Jeffrey Backstrand

Jeffrey Backstrand
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey | Rutgers

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43
Publications
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1,265
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Publications

Publications (43)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Human exposure to lead can occur in a variety of ways, all of which involve exposure to potentially toxic elements as environmental pollutants. Lead enters the body via ingestion and inhalation from sources such as soil, food, lead dust and lead in products of everyday use and in the workplace. The aim of this review is to describe the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The aim of this review is to describe lead’s toxic effects on the human body from conception through adulthood. Results One toxic heavy metal is lead. Pb is very dangerous when it is absorbed and accumulates in the main organs of the body where it can cause a range of symptoms that vary from person to person, the time of exposure and dos...
Article
Full-text available
Stress has adverse effects on health, and prolonged stress exposure is a risk factor for several mental and physical illnesses.¹ Felitti V, Anda R, Nordenberg D, et al. Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. Am J Prev Med. 1998;14(4):245–258. doi:10.1016/s0749-3797(98)00017-8.[Cro...
Article
Full-text available
Because the dental hard tissues commence development in the 13th week in utero and once formed are essentially inert, they may provide unique windows onto environmental and physiological changes during pregnancy and early life. We review the general potential of teeth as biomonitors and then the development of laser ablation-inductively coupled-pla...
Article
Clinicians require more discriminating measures of cardiovascular risk than those currently used in most clinical settings. A promising avenue of research concerns the relationship of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfractions to subclinical atherosclerosis. To assess cross-sectional associations between subfractions of LDL cholesterol and coronary...
Article
To compare labor outcomes in women accompanied by an additional support person (doula group) with outcomes in women who did not have this additional support person (control group). Randomized controlled trial. A women's ambulatory care center at a tertiary perinatal care hospital in New Jersey. Six hundred nulliparous women carrying a singleton pre...
Article
To compare the demographic and clinical characteristics and outcomes (morbidity) of 442 patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis who are at different levels of nutritional risk. A retrospective, longitudinal, chart review. An urban, outpatient hemodialysis unit in New York City. Subjects were stratified according to their number of nutritional r...
Article
Full-text available
To examine maternal intake of a mildly alcoholic beverage (pulque) during pregnancy and lactation, and its potential effect on postpartum child growth and attained size. A prospective cohort study that followed mothers (during pregnancy and lactation) and their offspring (from birth to approximately 57 months of age). Six villages in rural, central...
Article
Nutrient density, the vitamin or mineral content of a food or diet per unit energy, has long been a useful concept in the nutritional sciences. However, few nutritionists have applied the idea in quantitative, population-based nutrition planning and assessment. This paper discusses the conceptual issues related to the calculation of a nutrient dens...
Article
Full-text available
The vast majority of social research in nutrition has focused either on economic, material and political factors ("power-related" variables) or on psychological, cultural and attitudinal factors ("belief-related" variables). Even when data on both classes of factors are collected, the orientation in analysis is to treat one of the two classes as "c...
Article
Few studies have examined the relation of iron status to diet in populations from developing countries with high levels of iron deficiency and diets of poor quality. The objective was to identify nutrients, dietary constituents, and foods that are associated with better iron status in a rural Mexican population. A prospective cohort study was condu...
Article
For more than 50 years, the United States federal government has regulated food fortification. During this time, the nutritional situation in the United States has improved greatly, whereas scientific information about the role of vitamins and minerals in human growth and development has increased exponentially. Concurrently, government authority t...
Article
To document the consumption during pregnancy of pulque, a traditional central Mexican alcoholic beverage, and its relationship to subsequent infant size, physical growth and performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Prospective cohort study. Six villages in rural, central Mexico in 1984-1985. Seventy mother-infant pairs. Most women (7...
Article
Conventional techniques which employ weight-for-height (WH), triceps skinfold (TSF), and body mass index (BMI) for assessing pediatric obesity were compared in the present investigation. Subjects were children aged 6 to 9 years (585 boys, 586 girls) from the NHANESII sample. Criterion-referenced standards consisting of morbidity-related cutoff poin...
Article
To determine subsequent growth and body composition of children born to women with type 1 diabetes compared with controls. Prospective cohort study. Follow-up of offspring born to women with type 1 diabetes and controls from an earlier study of diabetes and lactation. Seventeen nondiabetic offspring of women with type 1 diabetes and 18 offspring of...
Article
LEARNING OUTCOME: To demonstrate the external validity of a self-administered food behavior instrument for older persons The Geriatric Food Behavior Instrument (GFBI) has been demonstrated to measure eight valid and reliable constructs of food behavior that reflect nutritional risk for an older population. Construct validity was determined using pr...
Article
Full-text available
To examine lipid parameters that are affected in women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) who engaged in disordered eating behaviours. Randomized, unmatched. Tertiary care. Ninety women (18-46 y) with IDDM. Classification of subjects based on severity of eating disorder: clinical (n = 14), subclinical (n = 13) and control (n = 63). Blo...
Article
Gender differences in nutrient and food intake were examined in Mexican Nutrition CRSP (Collaborative Research Support Program) infants (N = 75), preschoolers (N = 80), and school children (N = 91). No significant gender differences in dietary quality or quantity were seen for infants and preschoolers. For school children, the contribution of vario...
Article
Full-text available
To characterize the relationship of subclinical and clinical eating disorders to HbA1c values in women with IDDM. Ninety women with IDDM (18-46 years of age) were recruited from diabetes clinics throughout Connecticut and Massachusetts. Subjects were categorized into one of three groups according to the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disor...
Article
To determine the nutritional risk associated with measured olfactory dysfunction in free-living, elderly women through analytic observational methods. Olfactory perception was measured orthonasally (odor: butanol threshold and odor identification) and retronasally (flavor: orange flavor threshold in sweetened gelatin). Elderly women were recruited...
Article
Predictors of attained size at 30 mo and growth rate between 18 and 30 mo (eg, diet, maternal size, morbidity, age at weaning, and selected environmental factors) were investigated by using longitudinal data from 67 Mexican children aged 18-30 mo. These children were small because of growth stunting in early infancy. Between 18 and 30 mo they grew...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The final report of the Mexico Nutrition CRSP, a cohort study of marginal malnutrition in rural, central Mexico in the mid-1980s.
Article
The average annual intake of specific nutrients, foods, food groups, and proxies for nutrient bioavailability of 87 Mexican preschoolers and 110 schoolchildren were compared with their anthropometry. Median intakes of energy, protein, thiamine, and iron were adequate; calcium and zinc were low; and other nutrients were very inadequate. Anaemia and...
Article
Large household size is widely regarded as a risk factor for malnutrition in developing countries, particularly for infants and young children. This study examines the extent to which household size is related to nutritional status in school-age children in the Solis Valley in highland Mexico. The relationships of food intake, anthropometric measur...
Article
A northeastern Connecticut area comprising 60,000 people from six small towns and a city of 14,000 was studied as to their suicidal and other violent death rates over a 20-year period (1960-1979). Since there was a 458% increase in the number of practicing psychotherapists and an 82% increase in primary physicians during this period of time, correl...
Article
Recent research carried out by the Hispanic Health Council has revealed a high sterilization rate of Puerto Rican female heads or co-heads of households in Hartford, Connecticut. This paper views sterilization within the context of fertility control in general and attempts to identify those cultural, community and individual factors associated with...
Article
Most of the literature on Puerto Rican communities in the U. S. is based on research conducted in the large urban centers of the Northeast. In these areas, Puerto Ricans (despite their relative lack of economic and political resources) have created large, complex communities. Less well documented are those settlements in which Puerto Rican migrants...
Article
Abstract (2 leaves) bound with copy. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Connecticut, 1990. Includes bibliographical references.

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