Jennifer Watts

Jennifer Watts
Woodwell Climate Research Center | WHRC

PhD Systems Ecology

About

40
Publications
8,792
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875
Citations
Introduction
My interests include carbon cycle dynamics (CO2, CH4) within northern latitude systems and the potential impacts of changing temperature, surface hydrology and soil moisture on vegetation productivity, soil respiration, and terrestrial, wetland greenhouse gas emissions; using satellite remote sensing and reanalysis to characterize/assess changes in regional carbon balance.
Research Experience
July 2019 - present
Woodwell Climate Research Center
Position
  • Associate Research Scientist
September 2017 - July 2019
Woodwell Climate Research Center
Position
  • PostDoc Position
May 2017 - September 2017
University of Montana
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
May 2008
Montana State University
Field of study
  • Land Resources and Environmental Sciences

Publications

Publications (40)
Article
Full-text available
The northern terrestrial net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) is contingent on inputs from vegetation gross primary productivity (GPP) to offset ecosystem respiration (Reco) of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions, but an effective framework 5 to monitor the regional Arctic NECB is lacking. We modified a terrestrial carbon flux (TCF) mod...
Article
Full-text available
Montana's Golden Triangle region has been identified for its potential to sequester carbon dioxide into soil organic matter. Farmers enrolled in a pilot sequestration program will use management techniques such as conservation tillage, crop intensity, and conservation reserve to optimize carbon sequestration. The purpose of this study was to develo...
Article
Conservation tillage management has been advocated for carbon sequestration and soil quality preservation purposes. Past satellite image analyses have had difficulty in differentiating between no-till (NT) and minimal tillage (MT) conservation classes due to similarities in surface residues, and may have been restricted by the availability of cloud...
Article
We used an object-oriented approach in conjunction with the Random Forest algorithm to classify agricultural practices, including tillage (till or no-till (NT)), crop intensity, and grassland-based conservation reserve (CR). The object-oriented approach allowed for per-field classifications and the incorporation of contextual elements in addition t...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Arctic-boreal zone (ABZ) is experiencing amplified warming, actively changing biogeochemical cycling of vegetation and soils. The land-to-atmosphere fluxes of CO2 in the ABZ have the potential to increase in magnitude and feedback to the climate causing additional large scale warming. The ability to model and predict this vulnerability is criti...
Article
Full-text available
The contribution of soil heterotrophic respiration to the boreal–Arctic carbon (CO2) cycle and its potential feedback to climate change remains poorly quantified. We developed a remote-sensing-driven permafrost carbon model at intermediate scale (∼1 km) to investigate how environmental factors affect the magnitude and seasonality of soil heterotrop...
Preprint
Full-text available
The contribution of soil heterotrophic respiration to the boreal-Arctic carbon (CO2) cycle and its potential feedback to climate change remain poorly quantified. We developed a remote sensing driven permafrost carbon model at intermediate scale (~ 1 km) to investigate how environmental factors affect the magnitude and seasonality of soil heterotrop...
Article
Full-text available
Arctic and boreal ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon (C) budget, and whether they act as a future net C sink or source depends on climate and environmental change. Here we used complementary in situ measurements, model simulations, and satellite observations to investigate the net carbon dioxide (CO2) seasonal cycle and its clim...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
Full-text available
Recent warming in the Arctic, which has been amplified during the winter1,2,3, greatly enhances microbial decomposition of soil organic matter and subsequent release of carbon dioxide (CO2)⁴. However, the amount of CO2 released in winter is not known and has not been well represented by ecosystem models or empirically based estimates5,6. Here we sy...
Article
Full-text available
Cold regions, characterized by the presence of permafrost and extensive snow and ice cover, are significantly affected by changing climate [...]
Article
Full-text available
Cold regions, including high-latitude and high-altitude landscapes, are experiencing profound environmental changes driven by global warming. With the advance of earth observation technology, remote sensing has become increasingly important for detecting, monitoring, and understanding environmental changes over vast and remote regions. This paper p...
Article
The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 sensors (AMSR) have provided multifrequency microwave measurements of the global terrestrial water cycle since 2002. A new AMSR surface wetness index (ASWI) was developed by analyzing the near‐surface atmospheric vapor pressure def...
Article
A method to assess global land surface water (fw) inundation dynamics was developed by exploiting the enhanced fw sensitivity of L-band (1.4 GHz) passive microwave observations from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. The L-band fw (fw LBand ) retrievals were derived using SMAP H-polarization brightness temperature (T b ) observations...
Article
Near-surface atmospheric Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD) is a key environmental variable affecting vegetation water stress, evapotranspiration, and atmospheric moisture demand. Although VPD is readily derived from in situ standard weather station measurements, more spatially continuous global observations for regional monitoring of VPD are lacking. He...
Article
Full-text available
Spaceborne microwave remote sensing is widely used to monitor global environmental changes for understanding hydrological, ecological, and climate processes. A new global land parameter data record (LPDR) was generated using similar calibrated, multifrequency brightness temperature (Tb) retrievals from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for...
Article
Full-text available
Space-borne microwave remote sensing is widely used to monitor global environmental changes for understanding hydrological, ecological and climate processes. A new global land parameter data record (LPDR) was generated using similar calibrated, multi-frequency brightness temperature (Tb) retrievals from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer fo...
Article
A new automated method enabling consistent satellite assessment of seasonal lake ice phenology at 5 km resolution was developed for all lake pixels (water coverage �90 %) in the Northern Hemisphere using 36.5 GHz H-polarized brightness temperature (Tb/ observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS and Advanced Microwave Scann...
Article
Full-text available
A new automated method enabling consistent satellite assessment of seasonal lake ice phenology at 5 km resolution was developed for all lake pixels (water coverage ≥ 90 %) in the Northern Hemisphere using 36.5 GHz H-polarized brightness temperature (Tb) observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS and Advanced Microwave Scan...
Article
Full-text available
The Arctic is currently undergoing intense changes in climate; vegetation composition and productivity are expected to respond to such changes. To understand the impacts of climate change on the function of Arctic tundra ecosystems within the global carbon cycle, it is crucial to improve the understanding of vegetation distribution and heterogeneit...
Article
Full-text available
A new automated method for satellite assessment of seasonal lake ice phenology at 5-km resolution was developed for all lake pixels (water coverage ≥ 90 %) in the Northern Hemisphere using 36.5 GHz, H-polarized brightness temperature (Tb) observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E/2) sensors. The lake phenology metrics inc...
Article
Soil respiration (Rs) is a major pathway by which fixed carbon in the biosphere is returned to the atmosphere, yet there are limits to our ability to predict respiration rates using environmental drivers at the global scale. While temperature, moisture, carbon supply and other site characteristics are known to regulate soil respiration rates at plo...
Article
Arctic terrestrial ecosystems are major global sources of methane (CH4); hence, it is important to understand the seasonal and climatic controls on CH4 emissions from these systems. Here, we report year-round CH4 emissions from Alaskan Arctic tundra eddy flux sites and regional fluxes derived from aircraft data. We find that emissions during the co...
Article
Full-text available
Northern wetlands may be vulnerable to increased carbon losses from methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, under current warming trends. However, the dynamic nature of open water inundation and wetting/drying patterns may constrain regional emissions, offsetting the potential magnitude of methane release. Here we conduct a satellite data driven mo...
Article
Full-text available
The northern terrestrial net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) is contingent on inputs from vegetation gross primary productivity (GPP) to offset the ecosystem respiration (Reco) of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions, but an effective framework to monitor the regional Arctic NECB is lacking. We modified a terrestrial carbon flux (TCF) m...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Data
Full-text available
The northern terrestrial net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) is contingent on inputs from vegetation gross primary productivity (GPP) to offset ecosystem respiration (Reco) of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions, but an effective framework 5 to monitor the regional Arctic NECB is lacking. We modified a terrestrial carbon flux (TCF) mod...
Conference Paper
INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. National Snow and Ice Data Center, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, United States. 2. Flathead Lake Biological Station, University of Montana, Polson, MT, United States. ABSTRACT BODY: The Permafrost Carbon Feedback (PCF) is an amplification of surface warming due to the release of CO2 and CH4 from thawing permafrost. C...
Article
Full-text available
A pilot cropland carbon sequestration program within north central Montana has allowed farmers to receive carbon credit for management adjustments associated with changing from tillage-based agricultural systems to no-till. Carbon credit can also be obtained by adopting conservation reserve, where cropland is planted into perennial vegetation. Summ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Terrestrial carbon sequestration, using land management adjustments to increase soil carbon levels within degraded lands, has been advocated as a practical and immediate approach for carbon mitigation. Carbon sequestration and credit programs have recently been established within north central Montana; carbon storage potential within this region, h...
Article
Full-text available
Machine learning algorithms recently have made major advances, with decision tree classifiers gaining wide acceptance. Boosting and bagging of decision trees have added to the predictive capabilities of these approaches. Object-oriented (O-O) analyses have been developed during this same period, offering important improvements in classification ove...
Article
Full-text available
Heuristic, fuzzy landscape modeling has become a standard technique for digital soil mapping (MacMillan et al., 2000; Zhu et al., 2001). However, most resultant soil-landscape models have been constructed using field classification of soil profiles with scant soil characterization data. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of proximal vis...

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