Jemma L. Geoghegan

Jemma L. Geoghegan
Macquarie University · Department of Biological Sciences

About

87
Publications
10,152
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1,919
Citations
Citations since 2017
71 Research Items
1778 Citations
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Publications

Publications (87)
Preprint
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New Zealand (NZ)’s elimination of community transmission of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in May 2020, due to stringent COVID-19 countermeasures, provided a rare opportunity to assess the impact of border restrictions and relaxations on common respiratory viral infections over the subsequent two-years. Using multiple su...
Article
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In the second quarter of 2022, there was a global surge of emergent SARS-CoV-2 lineages that had a distinct growth advantage over then-dominant Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 lineages. By generating 10,403 Omicron genomes, we show that Aotearoa New Zealand observed an influx of these immune-evasive variants (BA.2.12.1, BA.4, and BA.5) through the border. Th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Genomic technologies have become routine in the surveillance and monitoring of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, as evidenced by the millions of SARS-CoV-2 sequences uploaded to the Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data (GISAID). Yet the ways in which these technologies have been applied to manage the pandemic are varied...
Article
Full-text available
Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV)—the aetiological agent of white tail disease—is a major limiting factor of crustacean aquaculture as it causes up to 100% mortality in M. rosenbergii larvae and juveniles. Despite the importance of MrNV, there have been few studies on the phylogenetic diversity and geographic range of this virus in Austral...
Article
Bats are important reservoirs for viruses of public health and veterinary concern. Virus studies in Australian bats usually target the families Paramyxoviridae, Coronaviridae and Rhabdoviridae, with little known about their overall virome composition. We used metatranscriptomic sequencing to characterise the faecal virome of grey-headed flying foxe...
Article
Tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) are one of the most phylogenetically isolated vertebrate species and provide a unique host system to study virus evolution. While the tuatara genome, sequenced in 2020, revealed many endogenous viral elements, we know little of the exogenous viruses that infect tuatara. We performed a metatranscriptomics study of tuata...
Article
Full-text available
New Zealand’s COVID-19 elimination strategy heavily relied on the use of genomics to inform contact tracing, linking cases to the border and to clusters during community outbreaks. In August 2021, New Zealand entered its second nationwide lockdown after the detection of a single community case with no immediately apparent epidemiological link to th...
Preprint
Bats are important reservoirs for viruses of public health and veterinary concern. Virus studies in Australian bats usually target the families Paramyxoviridae, Coronaviridae and Rhabdoviridae , with little known about their overall virome composition. We used metatranscriptomic sequencing to characterise the faecal virome of grey-headed flying fox...
Preprint
Full-text available
Tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) are one of the most phylogenetically isolated species and provide a unique host system to study virus evolution. While the tuatara genome, sequenced in 2020, revealed many endogenous viral elements, we know little of the exogenous viruses that infect tuatara. We performed a metatranscriptomics study of tuatara cloaca s...
Article
Our current understanding of plant viruses stems largely from those affecting economically important plants. Yet plant species in cultivation represent a small and biased subset of the plant kingdom. Here, we describe virus diversity and abundance in 1,079 transcriptomes from species across the breadth of the plant kingdom (Archaeplastida) by analy...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) — the largest coral reef ecosystem in the world — supports over 1200 fish species with some of the highest population densities and diversities seen in vertebrates, offering a high potential for virus transmission among species. As such, the GBR represents an exceptional natural ecosystem to determine the impact of host...
Preprint
Full-text available
New Zealand's COVID-19 elimination strategy heavily relied on the use of genomics to inform contact tracing, linking cases to the border and to clusters during community outbreaks. In August 2021, New Zealand entered its second nationwide lockdown after the detection of a single community case with no immediately apparent epidemiological link to th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Current knowledge of plant viruses stems largely from those affecting economically important plants. Yet, plant species in cultivation represent a small and bias subset of the plant kingdom. Here, we describe virus diversity and abundance from a survey of 1079 transcriptomes from species across the breadth of the plant kingdom (Archaeplastida) by a...
Article
Full-text available
Viruses that infect fish are understudied, yet they provide important evolutionary context to the viruses that infect terrestrial vertebrates. We surveyed gill tissue meta-transcriptomes collected from two species of native freshwater fish from Aotearoa New Zealand—Retropinna retropinna and Gobiomorphus cotidianus. A total of 64 fish were used for...
Article
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In New Zealand, international arrivals are quarantined and undergo severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 screening; those who test positive are transferred to a managed isolation facility (MIF). Solo traveler A and person E from a 5-person travel group (BCDEF) tested positive. After transfer to the MIF, person A and group BCDEF occupied r...
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Background: COVID-19 elimination measures, including border closures have been applied in New Zealand. We have modelled the potential effect of vaccination programmes for opening borders. Methods: We used a deterministic age-stratified Susceptible, Exposed, Infectious, Recovered (SEIR) model. We minimised spread by varying the age-stratified vaccin...
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Full-text available
Late in 2020, two genetically-distinct clusters of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with mutations of biological concern were reported, one in the United Kingdom and one in South Africa. Using a combination of data from routine surveillance, genomic sequencing and international travel we track the international dispersal...
Article
Since severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was first eliminated in New Zealand in May 2020, a total of 13 known coronavirus disease (COVID-19) community outbreaks have occurred, 2 of which led health officials to issue stay-at-home orders. These outbreaks originated at the border via isolating returnees, airline workers, and cargo vessel...
Article
Full-text available
New Zealand, Australia, Iceland, and Taiwan all saw success at controlling their first waves of COVID-19. As islands, they make excellent case studies for exploring the effects of international travel and human movement on the spread of COVID-19. We employed a range of robust phylodynamic methods and genome subsampling strategies to infer the epide...
Article
Full-text available
The Nidovirales comprise a genetically diverse group of positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus families that infect a range of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Recent metagenomic studies have identified nido-like virus sequences, particularly those related to the Coronaviridae, in a range of aquatic hosts including fish, amphibians and reptiles...
Article
Full-text available
Late in 2020, two genetically-distinct clusters of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with mutations of biological concern were reported, one in the United Kingdom and one in South Africa. Using a combination of data from routine surveillance, genomic sequencing and international travel we track the international dispersal...
Preprint
Full-text available
There have been thirteen known COVID-19 community outbreaks in Aotearoa New Zealand since the virus was first eliminated in May 2020, two of which led to stay-at-home orders being issued by health officials. These outbreaks originated at the border; via isolating returnees, airline workers, and cargo vessels. With a public health system informed by...
Article
Real-time genomic sequencing has played a major role in tracking the global spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), contributing greatly to disease mitigation strategies. In August 2020, after having eliminated the virus, New Zealand experienced a second outbreak. During that outbreak, New Zealand used genomic sequen...
Article
Full-text available
Identifying the animal reservoirs from which zoonotic viruses will likely emerge is central to understanding the determinants of disease emergence. Accordingly, there has been an increase in studies attempting zoonotic “risk assessment.” Herein, we demonstrate that the virological data on which these analyses are conducted are incomplete, biased, a...
Article
Full-text available
Biological invasions are among the biggest threats to freshwater biodiversity. This is increasingly relevant in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, particularly since the introduction of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). This invasive species now occupies up to 90% of fish biomass, with hugely detrimental impacts on native fauna and flora. To add...
Article
Full-text available
Rubella virus (RuV) is the causative agent of rubella (“German measles”) and remains a global health concern. Until recently, RuV was the only known member of the genus Rubivirus and the only virus species classified within the Matonaviridae family of positive-sense RNA viruses. Recently, two new rubella-like matonaviruses, Rustrela virus and Ruhug...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Nidovirales comprise a genetically diverse group of positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus families that infect a range of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Recent metagenomic studies have identified nido-like virus sequences, particularly those related to the Coronaviridae, in a range of aquatic hosts including fish, amphibians and reptiles...
Article
Full-text available
The strategy in New Zealand (Aotearoa) to eliminate coronavirus disease requires that international arrivals undergo managed isolation and quarantine and mandatory testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Combining genomic and epidemiologic data, we investigated the origin of an acute case of coronavirus disease identified in th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Biological invasions are among the biggest threats to freshwater biodiversity. This is increasingly relevant in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, particularly since the introduction of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ). This invasive species now occupies up to 90% of fish biomass, with hugely detrimental impacts on native fauna and flora. To a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Rubella virus (RuV) is the causative agent of rubella ('German measles') and remains a global health concern. Until recently, RuV was the only known member of the genus Rubivirus and the only virus species classified within the Matonaviridae family of positive-sense RNA viruses. Other matonaviruses, including two new rubella-like viruses, Rustrela...
Article
Full-text available
Revealing the determinants of virome composition is central to placing disease emergence in a broader evolutionary context. Fish are the most species-rich group of vertebrates and so provide an ideal model system to study the factors that shape virome compositions and their evolution. We characterised the viromes of 19 wild-caught species of marine...
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Full-text available
Introduction The human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV‐1) pandemic is characterized by numerous distinct sub‐epidemics (clusters) that continually fuel local transmission. The aims of this study were to identify active growing clusters, to understand which factors most influence the transmission dynamics, how these vary between different subtypes and...
Article
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Since the first wave of coronavirus disease in March 2020, citizens and permanent residents returning to New Zealand have been required to undergo managed isolation and quarantine (MIQ) for 14 days and mandatory testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As of October 20, 2020, of 62,698 arrivals, testing of persons i...
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Full-text available
New Zealand, a geographically remote Pacific island with easily sealable borders, implemented a nationwide ‘lockdown’ of all non-essential services to curb the spread of COVID-19. Here, we generate 649 SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences from infected patients in New Zealand with samples collected during the ‘first wave’, representing 56% of all confirmed...
Article
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Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) has caused mass mortalities in farmed and wild tilapia with serious economic and ecological consequences. Until recently, this virus was the sole member of the Amnoonviridae, a family within the order Articulavirales comprising segmented negative-sense RNA viruses. We sought to identify additional viruses within the Amnoon...
Preprint
Full-text available
Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) has caused mass mortalities in farmed and wild tilapia with serious economic and ecological consequences. Until recently, this virus was the sole member of the Amnoonviridae , a family within the order Articulavirales comprising segmented negative-sense RNA viruses. We sought to identify additional viruses within the Amnoo...
Article
Full-text available
Influenza viruses (family Orthomyxoviridae) infect a variety of vertebrates, including birds, humans, and other mammals. Recent metatranscriptomic studies have uncovered divergent influenza viruses in amphibians, fish and jawless vertebrates, suggesting that these viruses may be widely distributed. We sought to identify additional vertebrate influe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Influenza viruses (family Orthomyxoviridae) infect a variety of vertebrates, including birds, humans, and other mammals. Recent metatranscriptomic studies have uncovered divergent influenza viruses in amphibians, fish and jawless vertebrates, suggesting that these viruses may be widely distributed. We sought to identify additional vertebrate influe...
Article
Full-text available
The Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) has established large populations in Australia’s urban and rural areas since its introduction following European settlement. The cryptic and highly adaptable nature of foxes allows them to invade cities and live among humans while remaining largely unnoticed. Urban living and access to anthropogenic food resources also i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Identifying the animal reservoirs from which zoonotic viruses will likely emerge is central to understanding the determinants of disease emergence. Accordingly, there has been an increase in studies performing zoonotic risk assessment. Herein, we demonstrate that the virological data on which these analyses are conducted are highly biased, incomple...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) has established large populations in Australia’s urban and rural areas since its introduction following European settlement. Foxes’ cryptic and highly adaptable nature allows them to invade cities and live among humans while remaining largely unnoticed. Urban living and access to anthropogenic food resources also influ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Identifying the components of host ecology that promote virus diversity is crucial for our understanding of the drivers of virus evolution and disease emergence. As the most species rich group of vertebrates that exhibit diverse ecologies, fish provide an ideal model system to study the impacts of host ecology on the composition of their viromes. T...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Phylogenetic analysis of DNA from modern and ancient samples allows the reconstruction of important demographic and evolutionary processes. A critical component of these analyses is the estimation of evolutionary rates, which can be calibrated using information about the ages of the samples. However, the reliability of these rate estim...
Article
Full-text available
Aquaculture is the fastest growing industry worldwide. Aquatic diseases have had enormous economic and environmental impacts in the recent past and the emergence of new aquatic pathogens, particularly viruses, poses a continuous threat. Nevertheless, little is known about the diversity, abundance and evolution of fish viruses. We used a meta-transc...
Article
The virulence of viruses is a major determinant of the health burden of viral infections in humans and other species. In this article, Geoghegan and Holmes discuss how largely disparate research fields — theoretical modelling of virulence evolution and experimental dissection of genetic virulence determinants in laboratory model systems — can be br...
Article
Full-text available
There is an ongoing global pandemic of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection that results in substantial annual morbidity and mortality. In Australia, RSV is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI). Nevertheless, little is known about the extent and origins of the genetic diversity of RSV in Australia, nor the f...
Preprint
There is an ongoing global pandemic of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection that results in substantial annual morbidity and mortality. In Australia, RSV is the major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI). Nevertheless, little is known about the extent and origins of genetic diversity of RSV in Australia, nor the fac...
Article
Full-text available
There is growing interest in characterizing the viromes of diverse mammalian species, particularly in the context of disease emergence. However, little is known about virome diversity in aquatic mammals, in part due to difficulties in sampling. We characterized the virome of the exhaled breath (or blow) of the Eastern Australian humpback whale (Meg...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Recent developments in sequencing technologies make it possible to obtain genome sequences from a large number of isolates in a very short time. Bayesian phylogenetic approaches can take advantage of these data by simultaneously inferring the phylogenetic tree, evolutionary timescale, and demographic parameters (such as population grow...
Preprint
There is growing interest in characterizing the viromes of diverse mammalian species, particularly in the context of disease emergence. However, little is known about virome diversity in aquatic mammals, in part due to difficulties in sampling. We characterized the virome of the exhaled breath (or blow) of the Eastern Australian humpback whale (Meg...
Preprint
There is growing interest in characterizing the viromes of diverse mammalian species, particularly in the context of disease emergence. However, little is known about virome diversity in aquatic mammals, in part due to difficulties in sampling. We characterized the respiratory virome of the Eastern Australian humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae)...
Article
Full-text available
The factors that determine the pattern and rate of spread of influenza virus at a continental-scale are uncertain. Although recent work suggests that influenza epidemics in the United States exhibit a strong geographical correlation, the spatiotemporal dynamics of influenza in Australia, a country and continent of approximately similar size and cli...
Article
Full-text available
The study of virus disease emergence, whether it can be predicted and how it might be prevented, has become a major research topic in biomedicine. Here we show that efforts to predict disease emergence commonly conflate fundamentally different evolutionary and epidemiological time scales, and are likely to fail because of the enormous number of uns...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Recent developments in sequencing technologies make it possible to obtain genome sequences from a large number of isolates in a very short time. Bayesian phylogenetic approaches can take advantage of these data by simultaneously inferring the phylogenetic tree, evolutionary timescale, and phylodynamic parameters (such as population grow...
Preprint
Full-text available
The estimation of evolutionary rates from ancient DNA sequences can be negatively affected by among-lineage rate variation and non-random sampling. Using a simulation study, we compared the performance of three phylogenetic methods for inferring evolutionary rates from time-structured data sets: root-to-tip regression, least-squares dating, and Bay...
Article
Full-text available
The cross-species transmission of viruses from one host species to another is responsible for the majority of emerging infections. However, it is unclear whether some virus families have a greater propensity to jump host species than others. If related viruses have an evolutionary history of co-divergence with their hosts there should be evidence o...
Article
Full-text available
Background Recent developments in Bayesian phylogenetic models have increased the range of inferences that can be drawn from molecular sequence data. Accordingly, model selection has become an important component of phylogenetic analysis. Methods of model selection generally consider the likelihood of the data under the model in question. In the co...
Article
Full-text available
Emerging diseases are a major challenge to public health. Revealing the evolutionary processes that allow novel pathogens to adapt to new hosts, also the potential barriers to host adaptation, is central to understanding the drivers of disease emergence. In particular, it is unclear how the genetics and ecology of pathogens interact to shape the li...