Jeremy Austin

Jeremy Austin
University of Adelaide · Australian Centre for Ancient DNA (ACAD)

PhD, Uni of Tasmania

About

243
Publications
60,208
Reads
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6,822
Citations
Citations since 2016
73 Research Items
3617 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
Introduction
Jeremy Austin currently works at the Australian Centre for Ancient DNA (ACAD), University of Adelaide. Jeremy does research in Evolutionary Biology, Genetics and Systematics and Forensic Biology.
Additional affiliations
January 2005 - December 2011
University of Adelaide
April 2003 - April 2005
Museum Victoria
Position
  • Research Associate
September 1995 - May 2000
Natural History Museum, London
Education
March 2001 - September 2004
University of Tasmania
Field of study
  • Evolutionary biology
February 1987 - December 2000
University of Tasmania
Field of study
  • Science

Publications

Publications (243)
Chapter
Rapa Nui is one of the smallest, most remote, and isolated landmasses in the world to have already been settled when European explorers arrived in the eighteenth century. The first people to arrive on Rapa Nui were Polynesians thought to have island-hopped from east Asia (mitochondrial origin in southern China, Ko et al. 2014; Bellwood et al. 2017;...
Preprint
Environmental biosecurity risks associated with the Illegal Wildlife Trade (IWT) include the loss of biodiversity, threats to public health, and the proliferation of invasive alien species. To assist enforcement agencies in identifying trafficked species, rapid forensic techniques enable the detection of trace Environmental DNA (eDNA) where physica...
Article
The Malleefowl (Leipoa ocellata) is a threatened megapode bird that persists on the Eyre Peninsula of South Australia—an area that has undergone substantial clearance of native vegetation over the past 200 years. Habitat loss and fragmentation can negatively affect long-term conservation status by creating small and isolated subpopulations that lea...
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An essential element of compliance with ethical standards in scientific research is the reporting of a verifiable declaration of ethical approval and, when human subjects are involved - informed consent, in published works. The level of reporting of ethical permission for research published in forensic and investigative sciences journals has not be...
Article
Within-species morphological variation is often observed across spatial and climatic gradients. Understanding this variation is important to conservation planning, as specialised adaptations may influence a population’s persistence following translocation. However, knowing whether local adaptations are prevalent within a species can be challenging...
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Massively parallel sequencing following hybridisation enrichment provides new opportunities to obtain genetic data for various types of forensic testing and has proven successful on modern as well as degraded and ancient DNA. A customisable forensic intelligence panel that targeted 124 SNP markers (67 ancestry informative markers, 23 phenotype mark...
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Pathways to extinction start long before the death of the last individual. However, causes of early stage population declines and the susceptibility of small residual populations to extirpation are typically studied in isolation. Using validated process-explicit models, we disentangle the ecological mechanisms and threats that were integral in the...
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The cover image is based on the Letter Process‐explicit models reveal pathway to extinction for woolly mammoth using pattern‐oriented validation by Damien A. Fordham et al., https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.13911. Image Credit: Mauricio Anton.
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A previous study evaluating two swabbing systems found that DNA was best recovered from sterile metal substrates using an Isohelix™ swab wetted with isopropyl alcohol rather than a Rayon swab with water as the wetting agent. We tested the same swabbing systems on metal (aluminum, brass, and stainless steel) and plastic substrates in a regularly tou...
Article
Purpose The Illegal Wildlife Trade (IWT), aided by improved global transport, and the expansion of the internet, has facilitated the international demand for exotic reptiles. The risks associated with trafficking of live reptiles requires robust forensic techniques for detecting housed or transported animals. Detection of species of high IWT demand...
Article
Museum specimens of endangered species are important to determine pre-decline population structure and to characterise loss of diversity in surviving populations. Kākāpō (Strigops habroptilus), the critically endangered New Zealand ground parrot, suffered massive population declines in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries resulting in a genetic b...
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This study presents a novel tool to predict temperature-exposure of incinerated pig teeth as a proxy for understanding impacts of fire on human teeth. Previous studies on the estimation of temperature-exposure of skeletal elements have been limited to that of heat-exposed bone. This predictive tool was developed using a multinomial regression model...
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Conservation genomics research often relies on accurate sex information to make inferences about species demography, dispersal, and population structure. However, field determined sex data are not always available and can be subject to human error, while laboratory sex assignment methods such as PCR assays can often be costly and challenging for no...
Article
The common method of preparing teeth prior to DNA extraction involves cleaning, decontamination, drying and pulverisation. Moisture in post-mortem teeth can promote bacterial growth and hydrolytic damage that could contribute to DNA degradation, whilst also possibly reducing the efficiency of sample pulverisation and DNA release. Here we compared D...
Article
Dispersal behaviour and sociality are significant factors influencing survival at both the individual and population levels. In translocation and breeding programmes, social structure and sex‐biased philopatry and dispersal should be considered in order to maximise population viability and conservation outcomes. Here, we use the greater stick‐nest...
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Conservation genetics has informed threatened species management for several decades. With the advent of advanced DNA sequencing technologies in recent years, it is now possible to monitor and manage threatened populations with even greater precision. Climate change presents a number of threats and challenges, but new genomics data and analytical a...
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Purpose We investigated the recovery and extraction efficiency of DNA from three metal surfaces (brass, copper, steel) relevant to forensic casework, and plastic (control) using two different swabbing systems; Rayon and Isohelix™ swabs, with sterile water and isopropyl alcohol respectively, as the wetting solutions. Methods Twenty nanograms of huma...
Preprint
Full-text available
Processes leading to the megafauna extinctions of the late Pleistocene and early-Holocene are uncertain, with intense debate on the roles of human hunting and climatic change. Using process-explicit simulations of climate-human-woolly mammoth interactions, which integrate spatiotemporal evidence from fossils and ancient DNA, we show that humans acc...
Article
The critically endangered northern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus krefftii) currently exists at only two locations in Queensland. Management, research and monitoring of the species at the main Epping Forest National Park (Scientific) population has occurred over the last four decades using a variety of tools, with the most complete dataset being p...
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Translocation is an increasingly common component of species conservation efforts. However, translocated populations often suffer from loss of genetic diversity and increased inbreeding, and thus may require active management to establish gene flow across isolated populations. Assisted gene flow can be laborious and costly, so recipient and source...
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Natural history collections provide a critical temporal view of past biodiversity and are instrumental in the study of extinct populations. However, the value of historical specimens relies on correct species identification, collection date and collection locality. The Australian National Maritime Museum (ANMM) holds an unusual artifact – an electr...
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The largest anthropogenic extinction events during the Holocene occurred on Pacific islands, where thousands of bird populations were lost. Although ancient DNA approaches have become widely used to monitor the genetic variability of species through time, few studies have been conducted to identify the potential cryptic loss of genetic and species...
Preprint
Heat alters colour and crystallinity of teeth by destruction of the organic content and inducing hydroxyapatite crystal growth. The colour and crystallite changes can be quantified using spectrophotometric and x-ray diffraction analyses, however these analyses are not commonly used in combination to evaluate burned dental remains. In this study, th...
Article
Heat alters colour and crystallinity of teeth by destruction of the organic content and inducing hydroxyapatite crystal growth. The colour and crystallite changes can be quantified using spectrophotometric and x-ray diffraction analyses, however these analyses are not commonly used in combination to evaluate burned dental remains. In this study, th...
Article
Pacific robins exhibit one of the most complex range‐wide mosaics of sexual dichromatism and monochromatism. The evolutionary origins of this geographic mosaic remain poorly understood despite long‐standing interest from ornithologists, and its influential role in the development of Ernst Mayr's theories on speciation and the Biological Species Con...
Article
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Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) from the Americas have long been recognized as descendants of European chickens, transported by early Europeans since the fifteenth century. However, in recent years, a possible pre-Columbian introduction of chickens to South America by Polynesian seafarers has also been suggested. Here, we characterize the mitoc...
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Trace evidence such as touch (also known as contact) DNA has probative value as a vital forensic investigative tool that can lead to the identification and apprehension of a criminal. While the volume of touch DNA evidence items submitted to forensic laboratories has significantly increased, recovery and amplification of DNA from these items, espec...
Article
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Forensic mitochondrial DNA analysis of degraded human remains using PCR-based Sanger sequencing of the control region can be challenging when endogenous DNA is highly fragmented, damaged and at very low concentration. Hybridization enrichment coupled with massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers an effective alternative for recovering DNA fragmen...
Article
Unsolved crimes add significant financial, legal and social costs to the community. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop robust solutions to deal with this growing issue. Soil forensic analysis is an emerging cross-disciplinary science that can deliver powerful physical evidence with significant benefits to criminal, counter-terrorism and...
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Hybridization capture with in-solution oligonucleotide probes has quickly become the preferred method for enriching specific DNA loci from degraded or ancient samples prior to high-throughput sequencing (HTS). Several companies synthesize sets of probes for in-solution hybridization capture, but these commercial reagents are usually expensive. Meth...
Data
Mapping statistics of complete sequencing data. (DOCX)
Data
Additional sample information. (DOCX)
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Declines in population size can compromise the viability of populations by reducing the effective population size (Ne), which may result in loss of genetic diversity and inbreeding. Temporal population genetic data can be a powerful tool for testing the presence and severity of reductions in Ne. The Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae) is a flagship...
Article
Australia's iconic emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae novaehollandiae) is the only living representative of its genus, but fossil evidence and reports from early European explorers suggest that three island forms (at least two of which were dwarfs) became extinct during the nineteenth century. While one of these-the King Island emu-has been found to be...
Article
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Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can provide a means for forensic identity testing when genotyping of nuclear DNA (nuDNA) targets is not possible due to degradation or lack of template. For degraded samples, an indication of the quantity and quality of mtDNA is essential to allow selection of appropriately sized targets for hypervariable region (HVR) anal...
Article
Reintroduction programs aim to restore self-sustaining populations of threatened species to their historic range. However, demographic restoration may not reflect genetic restoration, which is necessary for the long-term persistence of populations. Four threatened Australian mammals, the greater stick-nest rat (Leporillus conditor), greater bilby (...
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Increasing evidence suggests foraging segregation as a key mechanism promoting genetic divergence within seabird species. However, testing for a relationship between population genetic structure and foraging movements among seabird colonies can be challenging. Telemetry studies suggest that Flesh-footed Shearwater Ardenna carneipes that breed at Lo...
Article
Short Tandem Repeat (STR) genotyping is currently the primary DNA-based method for human identification, however it can have limited success when applied to degraded human remains. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) provides new opportunities to obtain genetic data for hundreds of loci in a single assay with higher success from degraded samples. H...
Article
Aim The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), currently restricted to the island of Tasmania, was found over most of the Australian mainland prior to its extinction ~3,000 years ago. Recent debate has focused on the roles of humans, climate change and dingoes as drivers of the mainland extinction. Determining past genetic diversity and population...
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The last large marsupial carnivores-the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilis harrisii) and thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus)-went extinct on mainland Australia during the mid-Holocene. Based on the youngest fossil dates (approx. 3500 years before present, BP), these extinctions are often considered synchronous and driven by a common cause. However, many...
Article
The Tasmanian tiger, or thylacine, is an infamous example of a recent human-mediated extinction. Confined to the island of Tasmania in historical times, thylacines were hunted to extinction <150 years after European arrival. Thylacines were also once widespread across the Australian mainland, but became extinct there c. 3,200 years before present (...
Article
The Western Whipbird (Psophodes nigrogularis) has a highly disjunct west–east distribution across southern Australia. Earlier morphological analyses recognised four subspecies in one species: P. n. nigrogularis and P. n. oberon in south-west Western Australia, and P. n. leucogaster of the Eyre and Yorke Peninsulas and the Murray Mallee, and P. n. l...
Article
The nocturnal, cryptic and geographically remote nature of night parrots, combined with their apparent rapid decline, means that very little is known of their biology or ecology. The discovery of a resident population in south-western Queensland in 2013 provides the first opportunity to undertake detailed studies on this most enigmatic of birds. We...
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Today, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is found only on the island of Tasmania, despite once being widespread across mainland Australia. While the devil is thought to have become extinct on the mainland approximately 3000 years ago, three specimens were collected in Victoria (south-eastern Australia) between 1912 and 1991, raising the po...
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A population of Night Parrots (Pezoporus occidentalis) was discovered in 2013 in western Queensland and has become the primary focus of efforts aimed at conserving habitat and protecting the species from extinction. Critical information on nesting habitat and location, breeding season and behaviour, clutch size and breeding success is currently lim...
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The colonization of Madagascar by Austronesian-speaking people during AD 50–500 represents the most westerly point of the greatest diaspora in prehistory. A range of economically important plants and animals may have accompanied the Austronesians. Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus) are found in Madagascar, but it is unclear how they arrived there. D...
Data
ESM Table 2. Genetic diversity measures for each chicken population from Indonesia, South Asia, Continental Africa, and Madagascar.
Data
ESM Figure 1. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) via covariance matrix of pairwise genetic distances of D haplotypes observed in Africa (blue), South Asia (brown), Indonesia (green), and Madagascar (purple).
Data
ESM Figure 2. Median-joining network depicting the relationship of the E haplotypes observed in East Africa and Madagascar (blue), South Asia (black) and Indonesia (green).
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Knowledge of the dispersal capacity of species is crucial to assess their extinction risk, and to establish appropriate monitoring and management strategies. The Providence petrel (Pterodroma solandri) presently breeds only at Lord Howe Island (~32,000 breeding pairs) and Phillip Island-7 km south of Norfolk Island (~20 breeding pairs). A much larg...
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Knowledge of dispersal in a species, both its quantity and the factors influencing it, are crucial for our understanding of ecology and evolution, and for species conservation. Here we quantified and formally assessed the potential contribution of extrinsic factors on individual dispersal in the threatened Tasmanian population of wedge-tailed eagle...
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The three surviving ‘brush-tailed’ bettong species—Bettongia gaimardi (Tasmania), B. tropica (Queensland) and B. penicillata (Western Australia), are all classified as threatened or endangered. These macropodids are prolific diggers and are recognised as important ‘ecosystem engineers’ that improve soil quality and increase seed germination success...
Article
Conventional thinking for many years held that the holotype of the Galah Eolophus roseicapilla, obtained in 1801 by the Baudin Expedition from France, was from south-eastern Australia. This did not mesh well with what is known of Galahs not having occurred in that part of Australia at that time. That it must have been a western bird is now strongly...
Article
Wildfires are increasing in both frequency and intensity in many ecosystems, with climate change models predicting further escalations in fire-prone environments. Set against this background is the global decline of amphibians, with up to 40% of species facing extinction from multiple additive threats. Despite these disturbing figures, it is curren...
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How do organisms arrive on isolated islands, and how do insular evolutionary radiations arise? In a recent paper, Wilmé et al. (2016a) argue that early Austronesians that colonized Madagascar from Southeast Asia translocated giant tortoises to islands in the western Indian Ocean. In the Mascarene Islands, moreover, the human-translocated tortoises...
Data
Appendix S1. Primer sequences and reference for primers used in this study. Appendix S2. Museum and location data for samples used in this study. Appendix S3. Additional phylogenetic results including mismatch distributions and AMOVA comparisons.
Article
Analysis of physical evidence is typically a deciding factor in forensic casework by establishing what transpired at a scene or who was involved. Forensic geoscience is an emerging multi-disciplinary science that can offer significant benefits to forensic investigations. Soil is a powerful, nearly ‘ideal’ contact trace evidence, as it is highly ind...
Article
Full-text available
The distribution of antilopine wallaroo, Macropus antilopinus, is marked by a break in the species’ range between Queensland and the Northern Territory, coinciding with the Carpentarian barrier. Previous work on M. antilopinus revealed limited genetic differentiation between the Northern Territory and Queensland M. antilopinus populations across th...
Article
Full-text available
The causes of Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions (60,000 to 11,650 years ago, hereafter 60 to 11.65 ka) remain contentious, with major phases coinciding with both human arrival and climate change around the world. The Americas provide a unique opportunity to disentangle these factors as human colonization took place over a narrow time frame (~...
Article
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Uncertain taxonomy hinders the effective prioritization of taxa for conservation. This problem is acute for understudied island populations in the southwest Pacific Ocean, which are increasingly threatened by habitat loss, predation and climate change. Here, we offer the first test of taxonomic limits and phylogenetic affinities of the ico- nic Pac...
Article
Full-text available
The Tremarctinae are a subfamily of bears endemic to the New World, including two of the largest terrestrial mammalian carnivores that have ever lived: the giant, short-faced bears Arctodus simus from North America and Arctotherium angustidens from South America (greater than or equal to 1000 kg). Arctotherium angustidens became extinct during the...
Article
Full-text available
Detecting loci under selection is an important task in evolutionary biology. In conservation genetics detecting selection is key to investigating adaptation to the spread of infectious disease. Loci under selection can be detected on a spatial scale, accounting for differences in demographic history among populations, or on a temporal scale, tracin...
Data
SNPs under selection at each year detected with BAYESCAN assuming prior odds of 10. (PDF)
Data
Overview of SNPs under selection detected with demographic and time-series methods. (PDF)
Data
SNPs under selection at each year detected with BAYESCAN assuming prior odds of 100. (PDF)