Jeffrey A Sosman

Jeffrey A Sosman
Northwestern University | NU · Department of Medicine

Doctor of Medicine

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373
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (373)
Article
9561 Background: Novel immunotherapy approaches have changed the treatment landscape of patients (pts) with high-risk cancers like melanoma, Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). However, despite the widespread use of checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) in these indications, most pts either fail to respond or eventually...
Article
Purpose: To determine the value of tumor cell programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression as a predictive biomarker of nivolumab monotherapy efficacy in treatment-naive patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and the efficacy of salvage nivolumab/ipilimumab in patients with tumors unresponsive to nivolumab monotherapy. Methods: El...
Article
The aim of the NCCN Guidelines for Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities is to provide guidance on the management of immune-related adverse events resulting from cancer immunotherapy. The NCCN Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities Panel is an interdisciplinary group of representatives from NCCN Member Institutions, consisting of m...
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As part of the 2021 Immunotherapy Bridge virtual congress (December 1–2, Naples, Italy), the Great Debate sessions featured experts who were assigned counter opposing views on four important questions in immunotherapy today. The first topic was whether oncolytic viruses or other specific immunomodulators were the more promising approach for intrale...
Article
Purpose: Enhanced MAPK pathway signaling and cell cycle checkpoint dysregulation are frequent in NRAS-mutant melanoma and, as such, the regimen of the MEK inhibitor binimetinib and the selective CDK4/6 inhibitor ribociclib is a rational combination. Experimental design: This is a phase Ib/II, open-label study of ribociclib + binimetinib in patie...
Preprint
Purpose Non-V600 mutations comprise approximately 35% of all BRAF mutations in cancer. Many of these mutations have been identified as oncogenic drivers in a wide array of cancer types and can be classified into three Classes according to molecular characteristics. Consensus treatment strategies for Class 2 and 3 BRAF mutations have not yet been es...
Article
Purpose: Autophagy is a resistance mechanism to BRAF/MEK inhibition in BRAFV600-mutant melanoma. Here we used hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) to inhibit autophagy in combination with dabrafenib 150 mg bid and trametenib 2 mg qd (D+T). Patients and methods: We conducted a phase I/II clinical trial in 4 centers of HCQ+D+T in advanced BRAFV600-mutant mela...
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The Great Debate session at the 2020 Melanoma Bridge virtual congress (December 3rd–5th, Italy) featured counterpoint views from experts on five specific controversial issues in melanoma. The debates considered whether or not innate immunity is important in the response to cancer and immunotherapy, how useful are the revised American Joint Committe...
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Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are approved to treat multiple cancers. Retrospective analyses demonstrate acceptable safety of ICIs in most patients with autoimmune disease, although disease exacerbation may occur. Psoriasis vulgaris is a common, immune-mediated disease, and outcomes of ICI treatment in patients with psoriasis are...
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Introduction: NRAS was the first mutated oncogene identified in melanoma and is currently the second most common driver mutation in this malignancy. For patients with NRASmutant advanced stage melanoma refractory to immunotherapy or with contraindications to immune-based regimens, there are few therapeutic options including low-efficacy chemotherap...
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Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are the standard of care for the treatment of several cancers. While these immunotherapies have improved patient outcomes in many clinical settings, they bring accompanying risks of toxicity, specifically immune-related adverse events (irAEs). There is a need for clear, effective guidelines for the management of...
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The robust detection of disease-associated splice events from RNAseq data is challenging due to the potential confounding effect of gene expression levels and the often limited number of patients with relevant RNAseq data. Here we present a novel statistical approach to splicing outlier detection and differential splicing analysis. Our approach tes...
Article
4510 Background: The HCRN GU16-260 trial reported on the efficacy and toxicity of nivo monotherapy in treatment naïve clear cell RCC (Cohort A) and the efficacy of nivo/ipi salvage therapy in pts with tumors resistant to initial nivo monotherapy (Atkins JCO 2020.38.15_suppl.5006). Limited information is available on the effects of such an approach...
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Background The impact of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) occurring from adjuvant use of immunotherapy and of their management on relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) outcomes is currently not well understood. Patients and methods E1609 enrolled 1673 patients with resected high-risk melanoma and evaluated adjuvant ipilimumab...
Article
Lessons learned: This study suggests that trametinib has significant clinical activity in non-V600 BRAF mutation and BRAF fusion metastatic melanoma, albeit in a small cohort. All patients with metastatic melanoma should undergo sequencing of the BRAF gene to identify noncanonical BRAF mutations that may indicate benefit from treatment with tramet...
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Although combination BRAF and MEK inhibitors are highly effective for the 40–50% of cutaneous metastatic melanomas harboring BRAF V600 mutations, targeted agents have been ineffective for BRAF V600 wild-type (wt) metastatic melanomas. The SU2C Genomics-Enabled Medicine for Melanoma Trial utilized a Simon two-stage optimal design to assess whether c...
Article
Over the past few years, the NCCN Guidelines for Melanoma: Cutaneous have been expanded to include pathways for treatment of microscopic satellitosis (added in v2.2020), and the following Principles sections: Molecular Testing (added in v2.2019), Systemic Therapy Considerations (added in v2.2020), and Brain Metastases Management (added in v3.2020)....
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Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) predispose patients to immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Although hepatitis is a potentially lethal toxicity, the timing and outcomes have not been well described. In this retrospective study, patients from six international institutions were included if they were treated with ICIs and developed immune-relate...
Article
p>Five years ago, the Melanoma Research Foundation (MRF) conducted an assessment of the challenges and opportunities facing the melanoma research community and patients with melanoma. Since then, remarkable progress has been made on both the basic and clinical research fronts. However, the incidence, recurrence and death rates for melanoma remain u...
Article
Background Sex differences in tumor immunity and response to immunotherapy were shown in murine models and descriptive analyses from recent clinical trials. Female sex hormones have been implicated in melanoma development and response to systemic therapy. We hypothesized a gender difference in response to adjuvant immunotherapy with ipilimumab (3 o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Here we present a novel statistical approach to splicing outlier and differential splicing detection, implemented in a software package called Bisbee. We leverage Bisbee's prediction of protein level effects to benchmark using matched RNAseq and mass spectrometry data from normal tissues. Bisbee exhibits improved sensitivity and specificity over ex...
Article
Aim Antibodies to programmed death-1 receptor and its ligand (anti–PD-1/PD-L1) produce durable responses in many cancers. However, the long-term effects of anti–PD-1/PD-L1 blockade are not well defined. We identified the toxicities, health outcomes and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) amongst long-term survivors treated with anti–PD-1/PD-L1....
Article
Background: CheckMate 025 has shown superior efficacy for nivolumab over everolimus in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (aRCC) along with improved safety and tolerability. This analysis assesses the long-term clinical benefits of nivolumab versus everolimus. Methods: The randomized, open-label, phase 3 CheckMate 025 trial (NCT01668784...
Article
The NCCN Guidelines for Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities provide interdisciplinary guidance on the management of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) resulting from cancer immunotherapy. These NCCN Guidelines Insights describe symptoms that may be caused by an irAE and should trigger further investigation, and summarize the NCCN Mana...
Article
The NCCN Guidelines for Uveal Melanoma include recommendations for staging, treatment, and follow-up of patients diagnosed with uveal melanoma of the choroid or ciliary body. In addition, because distinguishing between uveal melanoma and benign uveal nevi is in some cases difficult, these guidelines also contain recommendations for workup of patien...
Article
PURPOSE Phase III adjuvant trials have reported significant benefits in both relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) for high-dose interferon alfa (HDI) and ipilimumab at 10 mg/kg (ipi10). E1609 evaluated the safety and efficacy of ipilimumab at 3 mg/kg (ipi3) and ipi10 versus HDI. PATIENTS AND METHODS E1609 was a phase III trial in...
Article
Background: Anti-programmed death protein 1 (anti-PD-1) agents have transformed the treatment of advanced melanoma and other cancers, but the rates of steroid-refractory toxicities and health care utilization are not well described. This study assessed these endpoints in patients with melanoma treated with anti-PD-1 with or without ipilimumab. Me...
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Checkpoint inhibitors act by blocking physiologic mechanisms coopted by tumor cells to evade immune surveillance, restoring the immune system’s ability to identify and kill malignant cells. These therapies have dramatically improved outcomes in multiple tumor types with durable responses in many patients, leading to FDA approval first in advanced m...
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Checkpoint inhibitors produce durable responses in numerous metastatic cancers, but immune-related adverse events (irAEs) complicate and limit their benefit. IrAEs can affect organ systems idiosyncratically; presentations range from mild and self-limited to fulminant and fatal. The molecular mechanisms underlying irAEs are poorly understood. Here,...
Article
Purpose: Atezolizumab [anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)] selectively targets PD-L1 to block its interaction with receptors programmed death 1 and B7.1, thereby reinvigorating antitumor T-cell activity. We evaluated the long-term safety and activity of atezolizumab, along with biological correlates of clinical activity endpoints, in a cohort...
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Importance Nivolumab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits programmed cell death 1, is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treating advanced melanoma, renal cell carcinoma (RCC), non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and other malignancies. Data on long-term survival among patients receiving nivolumab are limited. Objectives To analyz...
Article
Importance PD-L1 (programmed cell death ligand 1) immunohistochemistry (IHC), tumor mutational burden (TMB), gene expression profiling (GEP), and multiplex immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence (mIHC/IF) assays have been used to assess pretreatment tumor tissue to predict response to anti–PD-1/PD-L1 therapies. However, the relative diagnostic per...
Article
Advances in the treatment of metastatic melanoma have improved responses and survival. However, many patients continue to experience resistance or toxicity to treatment, highlighting a crucial need to identify biomarkers and understand mechanisms of response and toxicity. Neoadjuvant therapy for regional metastases might improve operability and cli...
Article
In Reply Drs Akturk and Michels note another toxicity from the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in addition to those reviewed in our clinical update.¹ The development of type 1 diabetes is a significant toxicity that is being reported more frequently.² The patients who develop this disorder are older than patients presenting with classic type 1...
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Full-text available
The aim of the NCCN Guidelines for Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities is to provide guidance on the management of immune-related adverse events resulting from cancer immunotherapy. The NCCN Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities Panel is an interdisciplinary group of representatives from NCCN Member Institutions and ASCO, consis...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Previous investigations identified transcriptional signatures associated with innate resistance to anti–programmed cell death protein 1 therapy in melanoma. This analysis aimed to increase understanding of the role of baseline genetic features in the variability of response to BRAF and MEK inhibitor therapy for BRAFV600-mutated metastatic...
Article
Anti-PD-1 agents, alone or in combination with ipilimumab, produce durable responses in some melanoma patients. Tumor features that correlate with response are not well defined. We collected clinical data from metastatic melanoma patients treated at 2 centers who received anti-PD-1 (n=303) or anti-PD-1 +ipilimumab (n= 57). We correlated number of m...
Article
In February 2018, the Melanoma Research Foundation and the Moffitt Cancer Center hosted the Second Summit on Melanoma Central Nervous System (CNS) Metastases in Tampa, Florida. In this white paper we outline the current status of basic science, translational and clinical research into melanoma brain metastasis development and therapeutic management...
Article
Background: Uveal melanoma (UM) is an uncommon melanoma subtype with poor prognosis. Agents that have transformed the management of cutaneous melanoma have made minimal inroads in UM. Methods: We conducted a single-arm phase II study of pembrolizumab in patients with metastatic UM and performed bioinformatics analyses of publicly available datasets...
Article
Immunotherapies targeting the PD-1 pathway produce durable responses in many cancers, but the tumor-intrinsic factors governing response and resistance are largely unknown. MHC-II expression on tumor cells can predict response to anti-PD-1 therapy. We therefore sought to determine how MHC-II expression by tumor cells promotes PD-1 dependency. Using...
Article
Purpose We performed a retrospective exploratory analysis to evaluate the prognostic and predictive effect of two circulating biomarkers, BRAF V600 mutant circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and circulating hepatocyte growth factor (cHGF), in metastatic melanoma. Materials and Methods This study evaluated patients from BRIM-3, a phase III trial comparin...
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Colitis is a frequent, clinically-significant immune-related adverse event caused by anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1). The clinical features, timing, and management of colitis with anti-PD-1-based regimens are not well-characterized. Patients with advanced melanoma that received either anti-PD-1 monotherapy (“monotherapy”) or combined with ipilimumab...
Article
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are monoclonal antibodies that block inhibitors of T-cell activation and function. The use of ICIs can have beneficial effects on more than 14 different cancers, and effects have persisted in some patients for more than 5 years (20%-40%; 5-year survival rate in patients with melanoma)¹ (eTable in the Supplement)....
Article
Importance Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are now a mainstay of cancer treatment. Although rare, fulminant and fatal toxic effects may complicate these otherwise transformative therapies; characterizing these events requires integration of global data. Objective To determine the spectrum, timing, and clinical features of fatal ICI-associated...
Article
Resistance to current therapies still impacts a significant number of melanoma patients and can be regulated by epigenetic alterations. Analysis of global cytosine methylation in a cohort of primary melanomas revealed a pattern of early demethylation associated with overexpression of oncogenic transcripts. Loss of methylation and associated overexp...
Article
Epigenetic changes in cancer are thought to contribute to the regulation of invasion and metastasis. To study this at a genome-wide level in melanoma, we analyzed the methylome of 44 cases of malignant melanoma. We saw widespread demethylation occurring preferentially outside of CpG islands. Comparison of primary and metastatic lesions showed demet...
Article
The field of tumor immunology has faced many complex challenges over the last century, but the approval of immune checkpoint inhibitors (anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 [CTLA4] and anti-programmed cell death-1 [PD-1]/PD-ligand 1 [PD-L1]) and talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) for the treatment of metastatic melanoma have awakened a n...
Article
Purpose: We have shown that the aged microenvironment increases melanoma metastasis, and decreases response to targeted therapy, and here we queried response to anti-PD1.Experimental Design: We analyzed the relationship between age, response to anti-PD1, and prior therapy in 538 patients. We used mouse models of melanoma, to analyze the intratumora...
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Little is known about the in vivo impacts of targeted therapy on melanoma cell abundance and protein expression. Here, 21 antibodies were added to an established melanoma mass cytometry panel to measure 32 cellular features, distinguish malignant cells, and characterize dabrafenib and trametinib responses in BRAFV600mut melanoma. Tumor cells were b...
Article
Melanoma is one of the most highly mutated malignancies, largely as a function of its generation through ultraviolet light and other mutational processes. The wide array of mutations in both “driver” and “passenger” genes can present a confusing array of data for practitioners, particularly within the context of the recent revolutions in targeted a...
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Background: Obesity has been linked to increased mortality in several cancer types; however, the relation between obesity and survival outcomes in metastatic melanoma is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between body-mass index (BMI) and progression-free survival or overall survival in patients with metastatic melanoma...
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Desmoplastic melanoma is a rare subtype of melanoma characterized by dense fibrous stroma, resistance to chemotherapy and a lack of actionable driver mutations, and is highly associated with ultraviolet light-induced DNA damage. We analysed sixty patients with advanced desmoplastic melanoma who had been treated with antibodies to block programmed c...
Article
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Ulixertinib (BVD-523) is an ERK1/2 kinase inhibitor with potent preclinical activity in BRAF- and RAS-mutant cell lines. In this multicenter phase I trial (NCT01781429), 135 patients were enrolled to an accelerated 3 + 3 dose-escalation cohort and six distinct dose-expansion cohorts. Dose escalation included 27 patients, dosed from 10 to 900 mg twi...
Article
BRAF and MEK inhibitors have improved clinical outcomes in advanced, BRAFV⁶⁰⁰- mutated melanomas. Acquired resistance occurs in most patients, with numerous and diverse drivers. We obtained pre-treatment and progression biopsies from a patient who progressed on dabrafenib and trametinib. In addition to a preserved BRAFV600E mutation, an internal de...
Article
Purpose: An association between mutational burden and response to immune checkpoint therapy has been documented in several cancer types. The potential for such a mutational burden threshold to predict response to immune checkpoint therapy was evaluated in several clinical datasets, where mutational burden was measured either by whole-exome sequenc...
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Purpose: The objectives of the study were to evaluate the safety of daily oral PX-866 in combination with twice daily vemurafenib and to identify potential predictive biomarkers for this novel combination. Experimental design: We conducted a phase I, open-label, dose escalation study in patients with advanced BRAF V600 mutant solid tumors. PX-86...
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Background: The BRIM-3 trial showed improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for vemurafenib compared with dacarbazine in treatment-naive patients with BRAFV600 mutation-positive metastatic melanoma. We present final OS data from BRIM-3. Patients and methods: Patients were randomly assigned in a 1 : 1 ratio to receive v...
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Background Nivolumab combined with ipilimumab resulted in longer progression-free survival and a higher objective response rate than ipilimumab alone in a phase 3 trial involving patients with advanced melanoma. We now report 3-year overall survival outcomes in this trial. Methods We randomly assigned, in a 1:1:1 ratio, patients with previously un...
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Treatment of advanced V600BRAF mutant melanoma using a BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi) or its combination with a MEKi typically elicits partial responses. We compared the transcriptomes of patient-derived tumors regressing on MAPKi therapy against MAPKi-induced temporal transcriptomic states in human melanoma cell lines or murine melanoma in immune-competen...
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To establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), safety profile, and anti-tumor efficacy of RAF265. We conducted a multicenter, open-label, phase-I, dose-escalation trial of RAF265, an orally available RAF kinase/VEGFR-2 inhibitor, in patients with advanced or metastatic melanoma. Pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis, pharmac...
Data
Table S1. Definition of dose limiting toxicities (DLTs). Table S2. Scheme of eight dose levels. At each dose level, with the exception of DL 8, patients received a 7–10 days run‐in dose, followed by a single loading dose (LD) and a daily maintenance dose (MD). *administered as three doses. Table S3. Pharmacokinetics of RAF265. Table S4. Changes...
Article
Purpose Until recently, limited options existed for patients with advanced melanoma who experienced disease progression while receiving treatment with ipilimumab. Here, we report the coprimary overall survival (OS) end point of CheckMate 037, which has previously shown that nivolumab resulted in more patients achieving an objective response compare...
Article
Background: Activating mutations of BRAF (50%) or (25%) are present in over 75% of patients with metastatic melanoma. Inhibitors of BRAF or MEK have been shown to improve survival in patients with specific BRAF-mutations, whereas inhibitors of MEK are associated with responses in over 20% of patients with mutations. ERK1/2 are serine-threonine kina...
Article
Genomic analyses of cutaneous melanoma (CM) have yielded biological and therapeutic insights, but understanding of non-ultraviolet (UV)-derived CMs remains limited. Deeper analysis of acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM), a rare sun-shielded melanoma subtype associated with worse survival than CM, is needed to delineate non-UV oncogenic mechanisms. We...