Jelte E Bos

Jelte E Bos
TNO and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

Doctor of Philosophy

About

143
Publications
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3,393
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Publications

Publications (143)
Article
Motion sickness in automated vehicles (AVs) represents a key Human Factors concern that will negatively impact the passenger experience and, ultimately, public acceptance. Minimizing or avoiding motion sickness altogether, therefore, becomes a strategic design goal. In this article we propose principal research questions that need to be addressed a...
Article
Full-text available
To mitigate motion sickness in self-driving cars and virtual reality, one should be able to quantify its progression unambiguously. Self-report rating scales either focus on general feelings of unpleasantness or specific symptomatology. Although one generally feels worse as symptoms progress, there is anecdotal evidence suggesting a non-monotonic r...
Chapter
Motion sickness has gained renewed interested in the context of the developments in vehicle automation in which we are witnessing a transition from a driver-centric to passenger-centric design philosophy. As a corollary, motion sickness can be expected to become considerably more prevalent which creates a hurdle towards the successful introduction...
Article
Being able to anticipate upcoming motion is known to potentially mitigate sickness resulting from provocative motion. We investigated whether auditory cues could increase anticipation and subsequently reduce motion sickness. Participants (N = 20) were exposed on a sled on a rail track to two 15-min conditions. Both were identical in terms of motion...
Article
Full-text available
About two in three people have experienced carsickness at some point in their life (Reason & Brand, 1975). Little is known about current numbers of sufferers, cultural differences, or which modulating factors are being perceived as most relevant. Therefore, given a global increase of interest in carsickness driven by the development of automated ve...
Article
We investigated whether motion sickness analogous to carsickness can be studied in a moving base simulator, despite the limited motion envelope. Importantly, to avoid simulator sickness, vision outside the simulator cabin was restricted. Participants (N = 16) were exposed blindfolded to 15-min lateral sinusoidal motion at 0.2 Hz and 0.35 Hz on sepa...
Article
Full-text available
Objective This study explores the role of anticipation in motion sickness. We compared three conditions varying in motion predictability and assessed the effect of anticipation on subsequent illness ratings using a within-subjects design. Background Anticipation is thought to play a role in motion sickness by reducing the discrepancy between sense...
Article
Car handling, and hence, safety, is affected by the way we estimate speed. Speed, however, is often underestimated in degraded visual environments, including virtual environments such as driving simulators. In simulators the visual and physical motion are typically incongruent as limited by quality and amplitude, respectively, which may cause a neg...
Article
Vection, i.e. a visually induced illusory sense of self-motion, is assumed to play an essential role in visually induced motion sickness (VIMS). However, its precise role is unknown. Following the sensory conflict theory, a constant state of vection is not expected to lead to a visual-vestibular conflict whereas variability in vection, i.e. change...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Regular treatments of Ménière's disease (MD) vary largely, and no single satisfactory treatment exists. A complementary treatment popular among Dutch and Belgian patients involves eyeglasses with weak asymmetric base-in prisms, with a perceived high success rate. An explanatory mechanism is, however, lacking. Objective: To speculate...
Article
- Motion sickness is not a disorder, but a normal response to a non-normal situation in which movement plays a central role, such as car travel, sailing, flying, or virtual reality.- Almost anyone can suffer from motion sickness, as long as at least one of the organs of balance functions. If neither of the organs of balance functions the individual...
Article
Carsickness is associated with a mismatch between actual and anticipated sensory signals. Occupants of automated vehicles, especially when using a display, are at higher risk of becoming carsick than drivers of conventional vehicles. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of positioning of in-vehicle displays, and subsequent available peripheral v...
Article
Full-text available
Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known sensation in virtual environments and simulators, typically characterized by a variety of symptoms such as pallor, sweating, dizziness, fatigue, and/or nausea. Numerous methods to reduce VIMS have been previously introduced; however, a reliable countermeasure is still missing. In the present s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To date, automotive design and research is heavily biased towards the driver. However, with the rapid advance of vehicle automation, the driving task will increasingly being taken over by a machine. Automation by itself, however, will not be able to tackle the transport challenges we are facing and the need for shared mobility is now widely recogni...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: 1) To probe the effects of visual motion adaptation upon, early visual and V5/MT cortical excitability and 2) To investigate whether or not changes in cortical excitability following visual motion adaptation are related to the degree of visual dependency, i.e. an overreliance on visual cues compared to vestibular or proprioceptive cues....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: Artificial gravity through centrifugation is currently the only countermeasure providing an “Earth-like” solution to weightless health hazards. Every head movement during centrifugation, however, may cause motion sickness due to conflicts between the perceived direction of gravity and the illusory rotations caused by the vestibular acti...
Poster
Full-text available
This study for the first time reports the level of motion sickness when engaging in display based non-driving tasks in automated vehicles. Results show that that head down displays can cause motion sickness in no less than 50% of users, whereas incidence levels can be halved by positioning displays in a head up position. However, the incidence leve...
Chapter
Automation disuse and associated loss of automation benefits may occur if users of automated vehicles experience motion sickness. Compared to conventional vehicles, motion sickness will be of greater concern due to the absence of vehicle control and the anticipated engagement in non-driving tasks. Furthermore, future users are expected to be less t...
Article
Full-text available
Effects of visual roll-motion on postural sway and the subjective visual vertical (SVV) often is studied using mechanical devices, whereas electronic displays offer cheaper and more flexible alternatives. These devices typically emit and reflect light scattered by the edges of the screen, providing Earth-fixed cues of verticality. These cues may de...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Vestibular patients occasionally report aggravation or triggering of their symptoms by visual stimuli, which is called visual vestibular mismatch (VVM). These patients therefore experience discomfort, disorientation, dizziness and postural unsteadiness. Objective: Firstly, we aimed to get a better insight in the underlying mechanism...
Data
Dataset underlying the presented data. (ZIP)
Article
With modern trends of decrease in crew numbers on board ships together with increased operational demands and paperwork, crew fatigue and comfort have become more critical and are being given more importance. It is well known that environmental factors affect crew comfort and performance. The two outstanding factors which exist in the shipboard env...
Article
Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) and increased postural sway are two adverse side effects that may occur when viewing motion stimuli. However, whether these effects are elevated to a greater extent when viewing stereoscopic 3D motion stimuli, compared to 2D stimuli on a TV screen, has not been investigated under controlled circumstances. The...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Vection, a feeling of self-motion while being physically stationary, and postural sway can be modulated by various visual factors. Moreover, vection and postural sway are often found to be closely related when modulated by such visual factors, suggesting a common neural mechanism. One well-known visual factor is the depth order of the s...
Data
Vection duration data and vection latency data. (SAV)
Data
Videos of the stimuli with pattern rotation in the background. (MP4)
Data
Data on postural sway, including the sway path length, moving window standard deviation and the lean. (SAV)
Data
Videos of the stimuli with pattern rotation in the foreground. (MP4)
Data
Table showing the paired t-tests following significant interaction effects for the SPL and MWSD. (DOCX)
Article
Background: Linear acceleration generally gives rise to translation perception. Centripetal acceleration during centrifugation, however, has never been reported giving rise to a radial, inward translation perception. Objective: To study whether centrifugation can induce a radial translation perception in the absence of visual cues. Methods: To...
Article
This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and productivity. However, we here show that the envisaged sc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Self-driving cars have the potential to bring significant benefits to drivers and society at large. However, all envisaged scenarios are predicted to increase the risk of motion sickness. This will negatively affect user acceptance and uptake and hence negate the benefits of this technology. Here we discuss the impact of the user interface design i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Self-driving cars have the potential to bring significant benefits to drivers and society at large. However, all envisaged use cases can be predicted to increase the risk of motion sickness. The relevance of motion sickness lies in the fact that its occurrence may hamper the successful introduction of vehicle automation. Most significantly, signs a...
Article
Full-text available
Motion sickness may reduce passenger comfort and crew performance. Countermeasures are dominated by medication with specific and often undesirable side effects. To shown that sickness due to motion can be reduced by adding an inherent non-sickening vibration and by mental distraction. Eighteen blindfolded subjects were exposed to 20 minutes of off-...
Conference Paper
Results indicate that visual motion plays an important role in causing VVM related symptoms and postural sway. Postural sway may be considered of interest in future reseach on optokinetic treatment of VVM. Aims • Study whether visual motion is a necessary factor causing visual-vestibular mismatch (VVM) related symptoms and postural sway. • Study ti...
Article
Full-text available
In comparison to open surgery, endoscopic surgery offers impaired depth perception and narrower field-of-view. To improve depth perception, the Da Vinci robot offers three-dimensional (3-D) video on the console for the surgeon but not for assistants, although both must collaborate. We improved the shared perception of the whole surgical team by con...
Article
To test for otolith asymmetries, several studies described horizontal translation of the body and head en bloc during fast vertical axis rotation. This stimulus causes one otolithic organ to rotate on-axis, and the other to experience centripetal acceleration. To test a new, more simple method of unilateral stimulation with head tilt and the body r...
Article
Full-text available
In the field of motion-based simulation, it was found that a visual amplitude equal to the inertial amplitude does not always provide the best perceived match between visual and inertial motion. This result is thought to be caused by the "quality" of the motion cues delivered by the simulator motion and visual systems. This paper studies how differ...
Article
Unlabelled: Motion sickness symptoms and increased postural instability induced by motion pictures have been reported in a laboratory, but not in a real cinema. We, therefore, carried out an observational study recording sickness severity and postural instability in 19 subjects before, immediately and 45 min after watching a 1 h 3D aviation docume...
Article
Humans are able to estimate the vertical direction of an Earth fixed reference frame, which estimate is known as the subjective vertical (SV). To identify the SV, a distinction must be made between accelerations due to self-motion and gravity. Previous studies on this topic measured the SV using a variety of methods possibly affecting the outcome d...
Article
Without visual feedback, humans perceive tilt when experiencing a sustained linear acceleration. This tilt illusion is commonly referred to as the somatogravic illusion. Although the physiological basis of the illusion seems to be well understood, the dynamic behavior is still subject to discussion. In this study, the dynamic behavior of the illusi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In motion simulation, motion cueing algorithms are used to transform vehicle inertial cues into inertial cues that are within the simulator physical limits. Most motion cueing algorithms aim to minimize the error between these vehicle inertial cues and those generated by the simulator. Although this is one way to approach the problem, one can also...
Conference Paper
In the field of motion simulation it was found that a visual amplitude equal to the inertial amplitude does not always provide the best perceived match between visual and inertial motion. This result is thought to be caused by the "quality" of the motion cues delivered by the simulator motion and visual systems. This paper studies how different vis...
Article
Full-text available
People playing computer games sometimes experience a form of visually induced motion sickness called cybersickness. This phenomenon poses a problem for the entertainment market as well as the practice of training, where serious gaming is gaining acceptance as a new way of training. Although cybersickness can be considered a multifactor problem, the...
Article
The most cited theory on motion sickness is the conflict theory by Reason and Brand (1975) [1], stating that motion sickness occurs due to a conflict between the senses and stored patterns of motion. In addition, there seems to be evidence for another theory stating that postural instability is a necessary and sufficient condition preceding motion...
Article
A simulator study has been conducted demonstrating a positive effect on airsickness by utilizing a 3D artificial Earth-fixed visual pattern. Participants were exposed to the same turbulent physical aircraft motion in a simulator three times in a row, each time using a different visual cue. In one condition only the interior of the simulator cabin w...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Correct perception of self motion is of vital importance for both the control of our position and posture when moving around in our environment. With the development of human controlled vehicles as bicycles, cars and aircraft motion perception became of interest for the understanding of vehicle control. For flight simulation the understanding of mo...
Article
Subjective vertical (SV) conflict theory postulates that motion sickness is elicited in all situations that lead to a difference between the sensed and subjective verticals. The sensed vertical is Earth's gravity as perceived by human sense modalities; the subjective vertical is also Earth's gravity, but in accordance with the expectations of the c...
Article
During the first days of spaceflight, about 50-70% of the astronauts experience symptoms of Space Motion Sickness (SMS). It has been proposed that an asymmetry between the left and right otolith organs contributes to an astronaut's individual susceptibility. A recently developed test to measure unilateral utricular function enabled us to re-investi...
Article
Subjective-vertical conflict theory (Bles et al., 1998) postulates that all motion sickness provoking situations are characterized by a condition in which the vertical (gravity) sensed by the visual, vestibular and non-vestibular proprioceptors are at variance with the subjective (expected) vertical. SV-conflict models have successfully been used b...
Article
Full-text available
Field of view (FOV) is said to affect visually induced motion sickness. FOV, however, is characterized by an internal setting used by the graphics generator (iFOV) and an external factor determined by screen size and viewing distance (eFOV). We hypothesized that especially the incongruence between iFOV and eFOV would lead to sickness. To that end w...
Article
Using the IRIS pupillometer described by Reulen et at. (1988), a group of 46 patients suffering from optic neuritis was investigated. The latency of the pupil constriction was determined and shown to be prolonged when the affected eye was stimulated with visible light, prolonged with respect to stimulation of the healthy fellow eye. In a small grou...
Article
Ocular torsion was measured in five subjects during sinusoidal lateral tilt (amplitude 25°, 0.2 Hz). The cervical contribution to ocular torsion was best visible as the difference between the signals obtained in conditions with only head tilt and conditions with whole body tilt. Contribution of the neck did not affect the slow component, but produc...
Article
Over the last decades a significant body of knowledge has been gained on the adaptation of the human body going into near weightlessness conditions as well as for the re-adaptation to 1xg Earth conditions after an orbital space flight. Ground-based paradigms for microgravity simulation have been developed such as head down tilted bed rest or dry-im...
Article
In this study we describe a new approach to relate simulator sickness ratings with the main frequency component of the simulator motion mismatch, that is, the computed difference between the time histories of simulator motion and vehicle motion, respectively. During two driving simulator experiments in the TNO moving-base driving simulator—that wer...
Article
Full-text available
A multi-national sea trial on the effects of ship motions on human performance was performed off the coast of Canada, in early 2007. Primary goal: To obtain subjective and objective measures for human task performance, possibly affected by real ship motion. TNO participated with a Vigilance and Tracking Test, a Multi-Attribute Task, and a Dynamic V...
Article
Prolonged exposure to hypergravity in a human centrifuge can lead to post-rotary spatial disorientation and motion sickness. These symptoms are mainly provoked by tilting head movements and resemble the Space Adaptation Syndrome. We hypothesized that the occurrence of these post-rotary effects might be related to changes in the velocity storage (VS...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We used a desktop computer game environment to study the effect Field-of-View (FOV) on cybersickness. In particular, we examined the effect of differences between the internal FOV (iFOV, the FOV which the graphics generator is using to render its images) and the external FOV (eFOV, the FOV of the presented images as seen from the physical viewpoint...
Article
This paper deals with visual–vestibular interactions as these occur when viewing images, and may cause motion sickness. Some basic vestibular matters fundamental to motion sickness are highlighted, such as the observation that people without functioning inner ears do not get sick from motion, including visual motion. Furthermore, the subjective ver...
Article
Full-text available
Adaptation to a novel gravitational state involves adaptation of vestibular mediated responses, in particular those mediated by the otolith organs. The present paper investigates whether the orientation of Listing's plane, which is under control of otolith signals, is affected by sustained exposure to hypergravity. Subjects were exposed to four G-l...
Article
During the first days in space, i.e., after a transition from 1G to 0G, more than 50% of the astro- (and cosmonauts) suffer from the Space Adaptation Syndrome (SAS).The symptoms of SAS, like nausea and dizziness, are especially provoked by head movements. Astronauts have mentioned close similarities between the symptoms of SAS and the symptoms they...
Article
This paper explains part of the observed variability in passenger illness ratings aboard ships by gender, age and sickness history. Within the framework of a European project, 2840 questionnaires, gathered on several ships operating all over Europe, were analysed. Gender, age and sickness history all had a highly significant effect on seasickness....
Article
It has been found that sustained centrifugation on Earth may evoke sickness symptoms that are similar to those of the Space Adaptation Syndrome (SAS). As in SAS, incidence of this 'Sickness Induced by Centrifugation' (SIC) is about 50% and the symptoms are particularly evoked by head movements. By systematically varying the G-load and duration of c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The goal of this paper is to give an overview and some practical examples of the Motion Perception Toolbox developed by TNO (Netherlands Organization for Applied Research) as a freeware Matlab Simulink library. The MPT library provides a documented set of building blocks that model human perception and are easily coupled to existing simulation mode...
Article
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Article
We investigated the effectiveness of a tactile torso display as a countermeasure to spatial disorientation (SD) and compared inside-out and outside-in codings. SD is a serious threat to military as well as civilian pilots and aircraft. Considerable effort has been put into SD countermeasures such as training programs and advanced cockpit displays....
Article
Full-text available
Vehicle motion characteristics differ between air, road, and sea environments, both vestibularly and visually. Effects of vision on motion sickness have been studied before, though less systematically in a naval setting. It is hypothesized that appropriate visual information on self-motion is beneficial in a naval setting and that task performance...
Article
This paper shows that tactile stimulation can override vestibular information regarding spinning sensations and eye movements. However, we conclude that the current data do not support the hypothesis that tactile stimulation controls eye movements directly. To this end, twenty-four subjects were passively disoriented by an abrupt stop after an incr...