Jennifer Cumming

Jennifer Cumming
University of Birmingham · School of Sport and Exercise Sciences & Institute for Mental Health

PhD

About

156
Publications
283,488
Reads
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4,374
Citations
Introduction
I have over 20 years of research experience and into the effective use of imagery for sport, exercise, dance settings. More recently, I use community-based approaches to developing practical and culturally-tailored interventions for athletes and with young people experiencing homelessness. I'm interested in how individuals learn to effectively regulate their thoughts, feelings, and behaviours with mental skills training, and determine the impact on their mental health.
Additional affiliations
September 2011 - December 2015
Manchester Metropolitan University – Cheshire
Position
  • External Examiner
Description
  • External Examiner of BSc (Hons) Sport and Exercise Science (Psychology)
September 2002 - present
University of Birmingham
Position
  • Senior Lecturer of Sport and Exercise Psychology
September 1999 - June 2002
The University of Western Ontario
Education
September 1999 - June 2002
The University of Western Ontario
Field of study
  • Kinesiology (Sport Psychology)
January 1997 - March 1999
University of Ottawa
Field of study
  • Human Kinetics (Sport Psychology)
September 1993 - June 1997
McGill University
Field of study
  • Physical Education (Fitness Education)

Publications

Publications (156)
Article
Full-text available
Underpinned by the New World Kirkpatrick model, and in the context of a community-based sport psychology programme (My Strengths Training for Life™) for young people experiencing homelessness, this process evaluation investigated (1) young peoples’ reactions (i.e., program and facilitator evaluation, enjoyment, attendance, and engagement) and learn...
Preprint
Underpinned by the new world Kirkpatrick model and in the context of a community-based, sport psychology program (My Strengths Training for Life™) for young people experiencing homelessness, this process evaluation investigated: (1) young peoples’ reactions (program and facilitator evaluation, enjoyment, attendance, and engagement) to and learning...
Article
There is a need for positive youth development/strengths-based approaches to support the wellbeing and social inclusion of young people experiencing or at risk of homelessness. My Strengths Training for Life™ (MST4Life™) uses a strengths-based approach with the aim to improve young people’s resilience, self-worth, wellbeing and engagement in educat...
Article
Imagery is a popular technique for enhancing learning, performance, and rehabilitation in sport, but mixed evidence exists to its effectiveness. There have been wide variations in the methods used to deliver imagery interventions and the level of detail reported, making it difficult to draw comparisons across studies. Moreover, there have been few...
Article
This systematic review identified 10 process evaluation studies of positive youth development (PYD) programmes for disadvantaged young people, and aimed to assess the quality of reporting, methods used, and barriers and enablers to delivering programmes as intended. Four databases were searched: Web of Science, Psych INFO, Scopus, and Embase. Resul...
Article
Full-text available
My Strengths Training for Life™ (MST4Life™) is a positive youth development program for improving wellbeing and social inclusion in young people experiencing homelessness. MST4Life™ addresses a gap in strengths-based programs aimed at promoting healthy and optimal development in vulnerable older adolescents/emerging adults. The program was co-devel...
Preprint
Introduction Athletes are not immune to mental health issues but are less likely to seek help than nonathletes and experience barriers including lack of access to services, lack of knowledge as to how to access services and negative past experiences for help-seeking. Formal and semi-formal sources of support (e.g. support provided in healthcare, sp...
Article
Traditionally, UK housing services have focused on providing temporary accommodation, identifying risk factors, and preventing negative outcomes to young people experiencing homelessness. However, deficit approaches may lead young people to becoming dependent on services and face greater marginalisation and stigmatisation. Meeting long-standing cal...
Article
Full-text available
Outdoors-based youth development programs demonstrate the efficacy to improve indicators of personal growth and mental health in a range of disadvantaged young people. However, the most marginalized young people in society, who stand to benefit the most from such initiatives, remain underrepresented in the research. My Strengths Training for Life (...
Article
Full-text available
This community‐based study investigated whether (1) a novel sport psychology informed positive youth development program, My Strengths Training for Life™, improved resilience and well‐being and (2) young people differed in outcomes according to demographics (gender, ethnicity, social inclusion, and learning difficulty). A total of 246 young people...
Article
This study investigated the relationship between reappraisal and suppression with depression and mental well-being among university athletes. It was hypothesized reappraisal would associate with lower depression and greater mental well-being, whereas suppression would associate with greater depression and reduced mental well-being. Employing a cros...
Article
Young people experiencing homelessness often have multiple and complex support needs, and subsequently face various health inequalities. In the United Kingdom, housing services recognise the need for more effective intervention strategies. In response to this issue, My Strengths Training for Life™ (MST4Life™) is a community- and outdoors-based, pos...
Article
Objective To investigate putative neurobiological mechanisms that link longer-term physical activity interventions to mental health and cognitive outcomes using randomised controlled trials in children, adolescents and young adults. Data sources A range of medical and psychological science electronic databases were searched (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopu...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals, particularly those considered “hard-to-reach,” often engage well with assessment tools that involve active dialogue and the co-construction of knowledge. Strengths profiling is one such tool that enables a person-centered and autonomy supportive approach to the identification of character strengths. Strength profiling is an adaptation...
Article
Mastery imagery has been shown to be associated with more positive cognitive and emotional responses to stress, but research is yet to investigate the influence of mastery imagery ability on imagery’s effectiveness in regulating responses to acute stress, such as competition. Furthermore, little research has examined imagery’s effectiveness in resp...
Article
Full-text available
Our thoughts and feelings towards groupwork and outdoor learning impact our subsequent engagement in, and learning from, such activities. This study explores the impact of a pre-course video when used in preparation for an outdoor groupwork skills course. The video was designed according to the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to enhance intention...
Article
Exercise imagery can be beneficial for insufficiently active people as a means to promote physical activity (PA) engagement and positive psychological states. The present study explored imagery use in physically active and insufficiently active older adults. The revised applied model of deliberate imagery use (RAMDIU) was used as a framework to exp...
Article
Full-text available
This introduction to a special issue of Imagination, Cognition and Personality discusses how imagery ability is conceptualized, measured, and developed within sport and exercise sciences. Drawing from the model of imagery ability in sport, exercise, and dance, we explain that imagery ability is best understood not as a single undifferentiated gener...
Article
Full-text available
Limited research has investigated exercise imagery use in middle-aged and older adults and its relationship with affective and behavioural correlates. The study examined the association between self-regulatory imagery and physical activity (PA) through key social cognitive variables. Middle-aged and older adults (N = 299; Mage = 59.73 years, SD = 7...
Article
Objectives This study investigated whether positive and negative mastery imagery ability mediated the relationship between confidence and stress appraisals and responses. To determine whether these results were specific to mastery imagery ability, this study also investigated whether another type of imagery ability (affect) mediated these relations...
Article
The present study aimed to examine whether physical and environment elements of PETTLEP imagery relate to the ability to image five types of sport imagery (i.e. skill, strategy, goal, affect and mastery). Two hundred and ninety participants (152 males, 148 females; Mage = 20.24 years, SD = 4.36) from various sports completed the Sport Imagery Abili...
Article
Full-text available
Opportunities to attend training courses abound for staff and students alike, either as compulsory elements of academic programmes or contracts, or as voluntary options for self-development. It is generally assumed that the content of the training programme will be utilised in future experiences in a process known as transfer (Gass, 1999). However,...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Given that physical activity (PA) has a positive impact on COPD symptoms and prognosis, this study examined the factors that both encourage and limit participation in PA for individuals with COPD in a primary care setting from the perspective of social cognitive theory. Methods: A purposive sample of 26 individuals with a range of COPD...
Article
The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of combining layered stimulus response training (LSRT) with one week of imagery rehearsal on exercise imagery ability. Further aims were to investigate pre-to post-intervention changes in exercise related feeling states and interest/enjoyment, and determine if imagery ability at pos...
Article
This study examined the effect of imagery content and participant skill level on the interpretation (i.e. image meaning) of a negative image (i.e. a golf putt missing the hole), while also investigating the effect of imagery content and skill level on performance, anxiety, and confidence in a golf putting task. Seventy-nine participants (40 novices...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the initial development of groupwork skills through outdoor adventure education (OAE) and the factors that predict the extent of this development, using the first two levels of Kirkpatrick’s model of training evaluation. University students (N = 238) completed questionnaires measuring their initial reactions to OAE (Level 1...
Article
Full-text available
This case study outlines how the Mental Skills Training for Life (MST4LIFE) programme takes a novel approach to helping homeless young people gain confidence and important skills for independent living. As a collaboration led by the Universtiy of Birmingham and a West Midlands youth homeless charity St Basils, the programme is based on intervention...
Article
This study explored the relationship between athletes’ emotion regulation and imagery ability. A total of 648 athletes (57% female; Mage = 20.79 years, SD = 4.36) completed the Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire (SIAQ) and Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ). Structural equation modeling supported the hypothesized model in which reappraisal pos...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This case study outlines how the Mental Skills Training for Life (MST4LIFE) programme takes a novel approach to helping homeless young people gain confidence and important skills for independent living. As a collaboration led by the University of Birmingham and a West Midlands youth homeless charity St Basils, the programme is based on intervention...
Article
The ability to generate and control images is an important factor in determining the effectiveness of imagery interventions. Despite evidence that imagery ability improves with practice, until recently, few established ways for its development existed. This article describes the application of layered stimulus response training (LSRT), a technique...
Article
Objectives This longitudinal study examined potential predictors of disordered eating attitudes (DEA) for male and female dancers, with a particular focus on whether environmental predictors (perceptions of task- and ego-involving motivational climate) added significantly to the prediction made by intrapersonal predictor variables (demographics/tra...
Article
The present study compared the effects of: (a) PETTLEP imagery (e.g. imaging in the environment), (b) prior-observation (i.e. observing prior to imaging), and (c) traditional imagery (e.g. imaging sat in a quiet room) on the ease and vividness of external visual imagery (EVI), internal visual imagery (IVI), and kinaesthetic imagery (KI) of movement...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Despite the benefits of physical activity (PA), only one-third of older adults meet the recommended levels. The present study focused on psychosocial determinants of PA following retirement. Social cognitive theory (SCT) was used to better understand pre- and post-retirement adults' thoughts about PA, the reasons why some individuals ar...
Article
This systematic review aimed to examine the effectiveness of Mindfulness-based interventions in reducing diabetes-related physiological and psychological symptoms in adults with types 1 and 2 diabetes. Five databases were systematically searched. A total of 11 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Mindfulness-based intervention effectiveness fo...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the effects of applying elements of the PETTLEP model on vividness and ease of imaging movement. Forty participants (M age = 23.47 years, SD = 4.11) completed the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire when using PETTLEP imagery or traditional imagery. Results revealed significantly higher ease and vividness ratings for...
Article
The present study investigated the relationship between two of the most common measures of motor imagery ability, self-report ratings, and chronometric assessment. This was done for three types of imagery modalities: external visual imagery (EVI), internal visual imagery (IVI), and kinesthetic imagery (KI). Measures of imagery ability (i.e. self-re...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined whether the relationships between self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism and symptoms of burning out (i.e., reduced accomplishment , emotional and physical exhaustion, sport devaluation, negative affect, and symptoms of physical ill-health) were moderated by hearing ability. A total of 417 athletes (hearing = 205, d...
Conference Paper
The revised applied model of deliberate imagery use proposes that the interpretation of imagery content depends on individual characteristics (Cumming & Williams, 2013). The aims of this study were to investigate: 1) whether the interpretation of negative outcome imagery was dependent on image content and participant skill level 2) the subsequent i...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated whether athletes’ sport imagery ability predicted the intensity and direction of their trait anxiety, and whether trait confidence mediated this relationship. Three-hundred and fifteen male (n = 181) and female (n = 134) athletes (Mage = 19.23; SD = 1.16) completed the Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire to measure skill, st...
Research
Full-text available
This is a guide to using the Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire (SIAQ) with athletes. It was developed by the Birmingham Research in Imagery and Observation (BRIO) group.
Article
Full-text available
Groupwork is an increasingly popular method of learning in higher education and the ability to work effectively with others is important for academic success and employability. This systematic review investigated the use of outdoor adventure education (OAE) in facilitating the development of transferable groupwork skills in higher education. The st...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate the perceived efficacy of outdoor groupwork skills programmes for undergraduate and postgraduate students, and the factors that influence its success. It also illustrates the use of Kirkpatrick’s (1994) 4-level model of training evaluation as a framework for qualitative investigation of learning and transfer, fr...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated whether imaging a brisk walk once a day over a week could increase barrier self-efficacy among women who wanted to increase their exercise behavior. Participants (N = 32, mean age = 31.90 years, SD = 10.17) were randomly allocated to either an imagery rehearsal group or control group. The 4 min 10 s guided imagery script was...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to develop and provide psychometric evidence in support of the Groupwork Skills Questionnaire (GSQ) for measuring task and interpersonal groupwork skills. A 46-item version of the GSQ was initially completed by 672 University students. The number of items was reduced to 15 following exploratory factor analyses and a...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined the relationship between dance-related perfectionism and perceptions of motivational climate in dance over time. In doing so, three possibilities were tested: (a) perfectionism affects perceptions of the motivational climate, (b) perceptions of the motivational climate affect perfectionism, and (c) the relationship is rec...
Article
Full-text available
The 2 × 2 model posits that different combinations of evaluative concerns and personal standards perfectionism contribute to four distinct perfectionism subtypes (or profiles). This study provides further analysis of data from the only study to date to test this model in dance (Cumming & Duda, 2012). In doing so, we aimed to further examine the hyp...
Article
Full-text available
Outdoor adventure education courses are used in higher education to develop transferable skills such as groupwork and problem-solving skills. There is a need for exploratory investigation into students’ perceptions of this experience. This study aimed to develop an innovative qualitative data collection method, and to use it to explore students’ pe...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This is a guide to using the Groupwork Skills Questionnaire (GSQ) in Higher Education as part of the Birmingham Evaluating Skills Transfer (BEST) Project. For more information, see www.bestskills.co.uk.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background Students working in cross-cultural groups can experience challenges, including different language skills and understanding of interpersonal behaviours. Without appropriate skills to manage these differences, cultural isolation can occur if people choose to primarily work with those of similar backgrounds. This study explores the benefit...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a mental skills training (MST) program for male youth elite rugby athletes. Three focus groups were held with 21 under-16 male rugby athletes and four male coaches involved in the MST program to examine the quality of service delivery, athlete responses to the MST program, the m...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides guidelines for coaches and applied practitioners to create effective imagery scripts for use with their athletes. Supported by the imagery literature, we describe the planning, writing, delivering, and evaluating stages of script development. We explain the importance of considering the five Ws (Who, Where and When, Why, and W...
Article
Full-text available
Imagery studies have varied widely in the methods used to deliver guided imagery interventions. This variation has led to difficulties comparing studies and uncertainty as to what methods should be followed. A review is needed to evaluate the interventions to date to inform applied recommendations. The aim of this systematic review was to (1) asses...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to test Lang’s bioinformational theory by comparing the effects of layered stimulus and response training (LSRT) with imagery practice on improvements in imagery ability and performance of a motor skill (golf putting) in 24 novices (age, M = 20.13 years; SD = 1.65; 12 female) low in imagery ability. Participants were randomly assig...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the reliability of a retrospective recall methodology for providing evidence of deliberate imagery practice. A secondary purpose was to determine which imagery activities constituted the sport-specific definition of deliberate practice (Starkes, Deakin, Allard, Hodges, & Hayes, 1996). Ninety-three Canadian athletes from one of t...