Jennie Popay

Jennie Popay
Lancaster University | LU · Centre for Health Equity and Knowledge Exchange

About

187
Publications
158,359
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Publications

Publications (187)
Article
Full-text available
Aims This article seeks to make the case for a new approach to understanding and nurturing resilience as a foundation for effective place-based co-produced local action on social and health inequalities. Methods A narrative review of literature on community resilience from a public health perspective was conducted and a new concept of neighbourhoo...
Chapter
In this chapter we will consider what the qualitative research imagination ‘is’—touching on key questions that should be addressed by all researchers regardless of their approach.) In the first part of the chapter we will consider the first two questions focusing on the type of ‘knowledge’ generated by qualitative research and in the second part on...
Article
Both environmental improvement and collective agency over local decisions are recognised strategies for promoting health and health equity. However, both strategies have been critiqued for their association with policies that emphasise local resources and decision-making while the state disinvests in social and environmental determinants of health....
Article
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Background Action to address the structural determinants of health inequalities is prioritized in high-level initiatives such as the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and many national health strategies. Yet, the focus of much local policy and practice is on behaviour change. Research shows that whilst lifestyle approaches can improve po...
Article
There are significant geographical inequalities in health. Spatial stigma - negative representations of particular localities - could be an important mechanism through which place influences population health. To explore this, we undertook a narrative synthesis of studies reporting residents' perspectives of living in stigmatised localities. Qualit...
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Background Area-based initiatives (ABIs) are receiving renewed interest as a part of the ‘place-based public health’ approaches to reducing health inequalities. Purpose Examine associations between collective control, social cohesion and health amongst residents involved in the Big Local (BL) ABI. Methods Survey data on general health, mental wel...
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Background: Women live longer than men, even though many of the recognised social determinants of health are worse for women than men. No existing explanations account fully for these differences in life expectancy, although they do highlight the complexity and interaction of biological, social and health service factors. Methods: this paper is...
Article
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Introduction Applying a complex systems perspective to public health evaluation may increase the relevance and strength of evidence to improve health and reduce health inequalities. In this review of methods, we aimed to: (i) classify and describe different complex systems methods in evaluation applied to public health; and (ii) examine the kinds o...
Article
Purpose: Strengthening research capacity (RC) amongst health professionals has both organisational and individual benefits. It can increase the quality of research and support the transfer of evidence into practice and policy. However there is little evidence on what works to develop and strengthen RC. This paper contributes to the evidence base by...
Article
Both environmental improvement and collective agency over local decisions are recognised strategies for promoting health and health equity. However, both strategies have been critiqued for their association with policies that emphasise local resources and decision-making while the state disinvests in social and environmental determinants of health....
Article
Full-text available
Background While in general a country’s life expectancy increases with national income, some countries “punch above their weight”, while some “punch below their weight” – achieving higher or lower life expectancy than would be predicted by their per capita income. Discovering which conditions or policies contribute to this outcome is critical to im...
Article
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Background Engaging the community in decisions-making is recognised as important for improving public health, and is recommended in global alcohol strategies, and in national policies on controlling alcohol availability. Yet there is little understanding of how to engage communities to influence decision-making to help reduce alcohol-related harms....
Preprint
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Background: Action to address the structural determinants of health inequalities is prioritised in high level initiatives such as the UN Sustainable Development Goals and many national health strategies. Yet, the focus of much local policy and practice is on behaviour change. Research shows that whilst lifestyle approaches can improve population he...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The Household Health Survey (HHS) was developed to understand the socioeconomic determinants of mental and physical health, and health inequalities in health and social care. This paper aims to provide a detailed rationale of the development and implementation of the survey and explore socio-economic variations in physical and mental h...
Article
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Community initiatives aiming to reduce health inequalities are increasingly common in health policy. Though diverse many such initiatives aim to support residents of disadvantaged places to exercise greater collective control over decisions/actions that affect their lives - which research suggests is an important determinant of health – and some se...
Article
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Introduction There is an extensive literature on public involvement (PI) in research, but this has focused primarily on experiences for researchers and public contributors and factors enabling or restricting successful involvement in specific projects. There has been less consideration of a ‘whole system’ approach to embedding PI across an organiza...
Article
Place-based stigma is linked with health and social harms, but few studies have assessed what actions may reduce these. Area-based programmes are one potential strategy but may exacerbate stigma by targeting disadvantaged neighbourhoods. We reviewed newspaper coverage in two stigmatised neighbourhoods to identify whether a programme funded in these...
Article
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This paper – third in a series of three – uses theoretical frameworks described in Part 1, and empirical markers reported in Part 2, to present evidence on how power dynamics shifted during the early years of a major English community empowerment initiative. We demonstrate how the capabilities disadvantaged communities require to exercise collectiv...
Article
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Background: Despite insistent calls for more and better evidence to inform action to reduce health inequities, applied health research sensitive to these inequalities is rare. Recognising this problem, the Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Research and Care in the North West Coast (England) developed the Health Inequalities Assessment Toolki...
Article
In the context of health inequalities, spatial stigma refers to the ways that areas experiencing socioeconomic inequalities become negatively portrayed and labelled in public, official and policy discourses. With respect to the body of research on social determinants of health and health inequalities, and attention accorded to this issue in policy...
Article
In the health field there is great interest in the role empowerment might play in reducing social inequalities in health. Empowerment is understood here as the processes of developing capabilities that individuals and/or communities need to exercise control over decisions and actions impacting on their lives and health. There is a fundamental probl...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Action to address the structural determinants of health inequalities is prioritised in high level initiatives such as the UN Sustainable Development Goals and many national health strategies. Yet, the focus of much local policy and practice is on behaviour change. Research shows that whilst lifestyle approaches can improve population he...
Article
Introduction: Engaging communities in actions to reduce alcohol harms has been identified as an international priority. While there exist recommendations for community engagement within alcohol licensing legislation, there is limited understanding of how to involve communities in local decision-making to reduce harms from the alcohol environment....
Article
Background: Area-based initiatives that include a focus on community empowerment are increasingly being seen as potentially an important way of improving health and reducing inequalities. However, there is little empirical evidence on the pathways between communities having more control and health outcomes. Purpose: To identify pathways to health...
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Trust has been consistently identified as an important enabling factor for joined‐up government activity to generate strong, integrated and effective social policy. Despite this, there has been comparatively little detailed analysis of the complexities and dynamics involved. This paper provides a detailed examination of how trust is built, nurtured...
Article
Background There has been a growth in interest in applying systems thinking to public health research, including greater consideration of the complex and changing nature of real-world environments where public health interventions take place. We aimed to assess how a systems approach could be applied in the context of public health evaluation. Met...
Article
Background Area reputation (AR) refers to the ways that geographical localities are portrayed (eg, in media coverage) either positively or negatively. AR is rarely recognised as a social determinant of health inequalities and is not adequately considered in public health interventions. Using residents' accounts from a study of a major community emp...
Article
The pathways to vulnerability to debt and what works to reduce such vulnerability are poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted an evidence review. Many low-income borrowers have little alternative but to resort to high interest lending. Developing 'affordable' lending alternatives has been a challenge. Policy-makers have advoc...
Article
There is a need for greater conceptual clarity in place-based initiatives that seek to give residents of disadvantaged neighbourhoods more control over action to address the social determinants of health inequalities at a local level. In this article, we address this issue as it relates to the concepts of participation and inclusion. We draw on qua...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Life expectancy initially improves rapidly with economic development but then tails off. Yet, at any level of economic development, some countries do better, and some worse, than expected - they either punch above or below their weight. Why this is the case has been previously researched but no full explanation of the complexity of thi...
Article
In recent years, there has been growing emphasis on the need to develop ways of capturing ‘complexity’ in the evaluation of health initiatives in order to produce better evidence about ‘how’ and under what conditions such interventions work. Used alone, conventional methods of evaluation that attempt to reduce intervention processes and outcomes to...
Article
Full-text available
There is a need for greater conceptual clarity in place-based initiatives that seek to give residents of disadvantaged neighbourhoods more control over action to address the social determinants of health inequalities at a local level. In this article, we address this issue as it relates to the concepts of participation and inclusion. We draw on qua...
Article
Full-text available
There is strong, and growing, evidence documenting health inequities across the world. However, most governments do not prioritize policies to encourage action on the social determinants of health and health equity. Furthermore, despite evidence concerning the benefits of joined-up, intersectoral policy to promote health and health equity, it is ra...
Article
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Background We assess the utility of the Public Involvement Impact Assessment Framework (PiiAF) as a resource to support research teams in assessing the impact of Public Involvement across diverse research and public involvement (PI) contexts. PiiAF was developed in response to a well‐documented growth in Public Involvement in health research in the...
Article
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Throughout the UK severe funding cuts are straining the capacity of local governments, National Health Service and voluntary organisations to improve public health and reduce health inequalities. At times like this, the word ‘resilience’ is invoked as a neoliberal mantra similar to “individual or community responsibility”. Decreased public funding...
Article
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It is now widely accepted that context matters in evaluations of the health inequalities impact of community-based social initiatives. Systems thinking offers a lens for uncovering the dynamic relationship between such initiatives and their social contexts. However, there are very few examples that show how a systems approach can be applied in prac...
Article
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Background Interventions to develop community-level empowerment and participation are advocated within public health strategies that emphasise the importance of control as a social determinant of health. Approaches to defining and measuring collective control, however, are limited. We developed and applied a contextually specific framework for iden...
Article
Background Evaluation of community empowerment initiatives for their effects on health inequalities presents a paradox to researchers. By definition, such initiatives aim to empower people to influence decisions that affect their lives. However, once empowered, people might not necessarily take the decisions that the originators of the intervention...
Data
Table S1. List of Included/Excluded Systematic Reviews, References, Cochrane Search Strategy, Inclusion Criteria, Jargon Buster
Data
Table S2. List of Included Articles from textbooks/edited books
Data
Appendix S2. Happy Values Families – Card Game.
Article
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This study was set in 39 neighbourhoods involved in a government-funded regeneration programme called New Deal for Communities (NDC) that began in 1998. We tested whether or not different approaches to engage residents in decision-making in these areas had different social and health impacts. Methods First, NDC approaches to community engagement (...
Article
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Health in All Policies (HiAP) is a policy development approach that facilitates intersectoral responses to addressing the social determinants of health and health equity whilst, at the same time, contributing to policy priorities across the various sectors of government. Given that different models of HiAP have been implemented in at least 16 count...
Article
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A large body of evidence documents the adverse relationship between concentrated deprivation and health. Among the evaluations of regeneration initiatives to tackle these spatial inequalities, few have traced the trajectories of individuals over time and fewer still have employed counterfactual comparison. We investigate the impact of one such init...
Article
Background Previous evaluations of area-based initiatives have not compared intervention areas with the full range of areas from top to bottom of the social spectrum to evaluate their health inequalities impact. Setting Deprived areas subject to the New Deal for Communities (NDC) intervention, local deprivation-matched comparator areas, and areas d...
Article
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Objective To explore areas of consensus and conflict in relation to perceived public involvement (PI) barriers and drivers, perceived impacts of PI and ways of evaluating PI approaches in health and social care research. Background Internationally and within the UK the recognition of potential benefits of PI in health and social care research is ga...
Article
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This article describes some of the crucial theoretical, methodological and practical issues that need to be considered when evaluating Health in All Policies (HiAP) initiatives. The approaches that have been applied to evaluate HiAP in South Australia are drawn upon as case studies, and early findings from this evaluative research are provided. The...
Article
Full-text available
There is growing interest in the potential benefits of public involvement (PI) in health and social care research. However, there has been little examination of values underpinning PI or how these values might differ for different groups with an interest in PI in the research process. We aimed to explore areas of consensus and conflict around norma...
Chapter
In 2010, we embarked on a study evaluating the impact of an area-based regeneration intervention on health inequalities in England. The policy initiative in question was called New Deal for Communities – a major programme implemented in 39 disadvantaged neighbourhoods over 10 years from 1999/2000 to 2010/2011. Due to methodological and practical ch...
Article
Full-text available
Much has been written about public involvement (PI) in health and social care research, but underpinning values are rarely made explicit despite the potential for these to have significant influence on the practice and assessment of PI. The narrative review reported here is part of a larger MRC-funded study which is producing a framework and relate...
Article
Background Public involvement (PI) in research, promoted by the UK Department of Health, has gained considerable momentum. Despite this, examination of the actual impacts of this involvement or how such impacts might be measured effectively remains limited. Evidence about the impact of PI is essential to ensure integrity, avoid harmful effects and...
Article
Full-text available
The psychosocial work environment can benefit and harm mental health. Poor psychosocial work environments and high level work-family conflict are both associated with poor mental health, yet little is known about how people with poor mental health manage the interactions among multiple life domains. This study explores the interfaces among paid wor...
Article
Full-text available
Background New Deal for Communities (NDC), a 10-year area-based regeneration initiative begun in 1999 in 39 disadvantaged neighbourhoods in England, has the potential to reduce health inequalities because it focuses on key social determinants of these inequalities: unemployment, crime, education, housing and the physical environment. This study ass...
Article
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Piroska Östlin and colleagues argue that a paradigm shift is needed to keep the focus on health equity within the social determinants of health research agenda.
Conference Paper
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The present working document aims to provide support to and additional background for the European Commission in its process of reviewing the health components of the National Roma Integration Strategies during the first quarter of 2012. It is for a targeted audience (specifically, DG SANCO technical staff working on Roma health). This document con...
Article
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Community engagement is central to national strategies for promoting health, yet there have been few attempts to systematically review the evidence on the impact of initiatives that aim to engage communities. This rapid review fills this gap by exploring the population impact of initiatives which sought to address social determinants of health. It...
Article
Community engagement is central to strategies to promote health and well-being and reduce health inequalities in many countries, particularly interventions which focus on improving health in disadvantaged populations. Despite the widespread use of community engagement approaches, however, there have been relatively few attempts to review the eviden...
Article
Marmot review calls for renewed action to create a fairer society
Chapter
IntroductionBackground The studyA summary of the quantitative study findingsFindings from the qualitative studyDiscussionAcknowledgementsNotesReferences