Jennifer E Smith

Jennifer E Smith
University of California, San Diego | UCSD · Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO)

PhD

About

223
Publications
55,077
Reads
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14,622
Citations
Citations since 2016
100 Research Items
9446 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,500
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,500
Additional affiliations
August 2008 - present
University of California, San Diego
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
January 2008 - September 2015
University of California, San Diego
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
August 2005 - July 2008
University of California, Santa Barbara
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (223)
Article
Full-text available
Phytoplankton blooms create organic matter that stimulates entire marine ecosystems, including other components of the microbial community. How the ecosystem responds varies depending on the intensity, duration, and composition of the bloom. When the bloom has a direct or indirect negative impact on the ecosystem, it is termed a harmful algal bloom...
Article
Full-text available
The prevalence of coral bleaching due to thermal stress has been increasing on coral reefs worldwide. While many studies have documented how corals respond to warming, fewer have focused on benthic community responses over longer time periods or on the response of non-coral taxa (e.g., crustose coralline algae, macroalgae, or turf). Here, we quanti...
Article
Full-text available
Decades of research have revealed relationships between the abundance of coral reef taxa and local conditions, especially at small scales. However, a rigorous test of covariation requires a robust dataset collected across wide environmental or experimental gradients. Here, we surveyed spatial variability in the densities of major coral reef functio...
Article
Tropical reef communities contain spatial patterns at multiple scales, observable from microscope and satellite alike. Many of the smaller-scale patterns are generated physiologically (e.g., skeletal structures of corals at <1-m scale), while some of the larger patterns have been attributed to scale-dependent feedbacks (e.g., spur and groove reefs...
Article
Full-text available
Global climate change, such as warming and ocean acidification (OA), are likely to negatively impact calcifying marine taxa. Abundant and ecologically important coralline algae may be particularly susceptible to OA, however multi‐stressor studies and those on articulated morphotypes are lacking. Here, we use field observations and laboratory experi...
Article
1. Standardized metrics that quantify a component of ecosystem functioning are essential for evaluating the current status of coastal marine habitats and for monitoring how ecologically important ecosystems are changing in response to global and local environmental change. Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) are a standardized tool for quantifying...
Article
Full-text available
Photosynthetic microalgae are an attractive source of food, fuel, or nutraceuticals, but commercial production of microalgae is limited by low spatial efficiency. In the present study we developed a simple photosynthetic hydrogel system that cultivates the green microalga, Marinichlorella kaistiae KAS603, together with a novel strain of the bacteri...
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary Mass bleaching events caused by warming oceans and intensifying marine heatwaves have killed millions of corals globally. In the central equatorial Pacific, coral reefs experienced three extreme heatwaves within 15 years, providing valuable insights into the mechanisms that could facilitate coral survival under global warming...
Article
Ocean acidification (OA) is likely to differentially affect the biology and physiology of calcifying and non-calcifying taxa, thereby potentially altering key ecological interactions (e.g., facilitation, competition, predation) in ways that are difficult to predict from single-species experiments. We used a two-factor experimental design to investi...
Article
The effects of nutrient pollution on coral reef ecosystems are multifaceted. Numerous experiments have sought to identify the physiological effects of nutrient enrichment on reef‐building corals, but the results have been variable and sensitive to choices of nutrient quantity, chemical composition, and exposure duration. To test the effects of chro...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract In marine systems, algal abundance and community composition is often heavily influenced by top-down control by herbivores. As a result, examining the extent to which native herbivores exert grazing pressure on non-native marine algae can provide valuable insight into mechanisms controlling invasion success. The purpose of this study was t...
Article
Full-text available
The impacts of sea-level rise (SLR) are likely to be the greatest for ecosystems that exist at the land-sea interface, where small changes in sea-level could result in drastic changes in habitat availability. Rocky intertidal ecosystems possess a number of characteristics which make them highly vulnerable to changes in sea-level, yet our understand...
Preprint
Full-text available
Primary producers release oxygen as the by-product of photosynthetic light reactions during the day. However, a prevalent, globally-occurring nighttime spike in dissolved oxygen in the absence of light challenges the traditional assumption that biological oxygen production is limited to daylight hours, particularly in tropical coral reefs. Here we...
Article
Full-text available
Upwelling is an important source of inorganic nutrients in marine systems, yet little is known about how gradients in upwelling affect primary producers on coral reefs. The Southern Line Islands span a natural gradient of inorganic nutrient concentrations across the equatorial upwelling region in the central Pacific. We used this gradient to test t...
Article
Field-based cultivation of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma seaweeds is widespread across the tropics and is largely done to extract the polysaccharide carrageenan, which is used in commercial applications. Although such seaweed farming has been cited as a sustainable alternative livelihood to destructive fishing, there has not been a comprehensive review...
Article
Full-text available
Few studies have documented the spatial and temporal dynamics of highly invasive species in coral reef benthic communities. Here, we quantified the ecological dynamics of invasion by a corallimorph, Rhodactis howesii, at Palmyra Atoll in the central Pacific. A localized outbreak of this species was first observed following a shipwreck at Palmyra in...
Article
Full-text available
Coral reefs are facing intensifying stressors, largely due to global increases in seawater temperature and decreases in pH. However, there is extensive environmental variability within coral reef ecosystems, which can impact how organisms respond to global trends. We deployed spatial arrays of autonomous sensors across distinct shallow coral reef h...
Article
Reef‐building corals are mixotrophic organisms that can obtain nutrition from endosymbiotic microalgae (autotrophy) and particle capture (heterotrophy). Heterotrophic nutrition is highly beneficial to many corals, particularly in times of stress. Yet, the extent to which different coral species rely on heterotrophic nutrition remains largely unknow...
Article
Full-text available
During 2015–2016, an El Niño and associated warm water event caused widespread coral bleaching across the equatorial Pacific. Here, we combine 8 yr of benthic monitoring data from permanent photoquadrats with remotely sensed and in situ temperature measurements to assess the impact of the warming event on benthic communities at Palmyra Atoll. We qu...
Article
Population distributions are affected by a variety of spatial processes, including dispersal, intraspecific dynamics, and habitat selection. Within reef‐building coral communities, these processes are especially important during the earliest life stages when reproduction provides mobility among sessile organisms and populations experience the great...
Article
Full-text available
On coral reefs, microorganisms are essential for recycling nutrients to primary producers through the remineralization of benthic-derived organic matter. Diel investigations of reef processes are required to holistically understand the functional roles of microbial players in these ecosystems. Here we report a metagenomic analysis characterizing mi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Rocky intertidal ecosystems may be particularly susceptible to sea-level rise impacts but few studies have explored community scale response to future sea-level scenarios. Combining remote-sensing with large-area imaging, we quantify habitat extent and describe biological community structure at two rocky intertidal study locations in California. We...
Article
Mixotrophy is among the most successful nutritional strategies in terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The ability of organisms to supplement primary nutritional modes along continua of autotrophy and heterotrophy fosters trophic flexibility that can sustain metabolic demands under variable or stressful conditions. Symbiotic, reef-building corals are...
Chapter
Full-text available
This document is part of the status report series of the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN) founded in 1995 as part of the International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI) to document the ecological conditions of coral reefs, to strengthen monitoring efforts, and to link existing organisations and people working with coral reefs around the worl...
Article
Full-text available
Corals and humans represent two extremely disparate metazoan lineages and are therefore useful for comparative evolutionary studies. Two lipid-based molecules that are central to human immunity, platelet-activating factor (PAF) and Lyso-PAF were recently identified in scleractinian corals. To identify processes in corals that involve these molecule...
Article
Full-text available
Depth is used often as a proxy for gradients in energetic resources on coral reefs and for predicting patterns of community energy use. With increasing depth, loss of light can lead to a reduced reliance on autotrophy and an increased reliance on heterotrophy by mixotrophic corals. However, the generality of such trophic zonation varies across cont...
Article
Full-text available
Background The metabolic rate of consumers is a key driver of ecosystem dynamics. On coral reefs, herbivorous echinoids consume fleshy algae, facilitating the growth of reef-building calcified organisms; however, little is known about differences among species in their metabolic and functional ecology. Here, we used log-linear (log-log) regression...
Data
Echinoid assay data. (DOCX)
Data
Mean sizes of echinoids used in metabolic assays. (DOCX)
Data
Mean microbial versus uncorrected echinoid oxygen consumption rates. (DOCX)
Data
Comparisons of replicate metabolic assays. (DOCX)
Data
Comparison of mass and volumetric scaling of metabolism. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
To inform a community-based ocean zoning initiative, we conducted an intensive ecological assessment of the marine ecosystems of Barbuda, West Indies. We conducted 116 fish and 108 benthic surveys around the island, and measured the abundance and size structure of lobsters and conch at 52 and 35 sites, respectively. We found that both coral cover a...
Data
Typical reef habitats common around Barbuda. (A, B) Low-relief carbonate flat forereef habitat (C, D) Higher-relief patch reef habitat with standing dead coral. (TIF)
Data
Abundance of lobsters around Barbuda. (A) sublegal (<95mm carapace length) and (B) legal (>95 mm carapace length) lobsters. Values are the number of lobsters seen at each site. (TIF)
Data
Fish community structure around Barbuda. NMDS plot of density of fish species present at >10% of sites. CONT is continuous reef and ISOL is patch reef. LR, MR, and HR are low (<1.5 m), medium (1.5–3 m), and high (>3 m) relief. Depth categories are shallow (<6 m), mid (6–18 m), and deep (>18 m). (TIF)
Data
Pairwise scatterplots of key benthic and fish groups. Values for benthic groups (coral, cca [= crustose coralline algae], turf, and macroalgae) are in percent cover, while values for fish groups (tot_biomass [= total fish biomass] and parrot_biomass [= parrotfish biomass]) are in g per m2. Top panels show data and bottom panels show r2 and p-values...
Data
Abundance of key species in Codrington Lagoon. Shown are the abundance of (A) mojarra, (B) schoolmaster snapper, (c) gray snapper, and (D) lobster at sites surveyed in Codrington Lagoon. Values are number of individuals per 100 m2. (TIF)
Data
Mean biomass of fish species. Values are mean biomass of fish species from reef fish surveys, in g per m2. (PDF)
Data
Abundance of conch around Barbuda. (A) subadult conch (i.e., conch lacking a flared lip) and (B) adult conch (i.e., conch with a flared lip). Values are in numbers per 100 m2. (TIF)
Data
Biomass of key reef fish families around Barbuda. (A) groupers (Serranidae), (B) snappers (Lutjanidae), (C) parrotfish (Labridae: Scarinae), and (D) surgeonfish (Acanthuridae). Values are in g per m2. (TIF)
Data
Live coral cover around Barbuda. Values represent percent benthic cover of live coral. (TIF)
Data
Benthic cover in Codrington Lagoon. Frequency distributions of major benthic groups present in Codrington Lagoon. (TIF)
Article
Full-text available
Turf algal assemblages are ubiquitous primary producers on coral reefs, but little is known about the response of this diverse group to ocean acidification (OA) across different temperatures. We tested the hypothesis that CO2 influences the functional response of epilithic and endolithic turf assemblages to increasing temperature. Replicate carbona...
Article
Full-text available
For sessile organisms such as reef-building corals, differences in the degree of dispersion of individuals across a landscape may result from important differences in life-history strategies or may reflect patterns of habitat availability. Descriptions of spatial patterns can thus be useful not only for the identification of key biological and phys...
Article
Full-text available
The relative rates of carbon fixed by primary producers vs. consumption by primary consumers shape the community of organisms in ecosystems. On coral reefs, it is important to understand the demography of algae, given known competitive dynamics with reef-building corals. Numerous studies have shown that fleshy algal abundance is enhanced in the abs...
Article
The relative contributions of grazing versus microbial food webs to the production of mesozooplankton communities in coral reef ecosystems remains an important and understudied field of inquiry. Here, we investigated the biomass and production of component organisms within these two food webs, and compared them to those of mesozooplankton on a cora...
Preprint
Full-text available
Primary production due to photosynthesis results in daytime oxygen production across marine and freshwater ecosystems. However, a prevalent, globally-occurring nighttime spike in dissolved oxygen (DO) challenges our traditional assumption that oxygen production is limited to daylight hours, particularly in tropical coral reefs. When considered in t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Primary production due to photosynthesis results in daytime oxygen production across marine and freshwater ecosystems. However, a prevalent, globally-occurring nighttime spike in dissolved oxygen (DO) challenges our traditional assumption that oxygen production is limited to daylight hours, particularly in tropical coral reefs. When considered in t...
Article
Full-text available
Background The demography of a coral colony is not a binary trajectory of life and death. Based on the flexibility afforded by colonial organization, most reef-building corals employ a variety of dynamic survival strategies, including growth and shrinkage. The demographic flexibility affects coral size, shape and reproductive output, among other fa...
Data
Table of Porites superfusa demographic changes tallied by year and number of colonies Year transitions (2009–2010, 2010–2011, 2011–2012) are recorded because changes in numbers of colonies occurred from one year survey to the next. No resurrected recruits were counted in the 2009 to 2010 year transition because in order to ‘resurrect’ the colony mu...
Data
Raw data of coral colony sizes over time, at each site
Data
All statistical analysis code completed in R
Preprint
Full-text available
Primary production due to photosynthesis results in daytime oxygen production across marine and freshwater ecosystems. However, a prevalent, globally-occurring nighttime spike in dissolved oxygen (DO) challenges our traditional assumption that oxygen production is limited to daylight hours, particularly in tropical coral reefs. When considered in t...