Jeffrey A Harvey

Jeffrey A Harvey
Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen | KNAW · Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO)

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171
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Publications

Publications (171)
Article
Ecosystem engineers are species that manipulate the physical state of ecosystems and thereby affect the behaviour and ecology of other species. Mature larvae of the parsnip webworm, Depressaria radiella Goeze, chew holes in the hollow stems of Heracleum sphondylium L. into which they pupate. The stems are separated into several compartments that ar...
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How a society relates to nature is shaped by the dominant social paradigm (DSP): a society’s collective view on social, economic, political, and environmental issues. The characteristics of the DSP have important consequences for natural systems and their conservation. Based on a synthesis of academic literature, we provide a new gradient of 12 typ...
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The larvae of insect herbivores feed on plants that may vary nutritionally (qualitatively and/or quantitatively) over the course of insect development. Plant quality may change in response to interactions with the biotic environment that in turn may affect development and biomass of the insects feeding on these plants. However, the larvae of many g...
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Beneficial soil microbes can enhance plant growth and defense, but the extent to which this occurs depends on the availability of resources, such as water and nutrients. However, relatively little is known about the role of light quality, which is altered during shading, resulting a low red: far-red ratio (R:FR) of light. We examined how low R:FR l...
Article
A bstract We extend the investigation in [1] of special toroidal compactifications of heterotic string theory for which the half-BPS states provide representations of subgroups of the Conway group. We also explore dual descriptions of these theories and find that they are all linked to either F-theory or type IIA string theory on K3 surfaces with s...
Preprint
The Thompson sporadic group admits special relationships to modular forms of two kinds. On the one hand, last century's generalized moonshine for the monster equipped the Thompson group with a module for which the associated McKay-Thompson series are distinguished weight zero modular functions. On the other hand, Griffin and Mertens verified the ex...
Preprint
Motivated by the appearance of penumbral moonshine, and by evidence that penumbral moonshine enjoys an extensive relationship to generalized monstrous moonshine via infinite products, we establish a general construction in this work which uses singular theta lifts and a concrete construction at the level of modules for a finite group to translate b...
Preprint
We present a brief overview of Moonshine with an emphasis on connections to physics. Moonshine collectively refers to a set of phenomena connecting group theory, analytic number theory, and vertex operator algebras or conformal field theories. Modern incarnations of Moonshine arise in various BPS observables in string theory and, via dualities, inv...
Article
The diverse ecology of parasitoids is shaped by extrinsic competition, i.e., exploitative or interference competition among adult females and males for hosts and mates. Adult females use an array of morphological, chemical, and behavioral mechanisms to engage in competition that may be either intra- or interspecific. Weaker competitors are often ex...
Article
Interactions with soil microbes can strongly affect plant growth and defense against aboveground herbivores. Plant species often accumulate specific soil pathogens in their rhizosphere, leading to reduced growth of plants in soils originating from stands of conspecific plants compared to soils from heterospecific plants. However, whereas effects of...
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The monster sporadic group is the automorphism group of a central charge c=24 vertex operator algebra (VOA) or meromorphic conformal field theory (CFT). In addition to its c=24 stress tensor T(z), this theory contains many other conformal vectors of smaller central charge; for example, it admits 48 commuting c=12 conformal vectors whose sum is T(z)...
Preprint
As Mathieu moonshine is a special case of umbral moonshine, Thompson moonshine (in half-integral weight) is a special case of a family of similar relationships between finite groups and vector-valued modular forms of a certain kind. We call this penumbral moonshine. We introduce and explain some features of this phenomenon in this work.
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Species responding differently to climate change form ‘transient communities’, communities with constantly changing species composition due to colonization and extinction events. Our goal is to disentangle the mechanisms of response to climate change for terrestrial species in these transient communities and explore the consequences for biodiversit...
Preprint
Ruther et al (2021) evaluated fatty acid synthesis in several parasitic wasp species to test if the general finding that lipogenesis in parasitoids is lacking is upheld (Visser et al 2010 PNAS). As proposed by Visser & Ellers (2008), parasitoids can readily assimilate the triglyceride stores produced by their host. When large triglyceride stores ar...
Article
Aphids are serious pests of many crops in agroecosystems and their biological control is focused on enhancing the performance of specialized natural enemies of aphids such as parasitoid wasps and predators like ladybirds. However, ladybirds are often attacked by their own parasitoids in the fourth trophic level that can negatively affect ladybird p...
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Insects are among the most diverse and widespread animals across the biosphere and are well-known for their contributions to ecosystem functioning and services. Recent increases in the frequency and magnitude of climatic extremes (CE), in particular temperature extremes (TE) owing to anthropogenic climate change, are exposing insect populations and...
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Plant–soil feedbacks of plants that are exposed to herbivory have been shown to differ from those of plants that are not exposed to herbivores. Likely, this process is mediated by jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) defense pathways, which are induced by aboveground herbivory. Furthermore, exogenous application of these phytohormones to plan...
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AimsPlants in nature are confronted by a variety of beneficial and antagonistic above- and belowground organisms, including leaf herbivores, soil fungi, and soil nematodes. While their individual effects are usually well studied, their joint effects on plant performance are less well known. Synergistic or antagonistic interactions between these org...
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Plant chemical defenses impact not only herbivores, but also organisms in higher trophic levels that prey on or parasitize herbivores. While herbivorous insects can often detoxify plant chemicals ingested from suitable host plants, how such detoxification affects endoparasitoids that use these herbivores as hosts is largely unknown. Here, we used t...
Article
In three Dutch populations of the native small hogweed (Heracleum sphondylium L. [Apiales: Apiaceae]), and one of the invasive giant hogweed (H. mantegazzianum Sommeier & Levier [Apiales: Apiaceae]), interactions between a specialist herbivore, the parsnip webworm (Depressaria radiella), and its associated parasitoids were compared during a single...
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Global climate change is resulting in a wide range of biotic responses, including changes in diel activity and seasonal phenology patterns, range shifts polewards in each hemisphere and/or to higher elevations, and altered intensity and frequency of interactions between species in ecosystems. Oak (Thaumetopoea processionea) and pine (T. pityocampa)...
Preprint
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Interspecific interactions in nature often revolve around the acquisition of nutrients. Depending on the organisms' metabolic requirements, competition for specific essential nutrients may occur, which selects for increased abilities to monopolize, consume and store these nutrients. Lipid scavengers are organisms that rely on exogenous lipid acquis...
Preprint
The monster sporadic group is the automorphism group of a central charge $c=24$ vertex operator algebra (VOA) or meromorphic conformal field theory (CFT). In addition to its $c=24$ stress tensor $T(z)$, this theory contains many other conformal vectors of smaller central charge; for example, it admits $48$ commuting $c=\frac12$ conformal vectors wh...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Anthropogenic climate change (ACC) may have significant impacts on insect herbivore communities including pests. Two of the most important climate-change related factors are increased atmospheric concentrations of CO2 , and increasing mean global temperature. Although increasing attention is being paid to the biological and ecological...
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Endophytic bacteria are known for their ability in promoting plant growth and defense against biotic and abiotic stress. However, very little is known about the microbial endophytes living in the spermosphere. Here, we isolated bacteria from the seeds of five different populations of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea L) that grow within 15 km of each...
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Insect hyperparasitoids are fourth trophic level organisms that commonly occur in terrestrial food webs, yet they are relatively understudied. These top‐carnivores can disrupt biological pest control by suppressing the populations of their parasitoid hosts leading to pest outbreaks, especially in confined environments such as greenhouses where augm...
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Interspecific competition for limited resources can drive ecological specialization and trait expression. Organisms released from intense competition may exploit a broader range of resources, but if reunited with stronger competitors, survivorship may depend on foraging behaviors that reduce competition. We compared the host selection behavior of t...
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1. Diets that maximise life span often differ from diets that maximise reproduction. Animals have therefore evolved advanced foraging strategies to acquire optimal nutrition and maximise their fitness. The free‐living adult females of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera) need to balance their search for hosts to reproduce and for carbohydrate resources t...
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In the present article we discuss why, in our view, the term 'generalism' to define the dietary breadth of a species is a misnomer and should be revised by entomologists/ecologists with the more exact title relating to the animal in question's level of phagy-mono-, oligo, or polyphagy. We discard generalism as a concept because of the indisputable...
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Two major ecological factors determine the fitness of an insect herbivore: the ability to overcome plant resistance strategies (bottom-up effects) and the ability to avoid or resist attack by natural enemies such as predators and parasitoids (top-down effects). In response to differences in selection pressure, variation may exist in host-plant adap...
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Organisms that invade new habitats exploit new resources or niches and influence native species. Here, we examine how an invasive moth, the parsnip webworm (Depressaria radiella, formerly D. pastinacella), facilitates interactions with other arthropods in spatially separated populations of native cow parsnip (Heracleum maximum) in the Rocky Mountai...
Presentation
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Generalism is a misnomer and only the terms mono-, oligo- and polyphagous should be used when describing the diet breadth of insects and indeed any other animal; Most aphids are specialist on one or a few closely-related host plants, although some appear to be polyphagous, even highly polyphagous; When examined critically, these highly polyphago...
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Changes in the frequency, duration and intensity of rainfall events are among the abiotic effects predicted under anthropogenic global warming. Heavy downpours may profoundly affect the development and survival of small organisms such as insects. Here, we examined direct (physically on the insects) and indirect (plant‐mediated) effects of simulated...
Article
Anthropogenic global warming and attendant effects like heatwaves affect the biology and ecology of both individuals and species within and across different trophic levels. Here, we examined the effects of a simulated heatwave on development of and competition between two hyperparasitoid wasps, Lysibia nana and Acrolyta nens when attacking the same...
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Closely related species in nature usually exhibit very similar phylogenetically conserved traits, such as reproduction, behavior and development. Here, we compared fecundity schedules, lifetime reproductive success and offspring sex ratios in three congeneric facultative hyperparasitoid wasps that exhibit several overlapping traits and which co-occ...
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Hyperparasitoids of aphid parasitoids commonly occur in (sweet pepper) greenhouses, and can pose a threat to effective biological control of aphids. Here, we studied life history characteristics of laboratory colonies of Dendrocerus spp. Ratzeburg (Hymenoptera: Megaspilidae) and Asaphes spp. Walker (Pteromalidae) that originated from a commercial s...
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Although consumers often rely on chemical information to optimize their foraging strategies, it is poorly understood how top carnivores above the third trophic level find resources in heterogeneous environments. Hyperparasitoids are a common group of organisms in the fourth trophic level that lay their eggs in or on the body of other parasitoid hos...
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In natural populations of insect herbivores, genetic differentiation is likely to occur due to variation in host plant utilization and selection by the local community of organisms with which they interact. In parasitoids, engaging in intimate associations with their host during immature development, local variation may exist in host quality for pa...
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1.Understanding effects of Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) on species interactions is essential for predicting community responses to climate change. However, while effects of AGW on resource‐consumer interactions at the first‐ and second trophic level have been well studied, little is known about effects on interactions at higher trophic levels...
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1. Interactions between two trophic levels can be very intimate, often making species dependent on each other, something that increases with specialisation. Some specialised multivoltine herbivores may depend on multiple plant species for their survival over the course of a growing season, especially if their food plants are short‐lived and grow at...
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A recent study showed that a wingless parasitoid, Gelis agilis, exhibits a suite of ant-like traits that repels attack from wolf spiders. When agitated, G. agilis secreted 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (sulcatone), which a small number of ant species produce as an alarm/panic pheromone. Here, we tested four Gelis parasitoid species, occurring in the same...
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Soil biota-plant interactions play a dominant role in terrestrial ecosystems. Through nutrient mineralization and mutualistic or antagonistic interactions with plants soil biota can affect plant performance and physiology and via this affect plant-associated aboveground insects. There is a large body of work in this field that has already been synt...
Article
Symbiotic relationships may provide organisms with key innovations that aid in the establishment of new niches. For example, during oviposition, some species of parasitoid wasps, whose larvae develop inside the bodies of other insects, inject polydnaviruses into their hosts. These symbiotic viruses disrupt host immune responses, allowing the parasi...
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1.Wind is an important abiotic factor that influences an array of biological processes, but it is rarely considered in studies on plant‐herbivore interactions. 2.Here, we tested whether wind exposure could directly or indirectly affect the performance of two insect herbivores, Plutella xylostella and Pieris brassicae, feeding on Brassica nigra plan...
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Increasing surface temperatures, Arctic sea-ice loss, and other evidence of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) are acknowledged by every major scientific organization in the world. However, there is a wide gap between this broad scientific consensus and public opinion. Internet blogs have strongly contributed to this consensus gap by fomenting misu...
Article
Among parasitoids that develop inside the bodies of feeding, growing hosts (so-called 'koinobiont' endoparasitoids), two strategies have evolved to dispose of host resources. The larvae of one group consumes most host tissues before pupation, whereas in the other the parasitoid larvae consume only host hemolymph and fat body and at maturity emerge...
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Plants leave species-specific legacies in the soil they grow in that can represent changes in abiotic or biotic soil properties. It has been shown that such legacies can affect future plants that grow in the same soil (plant-soil feedback, PSF). Such processes have been studied in detail, but mostly on individual plants. Here we study PSF effects a...
Article
Open access publishing (OAP) makes research output freely available, and several national governments have now made OAP mandatory for all publicly funded research. Gold OAP is a common form of OAP where the author pays an article processing charge (APC) to make the article freely available to readers. However, gold OAP is a cause for concern becaus...
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A bstract We show that certain BPS counting functions for both fundamental strings and strings arising from fivebranes wrapping divisors in Calabi-Yau threefolds naturally give rise to skew-holomorphic Jacobi forms at rational and attractor points in the moduli space of string compactifications. For M5-branes wrapping divisors these are forms of we...
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The effects of temporal variation in the quality of short-lived annual plants on oviposition preference and larval performance of insect herbivores has thus far received little attention. This study examines the effects of plant age on female oviposition preference and offspring performance in the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae. Adu...
Article
We analyze holomorphic Jacobi forms of weight one with level. One such form plays an important role in umbral moonshine, leading to simplifications of the statements of the umbral moonshine conjectures. We prove that non-zero holomorphic Jacobi forms of weight one do not exist for many combinations of index and level, and use this to establish a ch...
Article
1. In primary parasitoids, significant differences in life history and reproductive traits are observed among parasitoids attacking different stages of the same host species. Much less is known about hyperparasitoids, which attack different stages of primary parasitoids. 2. Parasitoids exploit hosts in two different ways. Koinobionts attack hosts t...
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Full-text available
Increasing surface temperatures, Arctic sea-ice loss, and other evidence of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) are acknowledged by every major scientific organization in the world. However, there is a wide gap between this broad scientific consensus and public opinion. Internet blogs have strongly contributed to this consensus gap by fomenting misu...
Article
Adult dietary regimes in insects may affect egg production, fecundity and ultimately fitness. This is especially relevant in parasitoid wasps where many species serve as important biological control agents of agricultural pests. Here, we tested the effect of honey and sugar diets on daily fecundity schedules, lifetime reproductive success and longe...
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Life histories can reveal important information on the performance of individuals within their environment and how that affects evolutionary change. Major trait changes, such as trait decay or loss, may lead to pronounced differences in life history strategies when tight correlations between traits exist. Here, we show that three congeneric hyperpa...
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Parasitoid wasps are excellent organisms for studying the allocation of host resources to different fitness functions such as adult body mass and development time. Koinobiont parasitoids attack hosts that continue feeding and growing during parasitism, whereas idiobiont parasitoids attack non-growing host stages or paralyzed hosts. Many adult femal...