Jeffrey C. Glennon

Jeffrey C. Glennon
University College Dublin | UCD · School of Medicine & Medical Science

Ph.D.

About

250
Publications
41,214
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3,740
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Introduction
Jeffrey C. Glennon currently works at University College Dublin (UCD). Jeffrey does research into the underlying molecular and neural mechanisms underlying rule making and breaking. This has involved a number of leadership roles in a series of EU projects including MATRICS, OPTIMISTIC, PRISM, TACTICS, Aggressotype, TS-Eurotrain, and ReCogNition and NL-based projects such as PiCaSSO and TI Pharma.

Publications

Publications (250)
Article
Background Disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) are heterogeneous at the clinical and the biological level. Therefore, the aims were to dissect the heterogeneous neurodevelopmental deviations of the affective brain circuitry and provide an integration of these differences across modalities. Methods We combined two novel approaches. First, normative...
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Rationale: Compulsivity often develops during childhood and is associated with elevated glutamate levels within the frontostriatal system. This suggests that anti-glutamatergic drugs, like memantine, may be an effective treatment. Objective: Our goal was to characterize the acute and chronic effect of memantine treatment on compulsive behavior a...
Preprint
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an incurable multisystem disease caused by a CTG-repeat expansion in the DM1 protein kinase (DMPK) gene. The OPTIMISTIC clinical trial demonstrated positive and heterogenous effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on the capacity for activity and social participations in DM1 patients. Here, we performed mRNA...
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The blood transcriptome was examined in relation to disease severity in type I myotonic dystrophy (DM1) patients who participated in the Observational Prolonged Trial In DM1 to Improve QoL- Standards (OPTIMISTIC) study. This sought to (a) ascertain if transcriptome changes were associated with increasing disease severity, as measured by the muscle...
Article
Although aggression has been linked to disturbances of circadian rhythm, insight into the neural substrate of this association is currently lacking. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, the master circadian clock, is regulated by clock genes and known to influence the secretion of cortisosterone and testosterone, important hormone...
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Disruptive behavior during childhood and adolescence is heterogeneous and associated with several psychiatric disorders. The identification of more homogeneous subgroups might help identify different underlying pathways and tailor treatment strategies. Children and adolescents (aged 8–18) with disruptive behaviors (N = 121) and healthy controls (N...
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Full-text available
Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder of complex genetic architecture, characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic persisting for more than one year. We performed a genome-wide meta-analysis integrating a novel TS cohort with previously published data, resulting in a sample size of 6,133 TS indi...
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Aggressive behaviors and disruptive/conduct disorders are some of the commonest reasons for referral to youth mental health services; nevertheless, the efficacy of therapeutic interventions in real-world clinical practice remains unclear. In order to define more appropriate targets for innovative pharmacological therapies for disruptive/conduct dis...
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Despite the substantial heritability of antisocial behavior (ASB), specific genetic variants robustly associated with the trait have not been identified. The present study by the Broad Antisocial Behavior Consortium (BroadABC) meta-analyzed data from 25 discovery samples (N=85,359) and five independent replication samples (N = 8,058) with genotypic...
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Social reward refers to the motivational and pleasurable aspects of our interactions with other people. While some people experience social encounters as pleasurable, others experience them as aversive. However, the current knowledge on individual differences in social reward valuation in relation to pro- and antisocial personality characteristics...
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Objective Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is a late-onset, progressive muscle disease. Disease progression is known to be slow, but details on the natural history remain unknown. We aimed to examine the natural history of OPMD in a large nationwide cohort to determine clinical outcome measures that capture disease progression and can be u...
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There is increasing evidence for altered brain resting state functional connectivity in adolescents with disruptive behavior. While a considerable body of behavioral research points to differences between reactive and proactive aggression, it remains unknown whether these two subtypes have dissociable effects on connectivity. Additionally, callous-...
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Background: The European OPTIMISTIC clinical trial has demonstrated a significant, yet heterogenous effect of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1) patients. One of its remaining aims was the assessment of efficacy and adequacy of clinical outcome measures, including the relatively novel primary trial outcome, the...
Article
Psychopathy is a personality construct encompassing impaired interpersonal-affective functioning, combined with the inclination to lead an erratic lifestyle and to engage in antisocial acts. Individuals with elevated psychopathic traits often make decisions that have a negative impact on others. Some findings suggest that a lack of empathy and guil...
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Pathological aggression is a debilitating feature of many neuropsychiatric disorders, and cingulate cortex is one of the brain areas centrally implicated in its control. Here we explore the specific role of midcingulate cortex (MCC) in the development of pathological aggression. To this end, we investigated the structural and functional degeneratio...
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Pivotal response treatment (PRT) is a promising intervention focused on improving social communication skills in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Since robots potentially appeal to children with ASD and may contribute to their motivation for social interaction, this exploratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted comparing...
Article
Psychopathy is a personality construct that encompasses a constellation of traits reflecting emotional dysfunction and antisocial behavior. Individuals with elevated levels of psychopathic traits have shown abnormal affective processing. Studies with psychopathic offenders suggested that this is a result of altered automatic social approach-avoidan...
Article
Controlling aggression is a crucial skill in social species like rodents and humans and has been associated with anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Here, we directly link the failed regulation of aggression in BALB/cJ mice to ACC hypofunction. We first show that ACC in BALB/cJ mice is structurally degraded: neuron density is decreased, with pervasive...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The European OPTIMISTIC clinical trial has demonstrated a significant, yet heterogenous effect of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1) patients. One of its remaining aims was the assessment of efficacy and adequacy of clinical outcome measures, including the relatively novel primary trial outcome, the D...
Article
Disruptive behavior during childhood and adolescence is heterogeneous and associated with several psychiatric disorders. The identification of more homogeneous subgroups might help identify different underlying pathways and tailor treatment strategies. Children and adolescents (aged 8-18) with disruptive behaviors (N = 121) and healthy controls (N...
Preprint
Full-text available
Controlling aggression is a crucial skill in social species like rodents and humans, and has been associated with anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Here, we demonstrate a causal link between ACC hypofunction and failed aggression control in BALB/cJ mice. We first show that ACC in BALB/cJ mice is structurally degraded: Neuron density is decreased, wi...
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Full-text available
Using a social robot has been proven to have multiple benefits for the training of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, there is no clarity on the impact of the interaction quality between a child with ASD and a robot on the effectiveness of the therapy. Previous research showed that the use of a robot in Pivotal Response Treatmen...
Article
The effects of callous-unemotional traits and aggression subtypes on amygdala activity in response to negative faces – ERRATUM - The above mentioned article was published in Psychological Medicine with an error in the conclusion.
Article
Lay abstract: The initiation of social interaction is often defined as a core deficit of autism spectrum disorder. Optimizing these self-initiations is therefore a key component of Pivotal Response Treatment, an established intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder. However, little is known about the development of self-initiations d...
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Background Brain imaging studies have shown altered amygdala activity during emotion processing in children and adolescents with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) compared to typically developing children and adolescents (TD). Here we aimed to assess whether aggression-related subtypes (reactive and proactive aggression)...
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Maladaptive aggression, as present in conduct disorder (CD) and, to a lesser extent, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), has been associated with structural alterations in various brain regions, such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), amygdala, insula and ventral striatum. Although aggression can be subdivi...
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Carnosine and related β-alanine–containing peptides are believed to be important antioxidants, pH buffers, and neuromodulators. However, their biosynthetic routes and therapeutic potential are still being debated. This study describes the first animal model lacking the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase–like 1 (GADL1). We show that Gadl1 −/− mice a...
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The aim of this study is to present a robot-assisted therapy protocol for children with ASD based on the current state-of-the-art in both ASD intervention research and robotics research, and critically evaluate its adherence and acceptability based on child as well as parent ratings. The robot-assisted therapy was designed based on motivational com...
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Although oxytocin administration influences behavior, its effects on peripheral oxytocin concentrations are mixed and derived from studies on healthy subjects. Additionally, trauma attenuates the behavioral effects of oxytocin, but it is unknown whether it also influences its effect on peripheral circulation. This study examined whether salivary ox...
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To compare findings across species, neuroscience relies on cross-species homologies, particularly in terms of brain areas. For cingulate cortex, a structure implicated in behavioural adaptation and control, a homologous definition across mammals is available – but currently not employed by most rodent researchers. The standard partitioning of roden...
Article
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is increasingly considered to be a neurodevelopmental disorder. However, despite insights in neural substrates of OCD in adults, less is known about mechanisms underlying compulsivity during brain development in children and adolescents. Therefore, we developed an adolescent rat model of compulsive checking behav...
Article
Objectives: Executive functioning and emotion recognition may be impaired in disruptive youth, yet findings in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) are inconsistent. We examined these functions related to ODD and CD, accounting for comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and internalizing symptoms. Methods:...
Article
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is increasingly considered to be a neurodevelopmental disorder. However, despite insights in neural substrates of OCD in adults, less is known about mechanisms underlying compulsivity during brain development in children and adolescents. Therefore, we developed an adolescent rat model of compulsive checking behav...
Preprint
Carnosine and related β-alanine-containing peptides are believed to be important antioxidants, pH buffers and neuromodulators. However, their biosynthetic routes and therapeutic potential are still being debated. This study describes the first animal model lacking the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase-like 1 (GADL1). We show that Gadl1-/- mice are...
Article
Learning from feedback is one of the key mechanisms within cognitive flexibility, which is needed to react swiftly to constantly changing environments. The motivation to change behavior is highly dependent on the expectancy of positive (reward) or negative (punishment) feedback. Individuals with conduct disorder (CD) with high callous unemotional t...
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Full-text available
Quantification and parametrisation of movement are widely used in animal behavioural paradigms. In particular, free movement in controlled conditions (e.g., open field paradigm) is used as a “proxy for indices of baseline and drug-induced behavioural changes. However, the analysis of this is often time- and labour-intensive and existing algorithms...
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Full-text available
Involvement of the cerebellum to non-motor related aspects of behavior is becoming increasingly clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the cerebellum in reactive and proactive behavioral control and interference. In a double-blind controlled within-subject design, 26 healthy volunteers underwent real and sham cerebellar transcr...
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Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by multi-system involvement. Affected organ system includes skeletal muscle, heart, gastro-intestinal system and the brain. In this review, we evaluate the evidence for alterations in insulin signaling and their relation to clinical DM1 features. We start by summ...
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Successfully navigating social interactions requires the precise and balanced integration of social and environmental cues. When such flexible information integration fails, maladaptive behavioral patterns arise, including excessive aggression, empathy deficits, and social withdrawal, as seen in disorders such as conduct disorder and autism spectru...
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Full-text available
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with childhood onset, and is characterized by intrusive thoughts and fears (obsessions) that lead to repetitive behaviors (compulsions). Previously, we identified insulin signaling being associated with OCD and here, we aim to further investigate this link in vivo. We studied TALLYH...
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We investigated gene–environment (G × E) interactions related to childhood antisocial behavior between polymorphisms implicated by recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and two key environmental adversities (maltreatment and smoking during pregnancy) in a large population cohort (ALSPAC). We also studied the MAOA candidate gene and address...
Article
Disruptive behavior is associated with societally and personally problematic levels of aggression and has been linked to abnormal structure and function of fronto-amygdala-striatal regions. Abnormal glutamatergic signalling within this network may play a role in aggression. However, disruptive behavior does not represent a homogeneous construct, bu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Quantification and parametrization of movement in animal models is widely used in behavioral paradigms. In particular, free movement of an animal in controlled conditions (e.g., the open field paradigm) is used as a proxy for indices of baseline and drug-induced behavioural changes. However, the analysis of this is often time- and labour-intensive...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic administration of L-DOPA, the first-line treatment of dystonic symptoms in childhood or in Parkinson’s disease, often leads to the development of abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs), which represent an important clinical problem. Although it is known that Riluzole attenuates L-DOPA-induced AIMs, the molecular mechanisms underlying this ef...
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Converging evidence suggests a role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), the rate-limiting enzyme of 5-HT synthesis in the brain, in modulating long-term, neurobiological effects of early-life adversity. Here, we aimed at further elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying this interaction, and its conse...
Article
Suicidality in the child and adolescent population is a major public health concern. There is, however, a lack of developmentally sensitive valid and reliable instruments that can capture data on risk, and clinical and psychosocial mediators of suicidality in young people. In this study, we aimed to develop and assess the validity of instruments ev...
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Background: Although habituation is one of the most ancient and fundamental forms of learning, its regulators and its relevance for human disease are poorly understood. Methods: We manipulated the orthologs of 286 genes implicated in intellectual disability (ID) with or without comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD) specifically in Drosophila n...
Article
Objective There is increasing evidence for altered resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) in adolescents with disruptive behavior. Despite considerable ongoing behavioral research suggesting also important differences relating to reactive and proactive aggression, the corresponding rsFC correlates have not been studied to date. We therefore e...
Preprint
Full-text available
Disruptive behavior in children and adolescents can manifest itself in reactive and proactive aggression and is modulated by callous-unemotional traits and comorbidity. Research on aggression subtype-specific neural correlates is limited and the role of comorbid symptoms largely neglected. The current study clarifies that distinct though overlappin...
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Full-text available
Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and midcingulate cortex (MCC) have been implicated in the regulation of aggressive behaviour. For instance, patients with conduct disorder (CD) show increased levels of aggression accompanied by changes in ACC and MCC volume. However, accounts of ACC/MCC changes in CD patients have been conflicting, likely due to the...
Article
Full-text available
Behavioural flexibility is an essential survival skill, yet our understanding of its neuronal substrates is still limited. While mouse research offers unique tools to dissect the neuronal circuits involved, the measurement of flexible behaviour in mice often suffers from long training times, poor experimental control, and temporally imprecise binar...
Article
Dysregulation of executive function (EF) involves alterations in cognitive flexibility / control and is underscored by learning impairments in neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we examine cognitive inflexibility in BALB/cJ mice (a mouse model showing diminished sociability, increased anxiety and inattentive behaviour) and closely related “referen...
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Full-text available
In the past two decades, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has been used to relate neuronal network activity to cognitive processing and behavior. Recently this approach has been augmented by algorithms that allow us to infer causal links between component populations of neuronal networks. Multiple inference procedures have been proposed...