infections are unusual but carry high patient morbidity and healthcare costs. Aim: To increase the bactericidal effect of IPP tubing material to prevent future bacterial infections and to determine whether this effect is time-dependent. Methods: A modified disk diffusion assay was developed to mea...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to detect microbial genome sequences (microbiomes) within tissues once thought to be sterile. We used this approach to gain insights into the likely sources of Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) infections within the shoulder. Methods: Tissue samples we...
Article
Objectives: To assess the effects of slow-releasing H2S donor GYY4137 on post-obstructive renal function and injury following unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) by using the UUO and reimplantation (UUO-R) model in rats and to elucidate potential mechanisms by using an in vitro model of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Methods: Male Le...
Chapter
The uncovering of microbes throughout the human body has changed the way health and disease is viewed. The fact that a urinary tract microbiome exists, irrespective of symptomatology, raises questions on what the microbes are doing. The microbial profile-associated bladder cancer compared to healthy controls suggests the organisms may contribute to...