Jeffrey Parsons

Jeffrey Parsons
Memorial University of Newfoundland · Faculty of Business Administration

PhD

About

187
Publications
63,549
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
3,686
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 1993 - present
Memorial University of Newfoundland
Position
  • University Research Professor

Publications

Publications (187)
Article
Full-text available
Digitizing activities and processes of business and society has resulted in explosive growth and availability of data. Machine learning provides methods for detecting patterns in datasets to predict outcomes and support decisions. However, many forms of machine learning are considered black boxes because the internal logic is often opaque. Given th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many organizations rely on machine learning techniques to extract useful information from large collections of data. Much research in this area has focused on developing and applying machine learning techniques. We propose that using conceptual models can improve machine learning by providing needed domain knowledge to augment training data with do...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Consumers of crowdsourced data expect experienced contributors to report more useful data than inexperienced contributors. Guided by selective attention theory, we propose to examine the veracity of this expectation in two types of data crowdsourcing platforms-an online review platform and a citizen science platform. We contend that as the experien...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we examine how the design of data-collection systems can lead to imbalanced data. Specifically, we scrutinize how training affects the imbalance of data in a data crowdsourcing experiment. We randomly assigned contributors to explicitly trained, implicitly trained, and untrained (control) groups and asked them to report artificial in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Advances in machine learning (ML) make it possible to extract useful information from large and diverse datasets. ML methods aim to identify patterns in a dataset based on the values of features and their combinations. Recent research has proposed combining conceptual modeling, specifically data models, with artificial intelligence. In this paper,...
Article
Full-text available
With the growing focus on business analytics and data-driven decision-making, there is a greater need for humans to interact effectively with data. We propose that presenting data to human users in terms of instances and attributes provides a more flexible and usable structure for querying, exploring, and analysing data. Compared to a traditional r...
Article
Full-text available
Despite growing interest in design science research in information systems, our understanding of what constitutes a design contribution and the range of research activities that can produce design contributions remains limited. We propose the Design Research Activity (DRA) framework for classifying design contributions based on the type of statemen...
Book
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Conceptual Modeling, ER 2021, which will be held as virtual event, in October 2021. The 14 full and 18 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 85 submissions. The conference presents topics on conceptual modeling, its foundations and applications....
Chapter
Full-text available
Machine learning has become almost synonymous with Artificial Intelligence (AI). However, it has many challenges with one of the most important being explainable AI; that is, providing human-understandable accounts of why a machine learning model produces specific outputs. To address this challenge, we propose superimposition as a concept which use...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Organizations and individuals who use crowdsourcing to collect data prefer knowledgeable contributors. They train recruited contributors, expecting them to provide better quality data than untrained contributors. However, selective attention theory suggests that, as people learn the characteristics of a thing, they focus on only those characteristi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Research in design science has always acknowledged the need for evaluating its knowledge outcomes, with particular emphasis on assessing the efficacy and utility of the artifacts produced. However, the need to demonstrate the validity of the research process and outcomes has not received as much attention. This research examines scientific approach...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Machine learning has become almost synonymous with Artificial Intelligence (AI). However, it has many challenges with one of the most important being explainable AI; that is, providing human-understandable accounts of why a machine learning model produces specific outputs. To address this challenge, we propose superimposition as a concept which use...
Chapter
Full-text available
Crowdsourcing promises to expand organizational knowledge and “sensor” networks dramatically, making it possible to engage ordinary people in large-scale data collection, often at much lower cost than that of traditional approaches to gathering data. A major challenge in crowdsourcing is ensuring that the data that crowds provide is of sufficient q...
Chapter
Full-text available
Crowdsourcing promises to expand organizational knowledge and "sen-1 sor" networks dramatically, making it possible to engage ordinary people in large-2 scale data collection, often at much lower cost than that of traditional approaches 3 to gathering data. A major challenge in crowdsourcing is ensuring that the data that 4 crowds provide is of suf...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Research in design science has always acknowledged the need for evaluating its knowledge outcomes, with particular emphasis on assessing the efficacy and utility of the artifacts produced. However, the need to demonstrate the validity of the research process and outcomes has not received as much attention. This research examines scientific approach...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Users of crowdsourced data expect that knowledge of the domain of a data crowdsourcing task will positively affect the data that their contributors provide, so they train potential participants on the crowdsourcing task to be performed. We carried out an experiment to test how training affects data quality and data repurposability – the capacity fo...
Article
Full-text available
Design science research strives to be practical and relevant. Yet few have examined the extent to which practitioners can meaningfully utilize theoretical knowledge produced by design science researchers in solving concrete real-world problems. Are design theories developed by scientists readily amenable to application by practitioners? Does the ap...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Validity is among the most foundational and widely used concepts in science. Much has been written on the subject, yet, we continue to lack established definitions of research validities. This paper presents preliminary results for developing a general ontology of research validity. In this paper, we assembled the largest data set of validities and...
Chapter
Full-text available
With the transformation of our society into a “digital world,” machine learning has emerged as an essential approach to extracting useful information from large collections of data. However, challenges remain for using machine learning effectively. We propose that some of these can be overcome using conceptual modeling. We examine a popular cross-i...
Article
Full-text available
Generally, data integration is performed through schema mapping representing high level correlation between heterogeneous data sources. Such mappings are generated using direct correspondences between data elements of source and target schemas, while other semantic relations are neglected. In this paper, we first use hierarchical relationships amon...
Preprint
Full-text available
Conceptual models are used to communicate information about a domain during the development of information systems. In two experimental studies using business process models, we demonstrate how eye tracking can contribute to understanding the cognitive processes by which readers use conceptual modeling scripts to perform problem solving tasks. In t...
Chapter
Full-text available
The emergence of crowdsourcing as an important mode of information production has attracted increasing research attention. In this article, the authors review crowdsourcing research in the data management field. Most research in this domain can be termed tasked-based, focusing on micro-tasks that exploit scale and redundancy in crowds. The authors'...
Chapter
Full-text available
The emergence of crowdsourcing as an important mode of information production has attracted increasing research attention. In this article, the authors review crowdsourcing research in the data management field. Most research in this domain can be termed tasked-based, focusing on micro-tasks that exploit scale and redundancy in crowds. The authors'...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We seek to develop and apply a new method in social sciences research called artifact sampling. Experimental work in the social sciences has been guided by sampling theory, which holds that one may generalize the results of observations only to elements of experimental design that have been sampled from a population. Historically, sampling was appl...
Chapter
Full-text available
Experimental research in conceptual modeling typically involves comparing grammars or variations within a grammar, where differences between experimental groups are based on a focal construct of interest. However, a conceptual modeling grammar is a collection of many constructs and there is a danger that grammatical features other than those under...
Article
Full-text available
As crowdsourced user-generated content becomes an important source of data for organizations, a pressing question is how to ensure that data contributed by ordinary people outside of traditional organizational boundaries is of suitable quality to be useful for both known and unanticipated purposes. This research examines the impact of different inf...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Experimental research in conceptual modeling typically involves comparing grammars or variations within a grammar, where differences between experimental groups are based on a focal construct of interest. However, a conceptual modeling grammar is a collection of many constructs and there is a danger that grammatical features other than those under...
Article
Full-text available
While many conceptual modelling grammars have been developed since the 1970s, they share the general assumption of representation by abstraction; that is, representing generalised knowledge about the similarities among phenomena in a domain (classes) rather than about domain objects (instances). This assumption largely ignores the fundamental role...
Chapter
Full-text available
Conventional wisdom holds that expert contributors provide higher quality user-generated content (UGC) than novices. Using the cognitive construct of selective attention, we argue that this may not be the case in some crowd-sourcing UGC applications. We argue that crowdsourcing systems that seek participation mainly from contributors who are experi...
Research
The era of big data provides many opportunities for conducting impactful research from both data-driven and theory-driven perspectives. However, data-driven and theory-driven research have progressed somewhat independently. In this paper, we develop a framework that articulates important differences between these two perspectives and proposes a rol...
Article
The era of big data provides many opportunities for conducting impactful research from both data-driven and theory-driven perspectives. However, data-driven and theory-driven research have progressed somewhat independently. In this paper, we develop a framework that articulates important differences between these two perspectives and proposes a rol...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the transformation of our society into a "digital world," machine learning has emerged as an essential toolkit to extract useful information from large collections of data. However, many challenges remain for using machine learning effectively. This paper identifies and illustrates such challenges and proposes how conceptual modeling can be us...
Article
Full-text available
Augmented reality (AR) technology is changing the way we interact with the world by making the journey seamless and interactive. This is done by layering digital enhancements over an existing reality or real life scenario. However, employing AR technologies in wayfinding and navigation does not automatically bring positive experiences. We argue tha...
Conference Paper
Online consumer reviews have become an essential source of information for understanding markets and customer preferences. This research introduces a novel topic model to identify product attributes and sentiments toward them at the sentence level. The model uses a recursive definition of topic distribution in a sentence to avoid the problem of ove...
Chapter
Online consumer reviews have become an essential source of information for understanding markets and customer preferences. This research introduces a novel topic model to identify product attributes and sentiments toward them at the sentence level. The model uses a recursive definition of topic distribution in a sentence to avoid the problem of ove...
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of crowdsourcing as an important mode of information production has attracted increasing research attention. In this article, the authors review crowdsourcing research in the data management field. Most research in this domain can be termed tasked-based, focusing on micro-tasks that exploit scale and redundancy in crowds. The authors'...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Researchers in many scientific disciplines routinely conceptualize information technologies (IT) as antecedents or outcomes in theoretical models. The ongoing theorizing of IT leads to a novel methodological challenge termed instantiation validity (IV). In this paper, we contribute to research on remediating IV challenges by proposing and advocatin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Crowdsourcing is increasingly used to engage people to contribute data for a variety of purposes to support decision-making and analysis. A common assumption in many crowdsourcing projects is that experience leads to better contributions. In this research, we demonstrate limits of this assumption. We argue that greater experience in contributing to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Conventional wisdom dictates that the quality of data collected in a crowdsourcing project is positively related to how knowledgeable the contributors are. Consequently, numerous crowdsourcing projects implement crowd recruitment strategies that reflect this reasoning. In this paper, we explore the effect of crowd recruitment strategies on the qual...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the explosive growth in online citizen science and crowdsourcing in general, a major challenge is how to ensure that data provided by diverse and often anonymous crowds is of sufficient quality to be used by experts (e.g., scientists) in analysis and decision making. Facing the diversity of backgrounds, interests and expertise within crowds, t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Online citizen science is a form of crowdsourcing that has received increased attention from researchers. Despite significant potential, a key challenge in leveraging citizens to provide scientific information is the quality of citizen-generated data, a form of user-generated content (UGC). In this work, we present a study in which domain experts i...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing reliance of organizations on externally produced information, such as online user-generated content (UGC) and crowdsourcing, challenges common assumptions about conceptual modeling in information systems (IS) development. We demonstrate the societal importance of UGC, analyze the distinguishing characteristics of UGC and identify spe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Research in natural and social sciences increasingly uses design features of information technologies (IT) as antecedents or outcomes in theoretical models. This practice is also prolific in the Information Systems discipline. The ongoing theorizing of IT leads to a novel methodological challenge termed instantiation validity. In this paper we take...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
It is not uncommon for projects that collect crowdsourced data to be commissioned with incomplete knowledge of data contributors, data consumers, and/or the purposes for which the data collected are going to be used. Such unanticipated uses and users of data form the basis for open information environments (OIEs), and the information collected thro...
Research
Full-text available
Research in natural and social sciences increasingly uses design features of information technologies (IT) as antecedents or outcomes in theoretical models. The ongoing theorizing of IT leads to a novel methodological challenge termed instantiation validity. In this paper we take a first step to create these guidelines and contribute to research on...
Article
Full-text available
Research on participatory design (PD) dates back to the 1970s, and has focused historically on internal organization settings. Recently, the proliferation of content-producing technologies such as social media and crowdsourcing has led to the explosion of user-generated content (UGC) that originates outside of organizations. Participative challenge...
Article
Full-text available
The role of citizen science in research and natural resource monitoring and management is increasing, as evidenced by the growing number of peer-reviewed publications (including a special section in this journal) and calls for involving citizens in monitoring and governance (through, for example, “participatory research” [Danielsen et al. 2014] and...
Article
Data exchange is the process of generating an instance of a target schema from an instance of a source schema such that source data is reflected in the target. Generally, data exchnge is performed using schema mapping, representing high level relations between source and target schemas. In this paper, we argue that data exchange solely based on sch...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A major challenge in crowdsourcing is ensuring that data are of acceptable quality to be useful in analysis and to inform decision making. This is a difficult task, as data contributors in these projects are typically unpaid volunteers, often with variable levels of domain expertise and motivations for participating and contributing content. In thi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Despite significant potential, a key challenge in citizen science is data quality. Traditionally, citizen science data collection is organized around classes that are useful to scientists. An alternative instance-based model of data collection has been proposed, in which observations are elicited as instances with attributes and classes - independe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Subject matter expertise is widely believed to have a positive effect on information quality in crowdsourcing. Many crowdsourcing systems are therefore designed to seek out contributions from experts in the crowd. We argue that expert contributors of data in crowdsourcing projects are proficient rule-based classifiers, and are efficient because the...
Book
Full-text available
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology, DESRIST 2016, held in St. John, Newfoundland, Canada, in May 2016. The 11 full papers, 2 short papers and 9 short papers describing prototypes and products were carefully reviewed and selec...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The emergence of crowdsourcing as an important mode of information production challenges established approaches to data management. Crowdsourcing has attracted increasing research attention; currently, however, the database research community primarily focuses on crowdsourcing research that can be termed task-based. In this paper, we suggest to bro...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The increasing reliance of organizations on externally produced information, such as online user-generated content (UGC), challenges the common assumption of representation by abstraction in conceptual modeling research and practice. This paper evaluates these assumptions in the context of online citizen science that relies on UGC to collect data f...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we propose an enhancement to requirements gathering interface used in open source software (OSS) development environments. Specifically we propose embedding currently used interface with reusable requirement patterns. We propose this enhancement based on the result we obtained from an experiment on the availability of requirement pat...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we propose an enhancement to requirements gathering interface used in open source software (OSS) development environments. Specifically we propose embedding currently used interface with reusable requirement patterns. We propose this enhancement based on the result we obtained from an experiment on the availability of requirement pat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In open source software (OSS) development domain (a largely volunteer driven, geographically distributed, web based form of software development), it is mainly the OSS developers who are responsible for overseeing and managing the developmental activities. Existing OSS literature, based on qualitative analysis of web-based artifacts (e.g. data on d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The long tradition of research on participative design dates back to 1970 s and has traditionally investigated software development within organizational settings. In this context, many approaches to engaging users in software development were proposed and evaluated, leading to the establishment of principles of participative design. Recently, the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The centrality of information technology (IT) artifacts in Information Systems (IS) research makes it important to understand the relationship between artifacts and the theoretical constructs they purport to instantiate. Despite the central role of the IT artifact in IS research, there are no generally accepted principles for establishing instantia...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many conceptual modeling grammars have been developed since 1970s, all sharing a general assumption of representation by abstraction (e.g., representing generalized knowledge about domains rather than concrete domain objects). This neglects the fundamental role instances play in the composition of reality and in human psychology. In this paper we m...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
User-generated content (UGC) has attracted considerable interest in many contexts, including such diverse examples as the corporate use of crowdsourcing to generate product ideas, the scientific use of citizen science to collect or analyse data, the governmental use of technologies to engage the public in public policy discussions and decision maki...
Article
Full-text available
Traditionally, information quality (IQ) research assumes organizational settings in which information production (e.g., internal, by external organizations/customers) is well-controlled and serves well-defined purposes. IQ research draws extensively on the manufacturing paradigm, treating information as a product and its quality as the extent to wh...