Jeff Richardson

Jeff Richardson
Monash University (Australia) · Centre for Health Economics

PhD

About

194
Publications
43,256
Reads
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7,355
Citations
Citations since 2017
16 Research Items
2502 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
Additional affiliations
January 2003 - December 2012
Monash University (Australia)

Publications

Publications (194)
Article
Full-text available
To test the ‘home-country weights hypothesis’: that the validity of cost utility analyses is improved if utility is measured using an instrument with utility weights obtained from people living in the ‘home-country’—the same country as the patients who are to receive the service which is being evaluated. The convergent validity of multi attribute u...
Article
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Aims This paper investigates the distributional implications for eight population groups of using six different instruments to measure wellbeing and to prioritise access to health services. Specifically, it examines the importance of different physical and psycho-social problems for the scores obtained using each instrument and whether scores diffe...
Article
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It has been proposed that equity may be included in the economic evaluation of health services using the ‘proportional shortfall’ (PS)—the proportion of a person’s QALY expectation that they would lose because of an illness. The present paper reports the results of a population survey designed to test whether PS helped to explain people’s preferenc...
Article
Previous evidence suggests that members of the public value life saving services differently when they are for patients with a pre-existing permanent disability and when they are for patients who become disabled at the onset of treatment – for example, as a result of treatment that is not entirely effective. However, the valuation of services in th...
Article
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Background Patients with a permanent impairment may be unable to reach full health. Consequently health services which cure illnesses which are unrelated to the impairment may increase health less than services for patients with no impairment. While it has been argued that this should not lead to discrimination against impaired patients there is li...
Data
Adjustment of the first mobility sample. (DOCX)
Data
Deleted cases by criteria. (DOCX)
Data
Comparison of edited and deleted values for Service A, severity level 4. (DOCX)
Data
Frequency distribution of RS-WTP values (V) for severity level 4, task 1. (DOCX)
Data
Mapping health states causes by impairments into 3 MAUI instruments. (DOCX)
Article
Background Cost-utility analysis prioritizes services using cost, life-years, and the health state utility of the life-years. Nevertheless, a significant body of evidence suggests that the public would prefer more variables to be considered in decision making and at least some sharing of the budget with services for severe conditions that are not c...
Article
Objectives To test the hypothesis that the “severity effect”—the preference for more than utility-maximizing expenditure on severe health states—may be the result of, or exacerbated by, the uncertainty associated with the chance of contracting the illness that causes the severe health state. Methods Survey respondents were asked to imagine that th...
Article
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The ‘severity hypothesis’ is that a health service which increases a patient’s utility by a fixed amount will be valued more highly when the initial health state is more severe. Supporting studies have employed a limited range of analytical techniques and the objective of the present paper is to test the hypothesis using a new methodology, the Rela...
Article
The study examined the preferences of a sample of the Australian public and health professionals regarding the relative importance of four different criteria for prioritizing between patients: the severity of the condition, the size of the benefit from the intervention, past health losses and expected lifetime health. A discussion-group methodology...
Article
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Background There is a debate in the health economics literature concerning the most appropriate way of applying Amartya Sen’s capability approach in economic evaluation studies. Some suggest that quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) alone are adequate while others argue that this approach is too narrow and that direct measures of capability wellbein...
Article
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Background Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness are increasingly important considerations in determining which mental health services are funded. Questions have been raised concerning the validity of generic health status instruments used in economic evaluation for assessing mental health problems such as depression; measuring capability wellbeing...
Article
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Objectives: (i) to demonstrate a method which ameliorates the problem of self-selection in the estimation of population norms from web-based data and (ii) to use the method to calculate population norms for two multi-attribute utility (MAU) instruments, the AQoL-6D and AQoL-8D, and population norms for the sub-scales from which they are constructe...
Article
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IntroductionThis paper suggests and tests a reason why the public might support the funding of services for rare diseases (SRDs) when the services are effective but not cost effective, i.e. when more health could be produced by allocating funds to other services. It is postulated that the fairness of funding a service is influenced by a comparison...
Article
Purpose: The VisQoL instrument was constructed as a vision-specific addition to the AQoL-6D multi-attribute utility instrument. The composite instrument, the AQoL-7D, was assigned utility scores that are the basis for now estimating VisQoL utilities when it is used as a stand-alone instrument. This study aimed to construct mapping functions that a...
Article
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The effect of a patient's age on the social valuation of health services remains controversial, with empirical results varying in magnitude and implying a different age-value profile. This article employs a new methodology to re-examine these questions. Data were obtained from 2 independent Web-based surveys that administered the Relative Social Wi...
Article
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Background Evaluations of the impact of interventions for resource allocation purposes commonly focus on health status. There is, however, also concern about broader impacts on wellbeing and, increasingly, on a person's capability. This study aims to compare the impact on health status and capability of seven major health conditions, and highlight...
Article
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Background: Health services which affect the quality of life (QoL) are increasingly evaluated using cost utility analyses (CUA). These commonly employ one of a small number of multi attribute utility instruments (MAUI) to assess the effects of the health service upon utility. However the MAUI differ significantly and the choice of instrument may al...
Article
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To compare the Diabetes-39 (D-39) with six multi-attribute utility (MAU) instruments (15D, AQoL-8D, EQ-5D, HUI3, QWB, and SF-6D), and to develop mapping algorithms which could be used to transform the D-39 scores into the MAU scores. Self-reported diabetes sufferers (N=924) and members of the healthy public (N=1760), aged 18 years and over, were re...
Article
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Background: In many cases, medicines for ultra-rare disorders (URDs) have high acquisition costs and are associated with incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained exceeding widely used benchmarks for cost effectiveness. Objectives: To address the underlying reasons why interventions for URDs often fail to meet conventional bench...
Article
Cost-utility analyses commonly employ a multiattribute utility (MAU) instrument to estimate the health state utilities, which are needed to calculate quality-adjusted life years. Different MAU instruments predict significantly different utilities, which makes comparison of results from different evaluation studies problematical. This article presen...
Article
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Health state utilities measured by the major multi-attribute utility instruments differ. Understanding the reasons for this is important for the choice of instrument and for research designed to reconcile these differences. This paper investigates these reasons by explaining pairwise differences between utilities derived from six multi-attribute ut...
Article
The quality of life is included in cost utility analyses by weighting the relevant years of life by health state utilities. However, the utilities predicted by multi-attribute utility instruments (MAUIs) for this purpose do not correlate highly with the subjective well-being (SWB) of people experiencing the health states. This suggests that MAUIs m...
Article
Objectives: To develop a set of criteria to critically appraise the strengths and weaknesses of health economic methods for the systematic valuation of interventions for ultra-rare disorders (URDs). Methods: An international group of clinical and health economic experts met in conjunction with the Annual European ISPOR Congresses in Berlin/Germany...
Article
Background: Many mental health surveys and clinical studies do not include a multi-attribute utility instrument (MAUI) that produces quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). There is also some question about the sensitivity of the existing utility instruments to mental health. Aims: To compare the sensitivity of five commonly used MAUIs (Assessment...
Article
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Background The Incontinence Quality of Life (I-QOL) questionnaire is a commonly used and validated incontinence specific QOL instrument. The objective of this study is to develop an algorithm to map I-QOL to the Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) 8D utility instrument in patients with idiopathic overactive bladder (iOAB).MethodsI-QOL and AQoL-8D...
Article
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Background: Cost utility analysis permits the comparison of disparate health services by measuring outcomes in comparable units, namely, quality-adjusted life-years, which equal life-years times the utility of the health state. However, comparability is compromised when different utility instruments predict different utilities for the same health...
Article
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This paper describes an instrument for measuring the social value of changes in health status, the Relative Social Willingness to Pay. It is a unique combination of measurement attributes designed to minimise cognitive complexity and provide an additional option for measuring 'social value'. Similar to the person trade-off (PTO), it adopts a social...
Article
Full-text available
Quality of life is included in the economic evaluation of health services by measuring the preference for health states, i.e. health state utilities. However, most intervention studies include a disease-specific, not a utility, instrument. Consequently, there has been increasing use of statistical mapping algorithms which permit utilities to be est...
Article
The objective of this paper is to describe the four-stage methodology used to obtain utility scores for the Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL)-8D, a 35-item 8 dimension multi-attribute utility instrument, which was created to achieve a high degree of sensitivity to psycho-social health. Data for the analyses were obtained from a representative gr...
Article
Objective: To describe the burden of road transport–related serious injury in Victoria, Australia, over a 10-year period, after the introduction of an integrated trauma system. Background: Road traffic injury is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Efforts to improve care of the injured are important for reducing burden, but the impa...
Article
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The purpose of this paper was to report tests of the validity and reliability of a new instrument, the Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL)-8D, which was constructed to improve the evaluation of health services that have an impact upon the psychosocial aspects of the quality of life. Australian and US data from a large multi-instrument comparison s...
Article
The aim is to investigate the health and quality of life (QoL) of Bangladeshi migrants using 7 Multi-Attribute instruments. Participants for this empirical study comprised Bangladeshi migrants living in Melbourne. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey. Respondents who completed the questionnaire were aged between 18 and 65 years old. O...
Article
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ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe and measure the loss of health related quality of life (HRQoL) associated with obesity using two generic instruments. The first of these, the SF-36, is the most widely used and validated HRQoL instrument worldwide. However, it does not provide utility weights and cannot be used to mea...
Article
The present paper concerns the criteria people would prefer for prioritising health programmes. It differs from most empirical studies as subjects were not asked about their personal preferences for programmes per se. Rather, they were asked about the principles that should guide the choice of programmes. Four different principles were framed as ar...
Article
Objective : To provide Australian health-related quality of life (HRQoL) population norms, based on utility scores from the Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) measure, a participant-reported outcomes (PRO) instrument. Methods: The data were from the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. AQoL scores were analysed by age cohorts, gen...
Article
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The study examined the question of who should make decisions for a National Health Scheme about the allocation of health resources when the health states of beneficiaries could change because of adaptation. Eight semi-structured small group discussions were conducted. Following focus group theory, interviews commenced with general questions followe...
Article
Empirical evidence indicates that people consider sharing health resources to be important even in the absence of the attributes usually associated with equity (age, social class, ethnicity, disease severity or geographic location). If government is to take account of these preferences then survey methods are needed which allow their measurement. T...
Article
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To obtain utility weights consistent with the needs of economic evaluation for the Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL)-7D, a generic instrument created to increase the sensitivity of the measurement of quality of life amongst people with impaired vision. Two extant instruments were combined, the Vision-related Quality of Life Index (VisQoL) and th...
Article
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Multi attribute utility (MAU) instruments are used to include the health related quality of life (HRQoL) in economic evaluations of health programs. Comparative studies suggest different MAU instruments measure related but different constructs. The objective of this paper is to describe the methods employed to achieve content validity in the descri...
Article
The Centre for Health Program Evaluation (CHPE) is a research and teaching organisation established in 1990 to: undertake academic and applied research into health programs, health systems and current policy issues; develop appropriate evaluation methodologies; and promote the teaching of health economics and health program evaluation, in order to...
Article
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The inclusion of both monetary and non-monetary indirect benefits in economic evaluations of public health programmes and services can have significant distributive effects between patient groups. As a result, some patients may be advantaged and others disadvantaged for reasons not directly related to health outcomes or (direct) treatment costs. In...
Article
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A small number of studies have provided suggestive evidence that the general public rejects the idea of giving higher priority to low-cost patients, in the context of a limited budget, in order to maximise health benefits. The study reported here used semi-structured group discussions to investigate the normative bases of such views among the Austr...
Article
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This article considers the pricing policy for pharmaceuticals in Australia, which is widely seen as having achieved low drug prices. However, compared to New Zealand, the evidence implies that Australia might have improved its performance significantly if it had proactively sought market best pricing. The Australian record suggests that the informa...
Article
To explore the relationship between overweight/obesity and utility in adolescents. Data were collected from 2890 adolescents attending 13 secondary schools in the state of Victoria, Australia. The Assessment of Quality of Life 6-Dimension (AQoL-6D) questionnaire was used to measure individual utility. Adolescent's height and weight were measured an...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This paper presents the rationale and psychometric analysis for extending the inventory of the Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL)-6D instrument. The resulting AQoL-8D has an 8 dimensional, 35 item inventory with greater sensitivity in the domain of mental health.The paper briefly reviews the existing QoL instruments used for economic evaluation o...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines the preferences of the general public in Australia regarding health care resource allocation. While previous studies have revealed that the public is willing to give priority to particular groups of patients based on their personal characteristics, the present article goes beyond previous efforts in attempting to explain these...
Article
Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities (OPIC) is a community-based intervention project targeting adolescent obesity in Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, and Tonga. The Assessment of Quality of Life Mark 2 (AQoL-6D) instrument was completed by 15,481 adolescents to obtain a description of the quality of life associated with adolescent overweight and...
Article
This article examines three issues. These are, first, the need for the 2010 Commonwealth intervention in the health sector; secondly, the reasons why the sector still needs major reform despite this intervention and thirdly, the broad options for reform. The conclusions reached are, first, that the intervention is anticlimactic but necessary in the...
Article
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This paper has two objectives, first to review the relevant literature concerning the social importance of severity of pre-treatment condition, and second to present the results of a new analysis of the relationship between social value, individual assessment of health improvement and the severity of illness. The present study differs methodologica...
Article
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The normative theory of economic evaluation and its welfare theoretic basis are deeply problematical and result in recommendations which are potentially unfair. The root cause of the problem is the set of assumptions behind the theory which posit behaviours and motivations that are not universal, and which exclude other behaviours and motivations t...
Article
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Commentary on health policy reform in Australia often commences with an unstated logical error: Australians' health is good, therefore the Australian Health System is good. This possibly explains the disconnect between the options discussed, the areas needing reform and the generally self-congratulatory tone of the discussion: a good system needs (...
Article
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The aim of this study is to investigate whether the public believes high cost patients should be a lower priority for public health care than low cost patients, other things being equal, in order to maximise health gains from the health budget. Semi-structured group discussions were used to help participants reflect critically upon their own views...
Article
Many developed countries are net recipients of skilled health professionals from developing countries. Potentially these movements provide major economic benefits to developed countries. The distribution of any benefits and any associated health and social costs, however, need investigation that is more systematic and thorough than has been documen...
Article
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The aim of this paper is to illustrate a simple method for increasing the range of possible options for reducing adverse events in Australian hospitals, which could have been, but was not, adopted in the wake of the landmark 1995 'Quality in Australian Health Care' study, and to report the suggestions and the estimated lapse time before they would...
Article
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To describe the methods and innovations used in constructing the VisQoL, a vision-related utility instrument for the health economic evaluation of eye care and rehabilitation programs. The VisQoL disaggregates vision into six items. Utilities were estimated for item worst responses (the worst level for each item, with all other items at their best...
Article
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Faced with an ageing population and newspaper warnings that escalating costs are leading to a health crisis, debate has intensified in Australia and elsewhere on the allocation of limited health resources. But whose values should inform decision-making in the health area, and should the influence of different groups vary with the level of decision-...