Jeffrey A Hayes

Jeffrey A Hayes
Pennsylvania State University | Penn State · Center for Collegiate Mental Health

Ph.D.

About

112
Publications
98,307
Reads
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5,001
Citations
Citations since 2017
26 Research Items
2678 Citations
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Introduction
For more than 30 years, my research has focused on psychotherapist factors that affect the process and outcome of treatment. Since 2010, I have also conducted large-scale studies on college student mental health.
Education
August 1986 - December 1991
University of Maryland, College Park
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (112)
Article
Objective: The literature regarding dropout from psychotherapy has suffered from issues of diverse operationalization of the construct. Some have called for a more uniform definition to aid in generalization across research; this study aimed to assess the viability of such a definition by examining the rate of occurrence for three distinct definiti...
Article
Treatment context may have a unique impact on psychotherapy outcomes, above and beyond client, therapist, and therapy process variables. University counseling centers represent one such treatment context facing increasing treatment demands. This study examined the role of counseling centers and center variables in explaining differences in psychoth...
Article
Purpose: Campus counseling centers, which oversee the provision of mental health services, can play a vital role in supporting positive outcomes among college students in general; however, little remains known about the effectiveness of campus-based counseling for reducing academic and psychological distress among college students with disabilities...
Article
This archival study sought to examine the sociocultural contextual factors and symptom experiences with which young pregnant clients typically present to university and college counselling centres (UCCCs). Participants were 154 pregnant clients (aged 18–24), and 154 matched case–control women seeking counselling at their UCCC. Data were archived be...
Article
Objective: Understanding and managing countertransference (CT) is challenging for therapists and more so for trainees. This study aimed to understand more about trainees’ experiences of CT; and to consider the usefulness for reflective practice of a five component model of CT (origins, triggers, manifestations, effects, and management) and the impo...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Although most self-report measures of distress are intended to assess time-varying constructs, they are usually developed using between-person data. They are therefore vulnerable to misspecification due to measurement nonequivalence at the between-person and within-person levels. In recent years, multiple studies have found that self-rep...
Article
Burnout is a psychological syndrome characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a reduced sense of personal accomplishment. Due to the demands of treating people with psychological problems, burnout is prevalent among psychotherapists. In this article, we present a comprehensive review of 44 quantitative and qualitative studies fr...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: There is a paucity of studies examining the experience of clients who undergo multiple courses of psychotherapy. Conducted within a large practice research network, this study demonstrated that returning therapy clients comprise a considerable portion of the clinical population in university counseling settings, and identified variables...
Article
This study sought to identify predictors of suicidal behavior among college students who are psychotherapy clients, as well as to determine underlying classes of clients with suicidal ideation. Data were gathered from 101,570 clients, 391 of whom engaged in suicide behavior during treatment. Regression analyses revealed that suicide behavior was po...
Chapter
This chapter reviews the history and definition of countertransference, as well as empirical research on countertransference, its management, and the relation of both to psychotherapy outcome. Three meta-analyses are presented, as well as studies that illustrate findings from the meta-analyses. The first meta-analysis indicated that countertransfer...
Article
This study examined how academic distress changed over the course of counseling and predicted retention. The sample comprised students receiving services at the campus counseling center (n = 404), students from a psychology department subject pool (n = 311), and students from the general campus population (n = 75,748). The analyses performed includ...
Article
In this article, we review the history and definition of countertransference, as well as empirical research on countertransference, its management, and the relation of both with psychotherapy outcome. Three meta-analyses are presented, as well as studies that illustrate findings from the meta-analyses. The first meta-analysis indicated that counter...
Article
Conducted in naturalistic settings, practice-oriented research (POR) is aimed at building stronger connections between the science and practice of psychotherapy. Promoting the principles of POR, this paper has two aims: (1) Presenting the results of a survey assessing the interests of members of a large practice research network (PRN) in topics tha...
Article
The current study investigated the sensitivity to change of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-34 (CCAPS-34), a multidimensional measure designed to assess the mental health problems common in college students across seven domains. The results suggest that the CCAPS-34 is able to capture change taking place during treatment.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Large numbers of United States service members and veterans are enrolling in colleges and universities. Many are experiencing posttraumatic stress symptoms secondary to their military service, and these symptoms are associated with academic dysfunction. However, little is known about the mechanism(s) through which posttraumatic stress i...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Though many studies have shown that psychotherapy can be effective, psychotherapy available in routine practice may not be adequate. Several methods have been proposed to evaluate routine psychological treatments. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the combined utility of complementary methods, change-based benchmarking, and end-st...
Article
Despite growing evidence that a greater number of students are seeking counseling in college and university counseling centers throughout the United States, there is a dearth of empirical information about (a) the presenting concerns for which students seek treatment and (b) how these concerns differ according to client demographic factors. The pur...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous studies have demonstrated that counseling centers deliver a positive impact on the emotional and social development of college students who receive services. These healthy outcomes, in turn, can lead to increased academic success, such as improved performance, retention, and persistence. While these short-term academic outcomes have been w...
Article
The current state of college student mental health is frequently labeled a “crisis,” as the demand for services and severity of symptomatology have appeared to increase in recent decades. Nationally representative findings are presented from the Center for Collegiate Mental Health, a practice research network based in the United States, composed of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: Though many studies have shown that psychotherapy can be effective, psychotherapy available in routine practice may not be adequate. Several methods have been proposed to evaluate routine psychological treatments. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the combined utility of complementary methods, change-based benchmarking and end-stat...
Article
Full-text available
Countertransference is an important aspect of the therapeutic relationship that exists in therapies of all theoretical orientations, and depending on how it is managed, it can either help or hinder treatment. Management of countertransference has been measured almost exclusively with the Countertransference Factors Inventory (Van Wagoner, Gelso, Ha...
Chapter
In this chapter, we consider culture broadly, as referring to a group of people who share common history, values, beliefs, symbols, and rituals. The cultural groups to which one belongs include (but are not limited to) gender, religion, ethnicity, disability status, sexual orientation, race, and age. We address the influence of culture on different...
Article
Dropout has been a pervasive and costly problem in psychotherapy, particularly for college counseling centers. The present study examined potential predictors of dropout using a large data set (N = 10,147 clients, 481 therapists) that was gathered through a college counseling center practice research network as a replication and extension of recent...
Article
Full-text available
Although dropout from psychotherapy has received substantial attention, the impacts of nonattendance on client outcome across a course of psychotherapy have not been well researched. All in-person psychotherapy treatments require clients to actually attend sessions to generate positive symptomatic results, and missed sessions have at least a time a...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Research has demonstrated that providing appropriate supports and services on campus can improve both mental health and academic outcomes for students with disabilities (Emerson, Honey, Madden, & Llewellyn, 2009; Stumbo, Martin, & Hedrick, 2009), but little is known about the specific mental health needs of this population. The purpose...
Article
Objective: The authors attempted to develop and validate a general distress index for a multidimensional psychological symptom/outcome measure used in over 300 college counseling centers with more than 100,000 cases annually: the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS). Method: Four models were compared for fit indices (n = 1...
Article
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Interest has been growing in the mental health benefits of self-compassion. Whereas, most research on this topic has been conducted with the 26-item Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), a briefer 12-item version of the instrument, the Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form (SCS-SF), also exists. The SCS-SF has demonstrated good validity and reliability in non-cl...
Article
The current study explored the reliability and clinical utility of a method designed to identify latent classes of students seeking counseling, based on 8 symptom domains and their interactions. Participants were over 50,000 college students in counseling, assessed with the CCAPS-62 and -34 as part of routine clinical care. Latent profile analysis...
Article
Full-text available
The purposes of this study were to (a) investigate whether psychotherapists differ in their effectiveness with clients, (b) determine whether disparities exist within therapists' caseloads in their outcomes with White and racial and ethnic minority (REM) clients, (c) explore therapist factors that might contribute to observed therapist effects, and...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this article is to present information about a standardized multidimensional measure of psychological symptoms, the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS; Locke et al., 2011; Locke, McAleavey, et al., 2012; McAleavey, Nordberg, Hayes, et al., 2012), developed to assess difficulties specific to college students' m...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Aim: Although psychotherapy is effective for a majority of people, there is a subset of people who fail to improve over the course of therapy. Prior research has shown that clients whose actual rate of change in therapy deviates significantly from the expected rate of change are much more likely to have a negative outcome. This expected trajectory...
Article
Countertransference (CT) can provide psychotherapists with important information about relationship dynamics with clients, the therapy process, and clinical decisions. CT also can lead therapists to view clients and sessions inaccurately, feel unduly anxious, and behave in ways that primarily meet their own needs at the expense of clients. In summa...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the applicability of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS), a psychological assessment instrument that is widely used with college students in the United States, to the college student population in Thailand. Following the procedures of translation and back-translation, the Thai version of the CCAPS...
Article
Some psychotherapists produce better outcomes than others (Crits-Christoph & Mintz, 1991; Kraus, Castonguay, Boswell, Nordberg, & Hayes, 2011), although it has not been established whether therapists vary in their effectiveness with racial/ethnic minority (REM) clients. The importance of identifying therapist factors associated with successful outc...
Article
There has been growing interest in the mental health benefits of self-compassion. This study was designed to establish norms on the Self-Compassion Scale–Short Form, a popular measure of self-compassion for individuals seeking counseling, and to examine group differences in self-compassion based on gender, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, previo...
Article
An increasing number of veterans are returning from war, many with mental health problems. Some of these returning veterans will enroll in college, and it is important that campus counseling centers can meet the needs of this population. This study examined psychological distress among students with and without military experience. Results indicate...
Article
The practice of psychotherapy requires me to have several qualities: presence, perspective, and self-knowledge. These demands of conducting psychotherapy are discussed from an experiential point of view as primarily beneficial. Practicing psychotherapy also frequently reminds me of important lessons that I need to remember. Case examples are provid...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The Center for Collegiate Mental Health (CCMH) was created through a grass-roots initiative among university and college counseling centers to standardize assessment procedures, conduct empirical studies, and advocate clinical services. Method: At present, CCMH has over 240 college counseling center members and oversees a research inf...
Article
This article serves as an introduction to this issue of the journal on sex, love, intimacy, and attraction in psychotherapy, with a particular emphasis on therapists' reactions to these subjects. A common theme throughout this special issue is that such topics are natural, common, challenging, and potentially dangerous. I call attention to a few of...
Article
The purpose of this study was to develop a better understanding of why college students seek psychological treatment by examining indicators of psychological distress. A secondary goal was to assess the utility of screening for treatment need via a brief self-report measure of distress. Two samples (1 clinical, 1 nonclinical; N= 8,380) were examine...
Article
Studies have shown that counseling decreases students' academic distress. These findings, however, are based primarily on European American students. This study explored the impact of counseling on academic distress for treatment-seeking racial/ethnic minority college students using the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms–34 (Loc...
Article
This phenomenological investigation explored the lived experiences of recovering substance abuse counselors regarding their use of self-disclosure of their personal histories of addiction with clients in counseling for substance abuse–related issues. A total of 10 recovering counselors were interviewed and asked to describe in detail their uses of...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Countertransference (CT) reactions can negatively affect psychotherapy, and research has found that effectively managing these reactions is positively associated with psychotherapy outcome (Hayes, Gelso, & Hummel, 2011). Therefore, it is important to understand factors that might facilitate CT management. In this study, 78 therapist traine...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the relevance of both personal and familial aspects of perfectionism for Latino college students. The participants were 207 Latino college students (76% women, 24% men; M age = 21.13 years). Psychometric evaluations of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R) and Family Almost Perfect Scale (FAPS) provide promising support o...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine academic distress over the course of a semester for both a clinical and nonclinical sample of college students by administering the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS-62 and CCAPS-34) to students at a single university. Results revealed that students who were in counseling showed a...
Article
The aim of this study was to identify variables that reliably differentiated between 2 groups of students who reported binge drinking at the same rate (6 to more than 10 times within the previous 2 weeks) but who exhibited different distress associated with their behavior. Results indicated that students who received an external expression of conce...
Article
Full-text available
Self-report instruments of psychological symptoms are increasingly used in counseling centers but rely on rigorous evaluation of their clinical validity. Three studies reported here (total N = 26,886) investigated the validity of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62; Locke et al., 2011) as an assessment and screen...
Article
Full-text available
Available information about college student mental health has largely been anecdotal or based on information drawn from a single institution. This review examines ten studies published within the past 20 years that focused on college student mental health using data collected from multisite college or university counseling center clients or staff....
Article
Full-text available
A short version of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms–62 (CCAPS-62) was created via three studies. The final short version (CCAPS-34), which contains 34 items and 7 subscales, demonstrated good discrimination power, support for the proposed factor structure, strong initial convergent validity, and adequate test–retest stabil...
Article
Full-text available
Although a potentially important factor in case conceptualization and treatment planning, the impact of previous treatment on subsequent counseling response has received little empirical attention. Using archival data, this study aimed to (a) report the prevalence of previous treatment utilization in a counseling population, (b) examine potential d...
Chapter
Full-text available
After 5 years of conceptualizing, investigating, and writing about corrective experiences (CEs), we (the authors of this chapter) met to talk about what we learned. In this chapter, we summarize our joint understanding of (a) the definition of CEs; (b) the contexts in which CEs occur; (c) client, therapist, and external factors that facilitate CEs;...
Article
Countertransference and the Therapist's Inner Experience explores the inner world of the psychotherapist and its influences on the relationship between psychotherapist and patient. This relationship is a major element determining the success of psychotherapy, in addition to determining how and to what extent psychotherapy works with each individual...
Article
A comparison of institutional enrollment data and counseling center service utilization data at 66 universities showed that neither ethnic minority students nor European American students under-or overutilized counseling services (Study 1). Data from Study 2 examining students in the general campus bodies at 45 institutions indicated that utilizati...
Article
Full-text available
Data from 2 studies revealed that ethnic and sexual minority clients experienced greater psychological distress on multiple dimensions than did European American or heterosexual clients, respectively, as did ethnic and sexual minority students who were not clients. Among sexual minority students, ethnicity was not an added source of distress. Among...
Article
The authors describe the Center for Collegiate Mental Health (CCMH),a practice-research network of university counseling centers, and introduce the special issue of the Journal of College Counseling that features the work of the CCMH. The issue features five studies conducted by the CCMH, all of which were focused on the mental health and treatment...
Article
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Research suggests that mindfulness practices offer psychotherapists a way to positively affect aspects of therapy that account for successful treatment. This paper provides psychotherapists with a synthesis of the empirically supported advantages of mindfulness. Definitions of mindfulness and evidence-based interpersonal, affective, and intraperson...
Article
Therapist self-disclosure has been theorized and found to have both positive and negative effects. These effects depend, in part, on the nature of the disclosure. This study sought to examine the differential effects of therapist disclosures of more and less resolved countertransference issues on perceptions of therapists and therapy sessions. Usin...
Article
Full-text available
Significant therapist variability has been demonstrated in both psychotherapy outcomes and process (e.g., the working alliance). In an attempt to provide prevalence estimates of "effective" and "harmful" therapists, the outcomes of 6960 patients seen by 696 therapists in the context of naturalistic treatment were analyzed across multiple symptom an...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents a model of a practice-research network that offers benefits for clinicians working at college and university counseling centers. We briefly describe the basic components of this practice-research network, challenges in developing it, and some of the empirical studies that have resulted from this initiative. We also describe po...
Article
In this article, we review the history and definition of countertransference as well as empirical research on countertransference, its management, and the relation of both to psychotherapy outcome. Three meta-analyses are presented, as well as studies that illustrate findings from the meta-analyses. The first meta-analysis indicated that countertra...
Article
Few instruments have been designed specifically to address the needs of college counseling centers. This article reviews existing instruments and presents 4 studies that describe the development and psychometric properties of a new instrument, the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62). Study 1 describes the initial it...
Chapter
Modern interpersonal psychology is now at a point where recent advances need to be organized so that researchers, practitioners, and students can understand what is new, different, and state-of-the art. This field-defining volume examines the history of interpersonal psychology and explores influential theories of normal-abnormal behaviors, widely-...
Article
Violent behavior on college campuses has been a long-standing problem that has received increased attention due to recent shootings. At present, the factors that predict college students' violent behavior are not well understood. To increase knowledge in this area, two studies were conducted that examined the prevalence and predictors of college st...
Article
Research indicates that alcohol and other drug problem (AOD) therapists who are in recovery yield comparable outcomes to therapists who are not in recovery. Might these generally equivalent outcomes be produced via different therapeutic processes? What factors other than, or in interaction with, therapist recovery status predict effective treatment...
Article
Research indicates that traditional psychotherapy training practices are ineffective in durably improving the effectiveness of psychotherapists. In addition, the quantity and quality of psychotherapy training research has also been limited in several ways. Thus, based on extant scholarship and personal experience, we offer several suggestions for i...
Article
Full-text available
A consensual qualitative research strategy was used to examine data from interviews with 12 psychotherapists. Therapists were asked to discuss their experiences working with their clients’ spiritual problems. Analyses revealed 4 domains relevant to psychotherapy with spiritual problems: therapist approach/philosophy, assessment of spiritual problem...
Article
This study examined the relationship between therapists' grief related to the death of a loved one and clients' perceptions of the process of bereavement therapy. Mail survey data were obtained from 69 client-therapist dyads. Results indicated that the extent to which therapists missed deceased loved ones was inversely related to client perceptions...
Article
The authors investigated the applicability of a transactional theory of stress to the understanding of countertransference with male clients. Counselors responded to either a traditional or nontraditional videotaped male client vignette. As expected, counselors' stress appraisals predicted their countertransference behavior. Specifically, therapist...
Article
Full-text available
Therapist decisions about self-disclosure depend theoretically upon both content and context, such as the quality of the therapeutic relationship. In this analogue study, 224 undergraduates viewed 1 of 3 videos for which the working alliance was described as positive or negative and in which a therapist made general self-disclosures, countertransfe...
Article
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This study examined the potential influence of religiosity, sexual orientation identity development, and internalized homonegativity on the propensity to seek conversion therapy to change one’s sexual orientation. An Internet sample of 76 women and 130 men who were gay-identified, lesbian-identified, same-sex attracted, and “questioning” was studie...
Article
The author reviews findings from his research to date on countertransference. Particular attention is paid to the succession of ideas underlying this program of research, and the author highlights measurement and other methodological challenges inherent to empirical work on countertransference. A theoretical framework for integrating countertransfe...
Article
Full-text available
The authors conducted a study of 5,472 university students to identify the prevalence and predictors of religious and spiritual concerns. Approximately 25% of the sample reported considerable distress related to such concerns. Logistic regression analyses revealed that students with considerable distress related to religious or spiritual concerns a...
Article
This article presents a synthesis of the research on countertransference (CT) that has been conducted since the last major review of CT literature was published in 1977. The past quarter century has witnessed a growing body of research on CT marked by methodological improvements and increasing conceptual sophistication. In this article, the authors...
Article
Insight into the construct of countertransference may be gained by studying the relationships among its constituents. Toward that end, a single therapy dyad was analyzed for 13 sessions. Client verbalizations predicted to trigger countertransference reactions were studied in relation to their possible consequences, and the potential mitigating role...
Article
This article explores both theoretical and practical concepts related to the therapist's use of the self in psychotherapy. Particular emphasis is placed on the potential clinical value of countertransference. It is argued that awareness and resolution of personal issues are required for therapists to draw profitably from their own experiences in wo...
Article
This article presents a clinically oriented synthesis of research findings pertaining to countertransference (CT). Findings are organized around five therapy-relevant questions concerning the origins, triggers, manifestations, management, and effects of CT. To date,