Jennifer Bernal

Jennifer Bernal
Food and Nutrition Child-Women Consultant

PhD

About

71
Publications
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490
Citations

Publications

Publications (71)
Article
Shame experienced with food insecurity and participating in food assistance may affect adolescents. We investigated adolescents’ experiences of shame related to food insecurity and situations for these experiences in an ethnically diverse sample of 40 adolescents aged 9–15 years from South Carolina and Oregon. In-depth interviews were recorded, tra...
Article
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Venezuela has had the largest migration in recent history, with 4.8 million people displaced due to sociopolitical, economic, electrical blackouts, and health crises. Nine out of 10 migrants are facing food insecurity during the COVID19 pandemic. Colombia has received the largest number of Venezuelans migrants, counting officially 1,764,883 to date...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 crisis (SARS-CoV-2) might transform into a food catastrophe in Latin America and would increase the number of people suffering from hunger from 135 to 265 million, particularly in Venezuela, Guatemala, Honduras, Haiti and El Salvador, already facing economic and health crises. This manuscript presents the position of a group of Latin A...
Article
Full-text available
La inseguridad alimentaria (IA) y hambre afectan a 820 millones de personas en el mundo, 187 millones en América Latina y el Caribe, 18,5 millones en Latinoamérica con más severas crisis humanitarias y a más de la mitad de la población en Colombia. En niños y adolescentes la IA ha sido poco estudiada en Colombia, en parte por ausencia de instrument...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 crisis (SARS-CoV-2) might transform into a food catastrophe in Latin America and would increase the number of people suffering from hunger from 135 to 265 million, particularly in Venezuela, Guatemala, Honduras, Haiti and El Salvador, already facing economic and health crises. This manuscript presents the position of a group of Latin A...
Article
Full-text available
These recommendations are based on current scientific evidence obtained through meta-analysis and systematic reviews on nutrition and the prevention of respiratory infections related to SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV or influenza, similar in structure to SARS-CoV-2. They are aimed at primary health care personnel and to those who provide essential services to...
Article
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Estas recomendaciones se basan en la evidencia científica actual derivada de meta-análisis y revisiones sistemáticas sobre nutrición y prevención de infecciones respiratorias causadas por los virus SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV o influenza, similares en su estructura al SARS-CoV-2. Están dirigidas al personal en la primera línea de atención de salud y al pers...
Article
Full-text available
La crisis por COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) puede convertirse en una catástrofe alimentaria para Latinoamérica, aumentando las personas que padecen hambre de 135 a 265 millones, especialmente en Venezuela, Guatemala, Honduras, Haití y El Salvador, que ya enfrentaban crisis económicas y sanitarias. Este manuscrito presenta la posición de un grupo de experto...
Article
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ABSTRACT. Introduction: Describe malnutrition due to deficiency and excess in children and adolescents aged 0 to 17 years, based on geographical spatial representation in Medellin, Colombia. Material and methods: Cross-sectional population study and multistage random sample design (n = 6075), representative of the children living in the 16 urban co...
Article
Background: Regular family meals foster healthy physical and social development of children but often occur less frequently in households experiencing food insecurity. How food insecurity influences the quality of these interactions is not understood well. Objective: To better understand family meal experiences of caregivers and children living...
Article
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America. These recommendations are based on current systematic reviews on nutrition and the prevention of respiratory infections related to SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV or at primary health care personnel and to those who provide essential services to the community and are, consequently, at high risk of COVID-19 infection. These individuals wear personal pro...
Article
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p> Introducción. La resiliencia alimentaria en niños es la capacidad de adaptarse y enfrentarse a la falta de condiciones adecuadas para obtener alimentos y nutrición, un constructo que ha sido poco estudiado. Objetivo. Identificar y medir indicadores de resiliencia alimentaria en niños y adolescentes de comunidades de escasos recursos de Venezuel...
Article
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En Venezuela, de acuerdo al estudio ENCOVI realizado en el aria 2016, de las tres comidas principales diarias, el desayuno es la comida que mas se omite en 22 % de la población estudiada. Esta cifra puede ser mayor en las estratos socio económicos de menores ingresos. Ya desde el año 2014 se reportaba que 11,30 % de la población venezolana solo com...
Poster
Full-text available
Los estudios sobre estilos de vida saludable en universitarios comprenden una estrategia útil de salud pública ya que es, la transición de adolescencia a edad adulta, la etapa en que se consolidan los hábitos alimentarios. Con el objetivo de evaluar los hábitos de alimentación y su asociación con el estado nutricional en un grupo de universitarios...
Article
Full-text available
We studied the association of shame when children experience food insecurity and management strategies. The cross-sectional study assessed food insecurity in 404 children using 2 instruments with 10 and 11 items for food insecurity and management strategies. Food insecurity in children was associated with shame of others knowing that they were out...
Conference Paper
Regularity of family meals is lower in households experiencing food insecurity. Many food-insecure households also experience chaos, defined as exhibiting “unpredictable, non-routine, inconsistent, and non-contingent physical and social surroundings.” Household chaos may negatively impact the quality of family meal interactions. This is a concern b...
Conference Paper
Family meals are associated with healthy social and physical development in children, including reduced risk of obesity. Shared family meals are traditionally viewed as a time for family to limit distractions and bond. Television (TV) viewing during family meals is associated with higher calorie intake, lower diet quality, more sedentary hours, and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Children are cognitively, emotionally, and physically aware of food insecurity and respond to it by participation in adult strategies, initiating their own, and generating resources. Food insecurity is substantially detrimental for children, resulting in behavior problems, disrupted social interactions, compromised school performance, poor diet, le...
Article
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Los hábitos de alimentación del individuo condicionan el estado nutricional, la salud o la enfermedad. Las enfermedades cardiovasculares, cerebrovasculares, cáncer y diabetes son las principales causas de morbilidad y mortalidad en el mundo (OMS, 2015), las cuales están vinculadas a la inadecuada alimentación y la ausencia de una vida activa. Una r...
Article
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Household food security shows little indication of nutrient inadequacy among children, according to reports made by parents. We examined the associations of food insecurity as reported by children and mothers with children's consumption of energy, macronutrients such as vitamin A, calcium, iron and zinc, and selected foods, and whether these associ...
Article
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Introduction: The instruments to estimate consumed portion are a key factor, which ensures data quality in surveys of food intake assessment. Venezuela does not have a tool like this, properly validated and published. The aim of the study was develop a photographic atlas as a complementary tool for assess usual food consumption in Venezuelan adults...
Article
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Introducción: Las herramientas de ayuda para estimar las porciones de alimento ingeridas representan un factor clave para elevar la calidad de los datos obtenidos en las encuestas de consumo alimentario. Hasta el momento, Venezuela no cuenta con alguna herramienta, debidamente validada y publicada, por tal motivo, el objetivo de este estudio fue de...
Article
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Objective: Our aim was to determine and analyze the dietary PRAL and food composition pattern in apparently healthy children from 1 to 6 years of age. Methods: Parents of 52 children were selected by convenience, in an outpatient clinic of healthy children. Dietary quality and pattern was assessed by 24 hour recall and food frequency questionnai...
Article
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The Agency Water held in 2012 on «Water and Food Security,» noting that people drink 2 to 4 liters of water/day; however, most of our drinking water is incorporated into the food eaten. The aim of the study is to compare the access, frequency and treatment of water with food insecurity and hunger (FIH) in households. The research is descriptive and...
Article
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Folic acid (FA) is essential during the first 28 days of pregnancy, when most mothers still do not know that they are pregnant and will remain essential throughout the life cycle. More than two decades ago the role of FA acid in the prevention of neural tube defects was first reported. AF is also involved in preventing the deterioration of cognitiv...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction. For 25 years, mothers were assumed to be the best reporters of food insecurity (FI). Recent studies, however, demonstrate that children have unique experiences of FI, children can report their own FI, and adult and child reports of FI are discordant. Who should be the reporter of children’s FI needs to be better understood. We tested...
Article
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Household food insecurity has substantial detrimental effects on children, but little is known about the mechanisms through which these effects occur. This study investigated some possible mechanisms by examining associations of food insecurity reported by children and mothers with daily activities, school absenteeism, and stunting. We conducted a...
Article
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Coexistence of food insecurity and obesity is expected given that both are consequences of economic and social disadvantage. Food insecurity and obesity are positively associated in adult women but not men. There is some evidence of association in adolescents, but mixed results for children. Distinct from adults, children experience cognitive, emot...
Article
Full-text available
The Agency Water held in 2012 on «Water and Food Security,» noting that people drink 2 to 4 liters of water/day; however, most of our drinking water is incorporated into the food eaten. The aim of the study is to compare the access, frequency and treatment of water with food insecurity and hunger (FIH) in households. Descriptive and cross-sectional...
Article
Full-text available
Shame helps cement social cooperation, in part by triggering facial expressions that provide biological “honest signals” recovering trust. The variability of feelings of shame among children and its relationship with food insecurity and happiness were assessed using questionnaires filled by children. The strongest feeling of shame in children was b...
Article
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The project of updating the Venezuelan energy reference values respond to the recommendations made by an FAO experts committee, several decades ago for the countries assuming this work. Because of the dramatic changes experienced globally regarding energy intake/expenditure and particularly variations on the Venezuelan nutritional scenario with the...
Article
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En 2011 un grupo de investigadores, quienes habían participado en la propuesta de valores de referencia del año 2000, publicada por el Instituto Nacional de Nutrición, plantean la necesidad de actualizar los valores de referencia de energía y nutrientes de acuerdo al informe del comité de expertos convocado por FAO/OMS/UNU, publicado en 2004. En el...
Article
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Exceed salt intake is a common practice, that leads to pathological consequences in the whole population, even more in the patient with renal disease. High salt consumption has been associated with hypertension, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease that are responsible for 60% of worldwide morbi-mortality. The World Health Organization recomm...
Article
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El consumo proteico excesivo incrementa la producción endógena de ácido, lo que puede conducir a acidosis metabólica, pérdida de masa ósea, hipercalciuria, urolitiasis, retardo del crecimiento y sarcopenia, entre otros. Objetivo: Estimar y analizar la Carga Ácida Potencial Renal (CAPR) de la dieta en niños de 2 a 6 años. Métodos: Estudio descriptiv...
Article
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Children's experiences of food insecurity (FI) may be conceptually distinct and different from those of adults. Previous study of children's experiences of FI has relied primarily on their parents' perspective. This study explored, described, and conceptualized experiences of FI in children attending 5 public schools in peri-urban areas of the Mira...
Article
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In The United Nations Millenium Declarations on the Developmental Goals approved by the general assembly in 2000, the countries made a commitment to reduce the number of persons suffering from hunger by the year 2015. In 2004, FAO approved the Voluntary Guidelines on the right to adequate food in the context of national Food Security and provided a...
Article
Mixed quali-quantitative methods allow the design of instruments that capture personal perceptions that quantify food and/or nutrition situations. The aim of this paper is to report how the use of mixed methods could be useful in constructing scales that identifies food and nutrition themes. We selected four scales based on mixed methods. A first q...
Article
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Living conditions and health have an effect on the nutritional status of children and adolescents' growth and development in poor environments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between household food security with nutrition. Indicators used were height for age (HA), weight for age (WA), and body composition. The study was cross...
Article
One of the goals of the developing countries was to promote the crops and consumption of traditional food, in order to preserve the culture of the regions. Nevertheless, in spite of the fact that the traditional food occupy a place favored in the agriculture-food consumption chain in Guatemala, from the decades of the seventies, now the production...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract. Abstract. Abstract. Closing the gap between the knowledge generated by the scientists and the application in the public nutrition continues being a challenge for the Venezuelan society. The diagnoses, prevalence, descriptive studies, knowledge of reasons and consequences, must help to appreciate, analyze and take actions related to the fo...
Article
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Household food security (HFS) has been the object of research for more than a decade. Most studies have focused on head of households or female food managers' scale-based perception of food security level that has so far been shown to be reliable and valid. Yet, world research that reports children or adolescents perceptions is scarce. This study a...
Article
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La Seguridad Alimentaria en Hogares (SAH) ha sido objeto de estuio desde hace más de una década. La mayoría de las investigaciones se han foclizado en la percepción en adultos: jefes de hogar y/o el ama de casa sobre el nivel de Seguridad Alimentaria del Hogar, a través de una escala que ha resultado ser valida y confiable. No obstante, son escasas...
Article
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Objective: The objective of this research is to analyze the nutritional status and household food security of asample of healthy pregnant women who attend to external medicine service at Concepcion Palacios Maternity located in Caracas, Venezuela, and identify variables, which could predict the nutritional status of the evaluated group. Method: Thi...
Article
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The objective of this research is to analyze the nutritional status and household food security of a sample of healthy pregnant women who attend to external medicine service at Concepcion Palacios Maternity located in Caracas, Venezuela, and identify variables, which could predict the nutritional status of the evaluated group. This cross sectional,...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to determine possible predictors of household food diversity among beneficiaries of government subsidized day care centers in poor communities located in five regions of Venezuela. Food diversity score is the number of primary foods available to the household during a specified period. Four hundred sixty four households...
Article
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El objetivo del presente trabajo es determinar posibles predictores de la diversidad alimentaria en hogares vinculados a guarderías infantiles en zonas pobres de cinco regiones de Venezuela. La diversidad alimentaria se refiere al número de alimentos primarios diferentes disponibles en el hogar en un periodo determinado. Se estudió 464 hogares sele...
Article
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The objective of this paper is to present, compare and analyse results of three surveys to estimate the level of food insecurity and hunger in deprived homes. Surveys were carried out in poor communities in Venezuela: Ojo de Agua (1995), El Petróleo (1997-98) and ocho estados (2000-01). Study design, pre-test and application of a simple method to e...
Article
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The aim of this study was to estimate household measure diet quality, using a dietary diversity score, and its associated demographic and socio-economic factors. One hundred fifty three households representatives of the Capital District and Miranda State belonging of seventy seven day care children centers were studied. To gather data on dietary di...
Article
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Beneficiary satisfaction with the food and nutrition component of a child care social program (MCD) together with other socioeconomic, demographic, and nutritional variables previously shown to predict the household food security (HFS) level of poor households were explored This is a cross sectional, descriptive, comparative study on a sample of 14...
Article
Two Likert-type scales for measuring parents' and caretakers' level of satisfaction with the food and nutrition services offered at childcare multi-centers in a peri-urban community in Caracas, were developed and validated. An intentional sample of 20 parents and caretakers were interviewed within the naturalistic-constructivist perspective, to cap...
Article
Este estudio busca caracterizar el perfil socioeconómico y alimentario de hogares de niños y madres cuidadoras y la disponibilidad alimentaria en Multihogares de Cuidado Diario (MCD) de una zona de bajos recursos en Caracas. Se estudió una muestra intencional de 93 representantes y 25 cuidadoras en 9 MCD, recolectando información sobre las caracter...
Article
This paper describes the socioeconomic and food characteristics of the homes of 93 children and 25 caretakers in 9 childcare centers in an underprivileged community in Caracas. Information on income income spent on food and social characteristics (modified Graffar method) were gathered. Food adquisition was estimated using a validated food-record-m...
Article
Full-text available
One of the goals of the developing countries was to promote the crops and consumption of traditional food, in order to preserve the culture of the regions. Nevertheless, in spite of the fact that the traditional food occupy a place favored in the agriculture-food consumption chain in Guatemala, from the decades of the seventies, now the production...

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