Jeffrey Nickerson

Jeffrey Nickerson
Stevens Institute of Technology · School of Business

About

158
Publications
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4,766
Citations

Publications

Publications (158)
Article
Mass media sentiment of financial news significantly influences investment decisions of investors. Hence, studying how this sentiment emerges is important. In years past, this was straightforward, often dictated by journalists who cover financial news, but this has become more complex now. In this paper, we focus on how social media sentiment affec...
Article
Full-text available
Design artifacts in online innovation communities are increasingly becoming a primary source of innovation for organizations. A distinguishing feature of such communities is that they are organized around design artifacts, not around people. The search for novel innovations thus equates to a search for novel designs. This is not a trivial problem s...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Causality is inherently linked to decision-making, as causes let us better predict the future and intervene to change it by showing which variables have the capacity to affect others. Recent advances in machine learning have made it possible to learn causal models from observational data. While these models have the potential to aid hu...
Article
Full-text available
Autonomous, intelligent tools are reshaping all sorts of work practices, including innovative design work. These tools generate outcomes with little or no user intervention and produce designs of unprecedented complexity and originality, ushering profound changes to how organizations will design and innovate in future. In this paper, we formulate c...
Article
Metahuman systems are new, emergent, sociotechnical systems where machines that learn join human learning and create original systemic capabilities. Metahuman systems will change many facets of the way we think about organizations and work. They will push information systems research in new directions that may involve a revision of the field’s rese...
Conference Paper
As people increasingly innovate outside of formal R&D departments, individuals take on the responsibility of attracting, managing, and protecting social, financial, human, and information capital. With internet technology playing a central role in how individuals work together to produce something that they could not produce alone, it is necessary...
Article
Full-text available
Bots are playing an increasingly important role in the creation of knowledge in Wikipedia. In many cases, editors and bots form tightly knit teams. Humans develop bots, argue for their approval, and maintain them, performing tasks such as monitoring activity, merging similar bots, splitting complex bots, and turning off malfunctioning bots. Yet thi...
Article
Providing stimuli may facilitate idea generation. Creativity theories often suggest that stimuli unrelated to the problem task will improve creativity, but empirical studies have yielded inconsistent results. We propose a Wikipedia-based approach that is able to identify stimuli at different levels of relatedness. Specifically, we use hypertext lin...
Conference Paper
Experienced members of online communities use discussion to familiarize newcomers with norms. These members use imperatives, a kind of directive speech act, to suggest a course of action. A method for automatically recognizing such imperatives is described here. The recognition performance of the algorithm is compared to that of human readers. In a...
Preprint
Experienced members of online communities use discussion to familiarize newcomers with norms. These members use imperatives, a kind of directive speech act, to suggest a course of action. A method for automatically recognizing such imperatives is described here. The recognition performance of the algorithm is compared to that of human readers. In a...
Article
In addition to having a detailed understanding of the artifacts they intend to create, designers need to guide the software tools they use.
Article
The Workshop Program of the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence’s Sixth AAAI Conference on Human Computation and Crowdsourcing was held on the campus of the University of Zurich in Zurich, Switzerland on 5 July 2018. There were three full-day workshops in the program: CrowdBias: Disentangling the Relation between Crowdsourcin...
Article
Online reviews influence consumers’ purchase decisions. Product type – specifically, whether a product is utilitarian or hedonic – can help explain how consumers react to reviews. Characteristics of reviews – in particular, valence, measured by ratings, the arousal level of the language used in the text and the volume of the reviews – provide heuri...
Article
Ubisoft’s game designers successfully used autonomous tools to develop an innovative virtual world. The authors discuss the reflective practices underlying this success and how autonomous tools enable more complex system design.
Article
Crowdsourcing is an increasingly important approach to pursuing innovation. In crowdsourcing ideation websites, crowd members are often exposed to some stimulus ideas, such as examples provided by companies or peers' ideas. Understanding the effect of being exposed to original stimulus ideas in this context may inform the design of the crowdsourcin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This all-day workshop aims to promote convergence among its participants on research related to working with intelligent machines. We define intelligent machines as both material (e.g., robots) and immaterial (e.g., algorithms) computing technologies that can be characterized by autonomy, the ability to learn, and the ability to interact with other...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recent discourse in the Design Science Research community addresses the necessity to accumulate and reuse design knowledge. However, design methods are complex and so are the traditional ways to document design knowledge. Inspired by the high business and academic impact of Business Model Canvas, we argue that a single-page portrayal of nine design...
Article
Individual creativity support systems have been developed to facilitate creative work. This article reviews the various design requirements and approaches proposed for supporting individual creative work, as well as relevant creativity theories. Current creativity support systems use many approaches in supporting the collection of relevant informat...
Article
Full-text available
Theories of knowledge reuse posit two distinct processes: reuse for replication and reuse for innovation. We identify another distinct process, reuse for customization. Reuse for customization is a process in which designers manipulate the parameters of metamodels to produce models that fulfill their personal needs. We test hypotheses about reuse f...
Conference Paper
A key issue, whenever people work together to solve a complex problem, is how to divide the problem into parts done by different people and combine the parts into a solution for the whole problem. This paper presents a novel way of doing this with groups of contests called contest webs. Based on the analogy of supply chains for physical products, t...
Conference Paper
Keeping track of things as they move in space and time is a task common to scientists, marketers, spies, coaches, and more. Visualizations of complex information aid drawing inferences and conclusions but there are many ways to represent data. Here we show that the kinds of inferences people draw depend on the kind of visualization, boxes in tables...
Article
Full-text available
While most kinds of design are rooted in geographic space, information sys-tems design is rooted in network space in which logic, not distance, is key. Yet visualization and spatial reasoning are heavily used throughout design ac-tivity, sometimes clarifying, sometimes confusing. Current understanding about spatial reasoning in information systems,...
Article
Panelists will discuss how collective intelligence can be applied to large-scale problems through collaborative online systems. The features and affordances of several such systems will be described, inviting discussion about how such systems can be better designed by the CSCW community.
Chapter
Creative work can be performed by thousands of people who interact through collective design systems. The designers modify and combine each other’s work in a process called remixing. Remixing can catalyze innovation by allowing designers to build on each other’s ideas. For those designing collective design systems, decisions to be made about remixi...
Conference Paper
Individual creativity support systems have been developed to facilitate creative work. However, the designs often neglect problem definition and convergent thinking even though there is strong evidence that the whole creative process should be supported. Based on the literature on creativity, a new set of principles is proposed to guide the design...
Article
Full-text available
Crowds can generate ideas by searching for new designs. A model for such crowd-based search is proposed consisting of three major forces: the problem domain, the actors, and the process. One particular process that can perform such search is that described by human based genetic algorithms, in which crowds are responsible for creating, modifying, a...
Article
Full-text available
A growing community that shares digital 3D designs has created an opportunity to study, encourage and stimulate innovation. This remix community allows people not only to prototype at a minimal cost but also to work on projects they are genuinely interested in. Participants free of the limitations typically imposed by formal organizations develop p...
Conference Paper
Internet technologies now make it possible to produce new ideas, products, and services by catalyzing large scale social networks and crowds. The papers discussed here provide a cross-section of current research into human-centric computing on the web, covering user participation, political activism, user-generated recommendations, and user innovat...
Article
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An economy based on the exchange of capital, assets and services between individuals has grown significantly, spurred by proliferation of internet-based platforms that allow people to share underutilized resources and trade with reasonably low transaction costs. The movement toward this economy of "sharing" translates into market efficiencies that...
Article
Full-text available
Innovation inside companies is difficult to see. But an emerging online community of inventors who publicly post 3D CAD drawings of their work provide a way to observe – and perhaps amplify – innovation. In this paper we analyze the network structure of Thingiverse, a website oriented toward 3D printing. This form of printing blurs the line between...
Article
Full-text available
In order to create new products, inventors search and combine previous ideas. Few studies have examined the characteristics of search that lead to new products; most have focused on patent citations, which are often retrospective and may not reflect the usefulness of inventions. Through the analysis of collaborations in an online virtual community,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper proposes a hybrid human machine system based on an expert weighting algorithm that combines the responses of both humans and machine learning algorithms. The general topic of the paper is the use of the crowd to interpret text, and the power of that interpretation to predict future events. This topic is addressed through an experiment, i...
Conference Paper
This paper analyzes the relationship between asset return, volatility and the centrality indicators of a corporate news network conducting a longitudinal network analysis. We build a sequence of daily corporate news network for the period 2005-2011 using companies of the STOXX 50 index as nodes, the weights of the edges are the sum of the number of...
Chapter
Crowds can generate creative ideas by working in parallel to modify and combine each other’s ideas. Specifically, crowd members can be organized by a human-based evolutionary algorithm. New ideas are created from scratch, they are ranked, then selected for modification or combination by other crowd members. The end result of this process is a popul...
Article
A method of organizing the crowd to generate ideas is described; it integrates crowds using evolutionary algorithms; the method increases the creativity of ideas across generations, and works better than greenfield idea generation. Specifically, a design space of internet-scale idea generation systems is defined, and one instance is tested – a crow...
Article
The process of assembling crowds to perform tasks constitutes a new form of work practice. The current practice forms a basis for future instructional and organisational design activity, providing opportunities for improvement in both individual and collective learning. In particular, feedback systems – from other crowd workers, from experts, and f...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Paid crowd work offers remarkable opportunities for improving productivity, social mobility, and the global economy by engaging a geographically distributed workforce to complete complex tasks on demand and at scale. But it is also possible that crowd work will fail to achieve its potential, focusing on assembly-line piecework. Can we foresee a fut...
Article
Full-text available
Thinking often entails interacting with cognitive tools. In many cases, notably design, the predominant tool is the page. The page allows externalizing, organizing, and reorganizing thought. Yet, the page has its own properties that by expressing thought affect it: path, proximity, place, and permanence. The effects of these properties were evident...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The effect of exposure to an original or common idea on crowdsourced idea generation was studied by asking crowd workers to design a public service advertisement. As compared to having no idea exposure, exposure to an original idea decreased fluency and increased the average originality of ideas generated by each person. By contrast, exposure to a...
Article
This paper evaluates the role of a corporate network in spreading news and in particular shows how it affects return and volatility. We build a sequence of daily corporate news network for the period 2005-2011 using companies of the STOXX 50 index as nodes; the weights of the edges are the number of news items sharing common topics between companie...
Article
Topic models are used to classify documents, and they do so by designating sets of keywords that describe ideas, leaving interpretation of these keywords to humans. In this paper, we create variants of topic models in which documents are classified by the Wikipedia page that they match best; in this way we generate human-understandable topic names...
Article
Design is an exploratory activity, and there are many ways to get lost or stuck. There is no pre-existing map – the map is built through the design process. We first discuss design space - the space of possible choices in creating something new - and how it can be visualized. We then discuss evaluation space - the space that measures a particular d...
Article
Full-text available
Innovation inside companies is difficult to see. But an emerging online community of inventors who publicly post 3D CAD drawings of their work provide a way to observe – and perhaps amplify – innovation. In this paper we analyze the network structure of Thingiverse, a website oriented toward 3D printing. This form of printing blurs the line between...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Abstract thought has roots in the spatial world. Abstractions are expressed in the ways things are arranged in the world as well as the ways people talk and gesture. Mappings to the page should be better when they are congruent, that is, when the abstract concept matches the spatial one. Congruent mappings can be revealed in people's performance an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An efficient way to notify a set of people is to use a calling tree, where one person calls a few people who call others until everyone has been notified. Calling trees are typical of a large class of planning tasks that entail considering both the structure of agents and tasks in time. Participants were asked to choose the optimal diagram for a ca...
Article
A person’s actions often yield positive and/or negative side-effects in addition to directly-intended consequences. Legal opinion on negligence and recklessness attributes “oblique” intent to persons who foresee, but (intentionally) ignore, virtually certain negative side-effects of their actions. The law remains silent on any variety of intentiona...
Article
Full-text available
Creativity is individual, and it is social. The social aspects of creativity have become of increasing interest as systems have emerged that mobilize large numbers of people to engage in creative tasks. We examine research related to collective intelligence and differentiate work on collective creativity from other collective activities by analyzin...
Article
This study considers a situation in which a sensor network aims to protect a stationary target (e.g., a large battleship at anchor) and detects signals from approaching objects (e.g., small boats traveling in a harbor). Once the network detects a sufficient number of signals from the object (for example, through video surveillance), it may classify...
Article
Collaborators often invest unequal resources towards a common good. Without agreement on sharing that good, collaboration might devolve into parallel, possibly competitive, individual efforts. Reaching agreement requires bargaining. Before bargaining, collaborators independently decide how much to demand and how little to accept. These decisions co...
Conference Paper
Combining concept maps aids creative problem solving. In two studies, participants were presented with a story describing a problem and its solution. They were then asked to read an analogous problem and provide a solution. In order to facilitate transfer from the first story to the second, concept maps of the stories were elicited and participants...
Article
A large-scale, multi-year, randomized study compared learning activities and outcomes for hands-on, remotely-operated, and simulation-based educational laboratories in an undergraduate engineering course. Students (N = 458) worked in small-group lab teams to perform two experiments involving stress on a cantilever beam. Each team conducted the expe...
Article
This paper evaluates the role of a corporate network in spreading news and in particular shows how it affects prices. We build daily corporate news network using companies of the STOXX 50 index as nodes; the weights of the edges are the number of news items sharing common topics between companies. The STOXX 50 includes the top 50 European companies...
Article
Design is a process that shapes the world. At the same time, the world shapes the process of design. Over time, our image of the designer has changed. For example, product designers were often imagined as sole inventors, tinkering. Computers have, since their advent, been thought of as potentially replacing, or as assisting in, this individualistic...
Conference Paper
By mapping messages into a large context, we can compute the distances between them, and then classify them. We test this conjecture on Twitter messages: Messages are mapped onto their most similar Wikipedia pages, and the distances between pages are used as a proxy for the distances between messages. This technique yields more accurate classificat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Crowdsourcing is a new kind of organizational structure, one that is conducive to large amounts of short parallel work: thousands of individuals may work for several minutes on tasks, their outputs aggregated into a useful product or service. The dimensions of this new organizational form are described. Areas for future research are identified, foc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A sketch combination system is introduced and tested: a crowd of 1047 participated in an iterative process of design, evaluation and combination. Specifically, participants in a crowdsourcing marketplace sketched chairs for children. One crowd created a first generation of chairs, and then successive crowds created new generations by combining the...