Jens Kjeldsen

Jens Kjeldsen
University of Bergen | UiB · Department of Information Science and Media Studies

Dr. art. (Doctor of Philosophy)

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87
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474
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Publications

Publications (87)
Article
Full-text available
In semiotics and the study of pictorial communication, the conceptualization of visual rhetoric and argumentation has been dominated by two connected approaches: firstly, by providing an understanding of visual rhetoric through tropes and figures; and secondly, by interpreting pictures as texts that are read and decoded in the same way as words. Be...
Article
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This paper explores how the Scandinavian monarchs work through the issue of immigration in their New Year’s speeches during the years 1972–2017. Exploring immigration debate through the royal speeches provides new understanding of the issue, because the opinions of the monarch are supposed to be apolitical. Royal rhetoric is expected to embrace the...
Article
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This is a qualitative text-analytic study of the discursive representations of anti-immigration positions in Scandinavian press 1970–2016. Our study shows how immigration critics textually are estranged and constituted as an other throughout the period. We examine how three main categories of immigration critics are estranged: extremists, populist...
Article
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For public health promotion to succeed, popular support is necessary and the chosen policies and measures have to be perceived as legitimate by the public. In other words, health authorities need to build on and sustain established trust when they recommend a certain policy. When the policy is criticized, this trust is challenged, and the authoriti...
Article
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President Barack Obama's State of the Union speeches were distributed online as so–called Enhanced versions, where the television images of Obama delivering the speech were accompanied by pictures, graphs, and tables used to convince the audience about the factual state of affairs in the United States. The article explores this combination of the r...
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The concept of transparency has been problematized in risk research. This exploratory study contributes to the risk literature by considering an established three-dimensional transparency framework (information substantiality, accountability, and participation) and discussing the opportunities for and challenges to risk communication in relation to...
Chapter
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Arguably, one of the defining traits of an expert is certainty of knowledge. So, what happens when experts in a critical situation in public simultaneously must recognize uncertainty about knowledge and the situation and argue for specific policies and actions? This has been the challenge for many national health experts during the COVID-19 crisis....
Article
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Since the ancient rhetoricians, humans have awarded imagery, the visual, and the vivid an extraordinary effect on emotions and memory. Such assumptions have led to iconophobia, iconoclasm, and myths about the special power of images. The issue of the power of pictures, however, is more complicated. As all other kinds of rhetorical utterances, the v...
Chapter
This chapter examines how Scandinavian leaders motivated and justified the measures enacted in the first phase of COVID-19. Leaders in all three countries couched their argumentation in appeals to solidarity, a form of argument so distinct that we dub it the argumentum ad solidaritatem. Yet the use of this appeal varied somewhat between the otherwi...
Article
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Research into visual and multimodal rhetoric has been dominated by social scientific and textual perspectives that may not be able to provide documented understandings of how rhetorical objects are actually experienced by an audience. In this study, the authors engage in rhetorical protocol analysis through 10 in-depth interviews asking informants...
Article
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This paper provides an overview of the practice and study of rhetoric in Scandinavia. It describes the culture, political system, and media system of Scandinavia as a prerequisite for both the study and the practice of rhetoric in this region. The paper provides special attention to the Scandinavian researcher's sense of public obligation and to th...
Chapter
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Rhetorical research in the three Scandinavian countries has made contributions to the study of political communication, representing approaches that are not often found in research coming from the social sciences or from more systemic, theory-based orientations. Rhetoric, both as an ancient tradition and as a modern discipline, tends to emphasise c...
Chapter
Etter 22. juli ble talene til statsminister Jens Stoltenberg unisont hyllet både i Norge og internasjonalt. Det var som om han med sine ord og sin opptreden fanget det som alle følte, grep det som alle tenkte og stilte det foran nasjonen til felles anerkjennelse. Grunntonen talene slo an, preget Norges forståelse av hendelsene så sterkt at de fremd...
Chapter
Partilederens landsmødetale er en af de vigtigste taler, en partileder holder. I den samler partiets leder partmedlemmerne i deres fællesskab om partiets værdier, politik og ikke mindst sin egen position som partiets leder. Landsmødetalen er en udfordrende retorisk genre, for selv om den skal tjene de samme formål hvert år og derfor på visse måde e...
Chapter
Dette kapitel beskriver valgaftenstalens udvikling, genretræk og dominerende topoi. Det peger på den nære sammenheng mellem udviklingen av valgaftensfejringen som retorisk situation, den øgede mediedækning og talens dobbelte funktion som både intern etablering af fællesskab, betydning og politisk relevans og ekstern kommunikation af denne etablerin...
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This chapter discusses some differences between the study of rhetoric in the US and in Scandinavia. It argues that the study of rhetoric should be a help to the lives of ordinary people, and that the field should embrace rhetorical reception studies.
Article
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Political television debates should engage voters and provide them with information they need to make a decision. Existing research provides an understanding of the rhetorical mechanisms at play in debate situations, but we still know little about how viewers react to different rhetorical expressions. This study provides an empirically based unders...
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Publisert i: Norsklæreren. Tidsskrift for språk, litteratur og didaktikk
Chapter
Kapitlet "Forskningsinterview og fokusgrupper i retoriske receptionsstudier” viser hvordan man kan bruge forskningsinterview og fokusgrupper til at studere retorisk kommunikation. Kort sagt vil det sige analyser, som tager udgangspunkt i, hvordan modtagere opfatter, tager imod og bruger retorikken. Det gøres ved at samtale med mennesker og stille d...
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Kapitlet "Skriftlig protokolanalyse" præsenterer en variant af protokolanalyse hvor informanterne ikke snakker om, men skriftlig noterer sine reaktioner og responser. Forfatterne viser at denne metode er velegnet til at undersøge publikums oplevelse af audiovisuel retorisk kommunikation som forløber over tid, for eksempel at lytte til en tale, høre...
Article
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The rhetoric of shame has become predominant in the public sphere. This is especially the case in immigration debates. Here citizens express shame over the way their nation treats immigrants and refugees, or argue that others ought to be ashamed of themselves because of their treatment of foreigners. This article study the rhetorical use of shame a...
Article
Anmeldelse af Hans Gunnarson & Staffan Thulin. Talskrivarna. Om retoriken i politiken. Stockholm: Carlssons Bokförlag, 2017. Publiceret i Rhetorica Scandinavica
Chapter
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In political debates on immigration, refugees, and asylum seekers, the rhetoric of shame is frequently used. This paper examines the use of such shaming-arguments during the 2015 refugee crisis. It especially examines the rhetorical use, function and public value of inflicting collective shame, and it analyses how members of the shamed collective r...
Book
This book provides students, researchers, and practitioners of speechwriting with a unique insight in the theory, history, and practice of speechwriting. The combination of theory and practice with case studies from the United States and Europe makes this volume the first of its kind. The book offers an overview of the existing research and theory,...
Chapter
In this chapter, we explore the notion of speech genres and how they can guide the speechwriter. In paying close attention to Greek and Roman canons of rhetoric, we view speechwriting processes primarily through their substantive, stylistic, and situational similarities. We outline the primary genres used in political speech in the USA and in Europ...
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In this chapter, we outline the general steps speechwriters ought to follow in the process of writing speeches for others. These guidelines are flexible and allow for comfortable adaptation given the varied implementation of speechwriting practices as well as the different approaches in the European and American systems. Our model follows the class...
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In this chapter, we lay out the functions of speechwriting in contemporary society and explain why it will continue to be a central art and practice. We argue that even though speaking off-the-cuff appears to become more common, and the use of manuscripts appears to become less popular, the future of speechwriting is as promising as its past. The t...
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This chapter is devoted to the craft of characterizing the speaker. To write a speech that fits the speaker and that the speaker is comfortable in delivering, the speechwriter must observe the speaker’s personality. The concern for characterizing the speaker’s personality influences the speech as a whole, and the speechwriter writing a speech for s...
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In this chapter, we introduce the practice of speechwriting by basing it on the classical foundation of the art of rhetoric. We acknowledge our indebtedness to Greek and Roman developments of rhetorical theories as foundational to the practice of speechwriting. We detail the depth and spread of the utility of speechwriting from ancient time to cont...
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In this chapter, we introduce the classical theories of rhetoric that are foundational for contemporary speechwriting. We outline some of the basic concepts in the ancient Greek theories on rhetoric, notably Aristotle’s’ On Rhetoric, the first treatise on rhetoric, and additions made by Roman scholars. We explain how a cultural climate in ancient G...
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In this chapter, we discuss ethical issues surrounding the practice of speechwriting. We outline the code of ethics for speechwriters developed in 2015. We recognize that the very act of writing speeches for others can bring a host of ethical questions and that at the heart of the issue stands the speaker whose words have supposedly been written by...
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In this chapter, we present three tasks from the rhetorical canon that all speechwriting must engage in order to compose a coherent and persuasive speech. The first, finding content and arguments, involves a structured method of researching, the topical system. The second task, organizing the speech, involves reflection on the function of the parts...
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This chapter describes how speechwriting is carried out in organizations. We describe the phases and organization of speechwriting in governments and ministries and discuss the consequences of institutional writing. We provide three case studies that illuminate such speechwriting processes: Firstly, the writing of the government declaration for the...
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This chapter provides an overview of scholarly research in speechwriting. Most research deals with presidential rhetoric in the USA and describes speechwriting in different administrations of the White House. These studies are generally based on historical research and biographies as well as interviews with former and active speechwriters. Outside...
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This chapter explains the importance of visual rhetoric in speechwriting and discusses the power of the visual. Time and again, the ancient rhetoricians encourage us to put events vividly in front of the audience so that they experience them as if they see them with their own eyes. The advice is equally valid today. We show how good speechwriters d...
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In this chapter, we argue that new media is not a threat, but an opportunity for speechmaking. Internet and video are potential vehicles for the speechwriter’s words, creating a renaissance of speechwriting. Speechmaking has earned its place in human history and contemporary society because of its distinguishing characteristics: A speech is not a t...
Chapter
In this chapter, we reflect on the oral aspect of speechwriting with a specific focus on how to write for the ear. Speechwriters will have to write in a way that anticipates oral encounters between speakers and audiences, helping the listeners to stay attentive and remember the speech. We discuss how modern speechwriting responds to complex situati...
Book
Retorikom se svi bavimo. Ona ne predstavlja ni manipulaciju, ni kitnjasto izražavanje, niti prenošenje značenja, iako sve to može da se koristi retorički. Retorika je delovanje putem jezika i komunikacije. Ona navodi druge ljude da osećaju, razmišljaju i deluju na određene načine. Ne prođe ni dan a da ne pokušate da utičete na druge ljude ili oni n...
Article
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Photojournalism is a vital resource for thinking, feeling, expressing, acting and dealing with problems of collective living, argues Robert Hariman and John Louis Lucaites. It is a kind of ‘equipment for living’. This article proposes the concept rhetorical working through as a way of describing how photojournalistic rhetoric functions as ‘equipmen...
Article
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One of the most prominent new areas research within the expanding field of argumentation is the study of sound arguments and sonic argumentation. The research into multimodal argumentation and rhetoric encourage us to evisit the important questions of why we do research (epistemology), how we do research (method), and the way we communicate our res...
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Visuals are generally considered to be rich in information, but also to be open to many different interpretations. As a consequence, many argumentation scholars doubt that visuals can constitute argumentation (e.g. Fleming, 1996; Johnson, 2003, 2010; Patterson, 2010). In this paper, we argue that the rhetorical and argumentative potential of visual...
Chapter
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This chapter provides an account of the research journal Rhetorica Scandinavica, followed by an introduction to rhetoric as an academic field in the Scandinavian countries. Finally it provides a brief introduction to the articles in the book "Scandinavian Studies in Rhetoric. Rhetorica Scandinavica 1997-2010", edited by Jens E. Kjeldsen & Jan Grue
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This chapter explains the role of visual and multimodal communication in organizations and provides an account of the research in this field. While organizations appear to be verbally dominated, they never communicate in just words. Visual and multimodal elements are widely present in all aspects of organizational rhetoric. The chapter introduces t...
Book
Vor tids retorik er en klar, levende og grundig indføring i moderne retorisk teori og metode. Den behandler retorikken i mediesamfundet og samtidens retoriske situationer, og den beskriver hvordan man kan forstå og studere retoriske fænomener i vor tid. Ved hjælp af eksempler fra dansk og international offentlighed og populærkultur præsenterer Jens...
Book
This book examines the reception of rhetoric and the rhetoric of reception. By considering salient rhetorical traits of rhetorical utterances and texts seen in context, and relating this to different kinds of reception and/or audience use and negotiation, the authors explore the connections between rhetoric and reception. In our time, new media and...
Chapter
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Without audiences, there would be no rhetoric. Understanding audiences, therefore, is essential for understanding rhetoric. If we do not understand when, how and why audiences are influenced by communication, or see how they negotiate and reject rhetorical messages, then we do not understand rhetoric. In light of this, it is surprising that rhetori...
Chapter
This chapter examines the power of news photographs through triangulating reception-oriented analyses of the photographs of the dead Syrian toddler Alan Kurdi, who was found drowned on a Turkish beach September 2, 2015. The images were immediately described as powerful and iconic. However, the analyses by Kjeldsen and Andersen demonstrate that thei...
Preprint
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This paper presents the concept of rhetoric as working through. The term working through has its origins from psychoanalysis, where it describes the process whereby material is worried over until it is exhausted. It has been used by media scholar John Ellis to describe how television works as a vast "mechanism for processing the material of the wit...
Article
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In rhetoric and argumentation research studies of empirical audiences are rare. Most studies are speaker or text focused. However, new media and new forms of communication make it harder to distinguish between speaker and audience. The active involvement of users and audiences is more important than ever before. Therefore, this paper argues that rh...
Article
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This essay explores the concept of symbolic condensation in pictures in order to explain the possibility of visual argumentation and the benefits of so-called thick representation offered by many pictures. Symbolic condensation makes it possible for pictures to perform argumentation enthymematically and provides a thick representation that adds an...
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Forskningen på bruk av digitale presentasjonsteknologier (DPT), som PowerPoint, i undervisning har økt kraftig i omfang siden begynnelsen av 2000-tallet. Men vi vet fremdeles lite om foreleseres holdninger til slik teknologi. Denne artikkelen presenterer en undersøkelse av holdningene forelesere ved Universitetet i Bergen har til digitale presentas...
Article
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If we were to identify the beginning of the study of visual argumentation, we would have to choose 1996 as the starting point. This was the year that Leo Groarke published “Logic, art and argument” in Informal logic, and it was the year that he and David Birdsell co-edited a special double issue of Argumentation and Advocacy on visual argumentation...
Chapter
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It has been argued that the reconstruction of pictorial and visual argumentation is especially problematic since pictures contain neither words nor precise reference to premises, nor do they have syntax or explicit conjunctions that coordinate premise and conclusions. Researchers have been critical of the speculative reconstruction of visual premis...
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Some forms of argumentation are best performed through words. However, there are also some forms of argumentation that may be best presented visually. Thus, this paper examines the virtues of visual argumentation. What makes visual argumentation distinct from verbal argumentation? What aspects of visual argumentation may be considered especially be...
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I januari valåret 2010 publicerade Svenska Dagbladet en grupp-bild av alla åtta partiledare. Bilden är ett exempel på planerad fotojournalistik, men också ett exempel på hur bilders betydelse kan förändras och ges nya tolkningar jämfört med den ursprung-liga avsikten. Artikeln analyserar arbetsprocessen bakom bilden utifrån observationer och interv...
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The use of digital presentation tools such as PowerPoint is ubiquitous; however we still do not know much about the persuasiveness of these programs. Examining the use of visual analogy and visual chronology, in particular, this article explores the use of visual argumentation in a Keynote presentation by Al Gore. It illustrates how images function...
Article
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For mange fungerer PowerPoint mer som en hjelp for avsenderen enn for mottakeren. Noe tyder i hvert fall på at dette er tilfellet. Sammen med Frode Guribye (Informasjonsvitenskap, UiB) og Arild Raaheim (Institutt for pedagogikk, UiB) har jeg undersøkt bruken av digitale presentasjonsteknologier som PowerPoint i høyere utdanning. Undersøkelsen viser...
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Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012 During the latter part of the twentieth century, and particularly during the last two decades, advertising has become increasingly visual (cf. Leiss et al. 2005 ; van Gisbergen et al. 2004 ; Pollay 1985) . Imagery now dominates advertising. Considering advertising as a kind of argumentation, we may ask how...
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Forelesningen har tradisjonelt vært et verbalt anliggende. Det talte ordet hersket. Men nå møter foreleseren krav om IKT-basert læring og multimodal undervisning. Hva skjer med forelesningen og læringen når lysbildene tar over?
Book
Tale med billeder - tegne med ord beskriver det visuelles rolle i overtalelseskunsten. Bogen viser at retorikken selv som en mundtlig tradition, helt fra begyndelsen har været særdeles visuel. Den afdækker forbindelserne mellem den antikke reotrik og de visuell kunstarter og gør det tydeligt at de mest infludelsesrige retoriske teoretikere har et v...
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In a Danish election campaign in 2001, the party Venstre published an advertisement that caused offence and debate because of its visual argumentation. But what exactly was the argument? And how do we best locate such visual arguments? This essay argues for a cognitive, contextual, and reception oriented approach to visual argumentation. It illustr...
Article
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The presentation program PowerPoint is probably the most used tool in the schools, high schools and universities of today. The use of this program, however, comes at a cost, because it is not just a different and neutral way of teaching. Like the use of any technology, PowerPoint affects not only the way we present and teach, but also the way we th...
Chapter
Krigen, retten og retorikken. Hvordan påvirker de hverandre og hvordan er de med på å skape samfunn og sosiale realiteter? Boken handler om ”kommunikasjonsregimer”: et sett av retoriske former og tankefigurer som setter seg gjennom som dominerende måter å tenke og tale på innenfor bestemte samfunnsfelt. Et kommunikasjonsregime betinger hva som kan...
Chapter
Krigen, retten og retorikken. Hvordan påvirker de hverandre og hvordan er de med på å skape samfunn og sosiale realiteter? Boken handler om ”kommunikasjonsregimer”: et sett av retoriske former og tankefigurer som setter seg gjennom som dominerende måter å tenke og tale på innenfor bestemte samfunnsfelt. Et kommunikasjonsregime betinger hva som kan...
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It can hardly come as a surprise that the ancient rhetoricians all define rhetoric as an art of speech. However, in Institutio oratona I Quintilian also observes that: ‘many other things have the power of persuasion, such as money, influence, the authority and rank of the speaker, or even some sight unsupported by language, when for instance the pl...
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I undersøgelsen af megen visuel politisk retorik synes den traditionelle lære om politisk rådgivende (deliberativ) retorik ofte ikke at strække til som analyseredskab. I denne artikel argumenterer Jens E. Kjeldsen for at retorikken i mange visuelt og æstetisk dominerede politiske ytringer i stedet med fordel kan forstås gennem den retoriske lære om...
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What kind of questions should the academic discipline of rhetoric propose and attempt to answer? If we turn to the rhetorical apparatus, both ancient and modern, and to the history of rhetoric in theory and practice, one central research question emerges: How does one influence people through intentional (i.e. rhetorical) communication? By analyzin...
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Hvilke spørgsmål skal retorikken som videnskab og fag hjælpe os med at stille og med at svare på? Som i alle videnskaber og fag er det vanskeligt at defi- nere ét enkelt afgørende spørgsmål i retorikken, og som alle videnskaber dækker retorikken en bred vifte af problemstillinger. Griber vi til det retoriske begrebsapparat og følger vi den retorisk...

Questions

Questions (2)
Question
I am trying to add my research articles from the research journal Rhetorica Scandinavica (which was founded in 1997), but the journal doesn't come up, so I am unable to add my research. Why is this journal not included? How may I ad this journal (Rhetorica Scandinavica) to Researchgate?
Question
In a time with political polarization «fake news», epistemological fragmentation, echo chambers and decreasing trust in politicians, media, experts and hostility towards opponents; credibility, ethos and trust are more important than ever. However, it seems that the field is split in humanistic ethos-studies, social science research on organizational and media credibility, sociological theories of trust, and social psychological experiments studying the dimensions of credibility. Is this assumption correct? Does any studies embrace more than one aspect of these fields? And most importantly: What are the most important insights and texts in the contemporary study of rhetorical ethos, credibility, and trust?

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Project
The project examines the the rhetorical conditions and challenges concerning channel use and content strategies in public risk communication in relation to the COVID-19 epidemic. We especially examine the follwing: 1. : How do the channel use and content strategies from authorities regarding the COVID-19 pandemic from public authorities in Norway, Sweden and Denmark compare with each other and the research literature? 2. How is risk in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic rhetorically constituted in a hybrid media ecology in Norway, Sweden and Denmark and how is institutional and epistemic trust negotiated here? 3. How is the authorities channel use and their rhetorical communication on the pandemic perceived by the public.